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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1876)"



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California State Library 



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Volume XL] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY i, 1876. 



[Number i. 



" American Progress. 

The beautiful typical picture which we pre- 
sent this week is appropriate to the beginniag 
of the Centennial year. It will lead our read- 
ers to stop for a moment and look back upon 
the way along which our nation has advanced 
within their own memories, and will suggest 
also a thought forward to the bights which lie 
before us. It will bring vividly to mind the 
lines of our advancement and the obstacles we 
have overcome. The leading figure has in her 



Meat for England. 

It is of interest to agriculturists everywhere 
in this country to know that meat has been 
successfully shipped from Philadelphia to the 
English markets. We noted in our market 
review two weeks ago that an experimental 
cargo had been shipped. We are now informed 
by the cable that the meat arrived in good 
condition. The shipment from Philadelphia 
will now continue. This new trade bids fair 
to open up a new and profitable industry to 



Farmers, Support Your Paper. 

We strive to make the Kukal Pbess em- 
phatically " The Farmees' Own Paper." We 
need your assistance — all of you. Write for it. 
Ask questions on farming topics if you cannot 
answer those of other writers. Send us timely 
hints and suggestions for our entire agricul- 
tural community. We try to make a fresh, live 
paper, and to print it on excellent paper and in 
such good taste that you may feel a pride in 
sending your own class journal to your old 



Duty on Sacking. 

We have received a copy of a bill introduced 
into the House of Representatives December 
14th by Mr. Luttrell, with a view to " Repeal- 
ing the duty on grain sacks and the bagging 
used for grain, cotton and wgol, and all bur- 
laps and gunny cloth." The text of the bill la 
as follows: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of Amer- 
ica in Congress assembled, that on and after 




AMERICAN PROGRESS. 



right hand the secret of our advancement; the 
book being a fitting symbol of intelligence, civ- 
ilization and education. From her left hand 
fall the wires over which thought flashes from 
ocean to ocean. Beneath her is spread the 
material struggles in which we have triumphed, 
and the foes of civilization which have been 
put to flight. Upon the right of tne picture 
the light of a good day of enlightment shines 
upon our favored coast. It is the light which 
we now enjoy. 

To us in this day the glorious facts which are 
suggested by this engraving seem grand accom- 
plishments. But there is a future still beyond, 
and those who, in that day of even greater 
things, shall look upon these marks of progress 
which so delight our thought, may think them 
small indeed. But thus it is ever-onward. 

Thet think now that Boss Tweed is in 
Canada. 



this country. Meat is a concentrated product 
and will bear the expense of transportation. 
It does not yet appear from how great distan- 
ces sxipplies of meat for this trade can be 
drawn, but the inception of the enterprise is of 
interest to note. 

George F. Seward, Nephew of the late Wm. 
H. Seward, and for some years Consul General 
for the United States at Shanghae, has been 
nominated by the President to succeed the late 
Benjamin P. Avery, as Minister at Peking. 



Lewis B. Harris, Jr., son of the senior 
member of the firm of Harris, Dell & Co., of 
this city, has been anpointed by the Secretary 
of War to the West Point oadetship from this 
congressional district, on the recommendation 
of Hon. William A. Piper. 

Mrs. Moni.TON is still battling with Plymouth 
church. 



Eastern homes — to any part of the world, in 
fact. Will you encourage such painstaking on 
our part by paying in advance for the Rubai. 
Press for 1876 ? We need the help of every in- 
telligent farmer on this coast— now! 



Tbe Sacramento Record classifies the land of 
this State as follows: About 60,000,000 acres 
are adapted to grnzing and agricultural pur- 
poses, and 23,()U0,U0U consists of mountains, 
covered to a great extent with heavy timber; 
about 10,000,000 is covered with arid plains 
or deserts of but little present value for any 
purpose; about 3,000,000 acres consists of 
swamp and overflowed lands unreclaimed, and 
of but little present value, and the balance, 4,- 
000,000 acres, is covered with lakes, bays, rivers 
and other permanent water. 



the first day of May next, all grain sacks, or 
bagging used for sacking grain, cotton or wool, 
and all burlaps and gunny cloth, shall be placed 
on the free list, and no further import-duties 
shall be collected upon the same ; and all grain 
sacks, or bagging used for grain, cotton or 
wool, and all burlaps and gunny cloth which 
may be in the public stores or bonded ware- 
houses on said first day of May, shall be sub- 
ject to no duty upon the entry thereof for con- 
sumption; and nil grain sacks, or bagging used 
for grain, cotton or wool, uiul nil burlaps or 
gunny cloth remaining in the bonded ware- 
houses on said first day of May, upon which 
the duties shall have been paid, shall be en- 
titled to a refund of the duties paid. 

The bill is in the hands ot the Committee on 
Ways and Means. 



Thrrb is a probability cf war between Japan The rainfall of the season ia slightly over 
aud Cores, ' ten inches. 



^s.Qmm w^^A*t 



[January t, 1876 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The Alameda Avenue, Past and Present 

Messbs. Editob*:— Who has not seen or 
heard of the celebrated Alameda avenue, ex- 
tending from San Jose to Santa Clara, a dis- 
tance of three miles, built by the early Fran- 
ciscan mission fathers about one hundred years 
ago? Perhaps some readers of the Bitbai. 
Pbess, who may not haye seen it, or enjoyed 
the pleasure of a drive under its grand old 
trees, would, nevertheless, like to learn some- 
thing of its past history, as well as its present 
appearance and conditions— especially in these 
Centennial times, when evorythinK that dates 
back for a hundred years seems to be regarded 
with special intorest. 

Alas! the old landmarks — these relics of past 
generations — are rapidly passing away before 
the march of our modern improvements. The 
old adobe tile-covered houses, with their ven- 
erable pear orchards and cactus planti^, are 
passing away with the hands who built and 
planted them, and in a few more years they 
will all be numbered among the things of the 
past. An old Indian named Marcello died a 
fow months ago near Alviso, who, I am in- 
formed by the principal of the Santa Clara col- 
lege, helped to plant the avenue trees in the 
year 1777. It is said he was a chief, the last 
one of bis tribe. Ills age could not be ascer- 
tained, but it must have been several years 
over one hundred when he die<l. 

These thoughts were sugRestcd to my mind 
the other day, while driving along the avenue, 
by seeing a number of men engaged in triiu- 
ming up the trees and cutting down those that 
had been condemned as decaying and dan- 
gerous. 

Long years ago, when California gloried in 
her wide stock ranches, covered with wild oats 
and wild cattle, her low-topped spreading oaks 
scattered over her valleys, and everybody had 
leisure enough to enjoy their cooling shades, 
these old willow trees were permitted to grow 
free and easy just as they pleased, leaning and 
sprouting in every direction, as free and re- 
gardless of all rules of order and taste as the 
people who planted them were from the cum- 
bering conventionalities of fashionable life. 
But tbese good old quiet, dreamy days are past 
and gone, and a great change has come. Where 
the patient mission fathers trudged quietly 
along the dusly trail from mission to mission 
under the shade of trees they had planted, the 
rumbling street cars now pass and re-pas<* 
every few minutes, and the numerous fine 
houEes and grounds on every hand, the rattle 
of passing vehicles, and the hurry and stir of 
people in pursuit of business or pleasure, all 
proclaim beyond peradventure that the once 
lonesome avenue is fast becoming a busy street. 

Now, of late years, a gang of men are em- 
ployed every winter to go along tne rows, trim- 
ming up the trees and cutting them back, try- 
ing to torture them into some kind of decent 
shape, as I suppose. And every year many of 
them are condemned to be cut for poor fire 
wood — " an axe is laid at the root of the tree." 
Thus they are rapidly passing away, giving 
place to others ot varieties hotter suited to 
modem tastes. 

As I drove along I had the curiosity to count 
all of the original avenue trees that remain 
standing. In the east-side row there are 271, 
and in the west-side row 330, making 601 trees 
—only about the one-seventh part of the orig- 
inal number. This calculation is based upon 
the way the trees stand, in the best preserved 
portion of the avenue. Most of the trees are 
the common black willow of the country, but 
there are a few sycamore and cottoowood. I 
had also the curiosity to measure one each of 
the three different kinds, selecting those of 
about the largest size. The willow measured 
ten feet in diameter, four feet from the ground, 
the sycamore eleven feet and the cottonwood 
twelve and a half feet; though perhaps not one 
half of the GOl trees would measure half as 
much. All of the willows are low topped, 
rough, bushy and crooked, and most of ihem 
look old and decaying; while the sycamore and 
cottonwood are upright and well shaped, and 
look healthy and vigorous. This may give an 
idea to what sizs trees of these kinds will grow 
in 100 years. 

While in the tree measuring notion I drove 
over to Delmas avenue, San Jose, to interview 
a fine specimen of the Australian eucalyptus 
tree, planted only seventeen years ago. It 
measures six feet in circumference, four feet 
from the ground, and I estimated its hight at 
115 feet. It stands straight as an arrow — a per- 
fect model of beauty, its dark green top tower- 
ing up far above large Lombardy poplar and 
willow trees around it. There are thousands 
of these fine trees about San Jose, over-topping 
all trees and houses, and there may even be some 
larger than the one measured; but this will 
give your more distant readers an idea how 
rapidly these beautiful trees grow here. Sup- 
pose the Alameda avenue had been planted 
with eucalyptus trees, instead of the low-top- 
ped, short-lived willows, one hundred years ago; 
what kind of avenue trees would they have 
now made? They would rival the redwoods of 



the mountains in beauty and size. Or, suppose 
some one had planted fifty acres of blue gum 
trees seventeen years ago on land as well as 
adapted to their growth as that on Delmas 
avenue— and there is plenty just as good in the 
valley — what kind of a fortune would he have 
to-day? Someone, perhaps, may imagine that 
this tree has been peculiarly favored by an 
isolated situation, separate from all other trees 
and shrubs, having a large space of ground to 
draw its nourishment from. But this is not 
the case. It has grown in the deep rich soil, 
near the Gaudaloupe river, surrounded on all 
sides by large Lombardy poplars, willow and 
other trees. G. W. M. 

Santa Clara, Cal., Dec. 2l8t, 1875. 

A Rabbit-Tight Fence. 

Mkssks. Editobs; — If yon think it of interest 
to any of your readers, I would like to give you 
my experience in building a very cheap and 
eft'eotive rabbit-tight fence. I built one in the 
spring for that purpose, but it does not quite 
fulfil all requirements; and as experience is the 
best teacher, I think I have it now. Of course 
it may not answer in every case and for all 
situations, but a proper allowance should be 
made for that. 

For posts, take clear redwood scantlings with- 
out sap, 2x'l or 2x3 inches will oven do, four 
and a half to five feet long, and to prevent 
them from rotting, soak them in hot coal tar, 
or paint with boiled linseed oil and powdered 
charcoal, or any other preparation for that ptir- 
pose. Put them, as you like, from one and a 
half to two feet (although the former is inmost 
cases sufficient) into the ground, and eight foei 
apart; then put on a redwood base-board from 
ten to fourteen inches wide, at least four inches 
into the ground, (unless you have a hard road to 
build upon, ) and a pine board four to six inch a 
wide, twenty inches above the base board. 
Take the strongest plaster laths which yon 
can get and saw in two, and put them on with 
light four-penny nails; if green one inch aptrt, 
and If dry one and a r^uarler inches. 

This will give yon a fence high enough to 
keep rabbits and hare out, and should they get 
in through a gate or otherwise you can easily 
catch them, unless you get with dogs after the 
hare, when they sometimes jump over. In 
building my fence I did not put the lower board 
into tbe ground, but sometimes in low places it 
would be from four to six inches above, and 
although I pnt the laths on full length and 
from two to three inches into the ground, the 
rabbits would dig through under, or gnaw them 
off in such places. One hare jumped over when 
I got after him with the dog, while I caught 
about twenty-five or thirty hare in the corners, 
before the whole fence was finished. 

Los Angele.s, Dec. 21st. David Kaab. 



SHeep \^d Wool. 



Saxony fleeces are types. The combing wools, 
on the contrary, must be long in staple, from 
four to seven inches, comparatively coarse, 
few spiral curls and serrations and possessing 
a distinct luster. These qualities are possessed 
in perfection by the English sheep of the 
Lincolnshire, Leicester and Cotswold races, 
and a less degree by the Cordova wools of the 
Argentine Republic, and the Donskoi wool of 
Bnasia. 

Comparatively long fine wools of the 
Merino race, from two and a half to three 
inches or more in length, are combed for mak- 
ing coburgs, merinoes, and similar fabrics, but 
they are not generally classed in the trade as 
combing or worsted wools, but frequently called 
fine delaine wool. An unprecedented demand 
for these wools has arisen in all manufacturing 
nations within the past ten or fifteen years. 
This is due, first, to the vast improvement in 
machinery for combing made within that 
period, and secondL-, to the late scarcity of 
•otton, and to the discovery that by the use of 
these wools with cotton wraps, an admirable 
substitute is found for fabrics formerly made 
from the fiber of the alpaca. 



Combing Wool. 

The kind of wool required for worsted is 
that which will make the smallest and strong- 
est thread with the least nap and the smallest 
amount of stock; this can only be accomplished 
by combing tbe long staple, wool. Combing 
has two objects to accomplish — the removal of 
the noils, which is the short fibers at the bot- 
tom, and the hard ends at ^he top of the staple. 
It also lays the fiber straight by taking out the 
curl to a great extent. This is done by fhe 
warm comb while tho wool is moist — wool is 
the same in character as horn or hoof — warm 
them and they are easily worked. Tho wool 
is worked with a warm comb, and by repeatedly 
passing through the wool, while warm, it is 
straightened its entire length and parallel, and 
thus spun, and the yarn is then called worsted. 
The ends of the fibers being covered by the 
process of spinning, the yarns are smooth and 
lustrous. In worsted, where the strength of 
the thread depends in some measure upon the 
length of the splice, the longer the fiber tbe 
stronger the thread; yet the strength is in- 
creased, if, in proportion to the length of the 
fiber, we have a proportionate number of serra- 
tions, and the scales being shortest in young 
sheep's wool, the serrations will be most 
numerous and finest pointed, and will pro- 
dace the strongest thread. 

Older the sheep the longer and more 
blunted the points of the scales and fewer the 
serrations, and these, less capable of cohering 
to each other, cannot produce as strong a 
thread as young wool. On this account old 
sheep's wool is frequently styled "slippery- 
haired;" it will not hang together well in 
worsted; a firm piece of cloth (stuff) cannot be 
made from it. Hence the first clip from long 
combing, or worsted, wool is always the most 
desirable clip of any produced, to the manufac- 
turer. 

Card, or cloth wool, is wool fitted for being 
carded. By this process the fibers are pluced 
in every possible direction in regard to each 
other, adnering by the serrations of the fiber, 
which are more numerous in the wool adapted 
to carding. They are thus adapted or fitted 
for telting, and the ends of the fiber are free to 
l)e drawn out into the nap, and conceal the 
thread and produce a beautiful smooth face to 
the cloth. While card wools are required to 
be fine, or comparatively so, short in staple, 
and (oT the highest fabrics full of evenly de- 
veloped spiral curls and serrations, qualities 
possessed by the wool of which tbe Merino and 



Thk Wool Mabket. — In New York the mar- 
ket has remained quiet for several weeks, and 
there is nothing new to add. In California 
grades, the low price of fall has induced con- 
siderable trade from those manufacturers whose 
mills are employed in making flannel; hijt bo- 
side this cousideration, there has been but lit- 
tle business. Sales amounted to 'iti,000 pounds 
und 40bale8fallatl8(a,23%9;60 bags and 12,000 
pounds Scoured fall at 59o; 15 bales spring at 
30o; 2,500 pounds Burry spring at 23(^(23%c; 
8 bales Burry spring, private. 

At Boston the wool market continues as for 
tbe past month. In California wool of good 
condition there is a ready market. However, 
tbe market does not harden; still, an occasional 
advance on last mouth's quotation is secured, 
especially in choice lots of fall and spring, 
which are scarce; sales 2M,000 poands fall at 
15@24c; 95,000 pounds spring at 21(^36c; 41,- 
OOO pounds Pulled at 41@,41^c, but chiefly on 
private terms; 10,000 pounds Scoured at 65c. 



How TO Kill Shkep.— A correspondent of 
tho Indiana Fanner says: "If you ^vant good, 
sweet mutton, kill your sheep without worry- 
ing and fatigue; the less exercise the better. 
Bang up at once; now change ends; hang him 
by the head, and skin down to the tail; the job 
is done in half the time, and neatly. It is not 
the wool that gives mutton the sheep taste and 
smell ; it is the food during exercise, and after 
being killed, hence the necessity of speedy work 
until cleaned." 



Rainfall. 

A London paper says: "In tho Paris Bulletin 
/nterimtiowil for June 30th last. Professor Ii»u- 
hn, of liordeaux, gives the results of an exam- 
ination of a comparieon of the gross amount of 
the rainfall for the ten years, 1851-60, with 
that for the ten years, 1861-70, from which it 
is shown that, as regards the southern half of 
France, the rainfall during the former of these 
decennial periods exceeded that of tbe latter at 
forty-six out the fifty-three stations at which 
observations were made for twenty years. A 
similar distribution of the rainfall during these 
two decennial periods appears to have taken 
place, with few exceptions, over a large area, 
embracing the British Isles, France, Germany, 
Italy, Spain, the basin of the Mediterranean, 
and Algiers. The point is an interesting one, 
and we hope that meteorologists will inquire 
how far the rainfall observations of their re- 
spective countries agree with the result obtaio- 
ed by Professor Ranlin for the southern half of 
France." 

Such facts as these go to show how little is 
known of meteorology and its laws. Most of 
our newspapers have had much to say of late 
years about the connection of forests with rain- 
fall. That there may be some trifling influ- 
ence in favor of more rain with more trees in 
some cases is possible, but here we have an 
average increase of rain in a decade from a part 
of the world which in the same time would 
show a decrease of woodland. Woodland natu- 
rally exists to the greatest extent in those 
countries where the precipitation of moisture 
is favorable to tho ripening of seeds and their 
subsequent germination. The woods are a 
consequence, not a cause, of the moist climate. 
Bat tbe fact of the rainfall in comparison with 
wood-clearing being found at one time to favor 
a denudation theory, and at another time to op- 
po.se it, should be evidence that there is little 
conoeotion between the two. — Forney's Weekly 
Press. 

Don't allow your carriage to rattle like a 
threshing machine. Washers of sole-leather 
on the spindles of axle-trees will stop the clat- 
ter caused by too much " play." A piece of 
rubber put in between the thill iron and clip 
will silence matters there; and a little coal oil 
on the circle or fifth wheel, will stop squeaking. 
Where nuts work loose, cut a thread in front of 
them with a cold chisel after screwing them 
up tight. 

It is a well known fact t'uat clover has tho 
singular properly of being able to extract from 
tbo atmosphere, without tbe aid of manure or 
stimulants, nitrogen sufficient for its own 
proper growth and nourishment. The straw 
and roots of the clover contain a large amount 
of nitrogen, and these, when ploughed down , 
are therefore as valuable to the next crop sown 
as a copious supply of guano. 



Stock Bf^EEOEi^s. 



How to Know a Good Bull. 

There is no more important matter coming 
before the intelligence of the stock grower than 
the selection of a good bull. We are pleased 
to find in the reports of the recent Indiana 
Short Horn Convention some plain, straight- 
forward remarks on this subject by Mr. Cbas. 
Lowder. As will appear from our summary 
of his positions, Mr. Lowder does not attach 
importance to name and pedigree unless it be a 
worthy name and a pedigreevaluable in quality 
rather than quantity. A pedigree, if it be the 
right one, is a surety that a man who breeds 
will obtain what he desires. This is what we 
need for the improvement of our live stock on 
this coast. We cannot afford to be led by a 
name alone, but in gaining aid in fine blood 
from the older districts, we want the true ar- 
ticle which will enable us to build up breeds 
here which will be worthy of the State in all 
points of value. It is because Mr. Lowder's 
remarks have this true ring of value and utility 
that we select irom them as follows: 

Bulls are valuable only as they are capable 
of producing uniform good stock. The pro- 
gressive farmer having como to a correct con- 
clusion as to what constitutes excellence in a 
good steer, and knowing what kind of cows he 
has to breed from, would naturally inquire, 
how should I know a good bull? And what 
are the characteristics of a good breeding bull? 
As a law of nature, " like tends to produce 
like." A bull tends to breed like himself . He 
transmits to his offspring that onlv which he 
has himself. If his ancestors, both male and 
female, were uniform in all that constitutes 
excellence, and he is individually good, he may 
be depended upon for producing good stock. 
But if part of his ancestors only were good, and 
the others bad, he may transmit to his off- 
spring bad qualities as well as good. He can 
transmit only what he has himself. What he 
has is mainly derived from his ancestors, 
though he may have gained or lost by a good or 
bad sysitem of breeding, feeding and training. 

Hence, the pedigree of a bull should be good. 
This IS of first importance. That is, as near 
all the blood in his veins as possible, should be 
derived from good ancestors. A short pedigree, 
with only five or six sires, if they were all good, 
may be worth more than a long pedigree, des- 
cended from Favorite, If the last five or six sires 
were inferior bulls. A long pedigree is not 
necessarily a good one, nor a short one abso- 
lutely a bad one. The value of a pedigree is 
not only estimated by its length, bat also by 
its quality. 

In selecting a bull to breed from, the value 
of his dam should be taken into consideration 
as well as that of the sire. Her milking qual- 
ities should not be overlooked. A bull from a 
cow that is a good milker is worth more, other 
things being equal, than one from a poor milker. 
As hinted above, the value of a bull depends 
upon his power to produce uniform good calves. 
Some bulls of great individual merit lack this 
power, while other bulls throw calves better 
thiiu themselves or the csws to which they are 
bred. This is one of the characteristics of a 
good bull. 

It is impossible for any one to always tell 
how bulls wilt breed until they are tested; but 
the intelligent and careful farmer or herdsman 
can guess with approximate certainly as to tbe 
general character of tbe get. A good breed- 
ing bull must not only be like a bull, but he 
must look like a bull. He must be masculine 
in appearance. This holds good as well in the 
pure Shorthorn as in the scrub or any other 
breed. A good bull is as much entitled to tbe pe- 
culiar eye, head, horn, neck, shoulder and chest 
that characterizes him as a male, as a man is 
entitled to his beard and the peculiar expression 
of the countenanee. A bull with light jaws, 
narrow face and forehead, slim horns, thin neck 
and shoulders is seldom an impressive sire of 
good things. He must be masculine in appear- 
ance. This does not imply that he must be 
course; on the contrary, he should be fine. 
Coarseness may be defined as unevenness, while 
fineness is the result of uniformity. Each part 
should be such that it fits smoothly and evenly 
to those adjoining it. 

As has been said above, a bull is only valuable 
as his breeding is valuable. This depends, of 
course, to some extent, upon the cows to which 
he is used. Great extremes between sire and 
dam seldom match well together. The intelli- 
gent breeder, in making selection of his breed- 
ing bull, will have regard to the cows with 
which he is to be coupled. If they are under 
size, they will select a bull of good size, one 
that is not too large. Great extremes don't 
mix well. If his cows are very large and in- 
clined to breed too much bone for the amount 
of flesh, he will select a bull of rather compact 
form and good fleshy qualities, but one that is 
not too much under size. The skillful breeder, 
before selecting hjs bull, should determine 
what he wants, and should be able to give an in- 
telligent reason why he wants him; and after 
having made his purchase should know how 
to use him. Tho ability to answer intelligently 
the what, why and how, is as indispensable to 
the successful breeder of neat cattle as it is to 
the man in any other profeasioa, 



January i,i^jo.] 

Tl|E Swi((E Y^l^' 



Cutting Up and Curing. 

It ia no coarse art to guide the keen knife 
blade through the white subatanoe of the slain 
svrine so that each joint shall be smoothly sev- 
ered and each portion laid off in a most con- 
venient shape. Nothing looks more shiftless 
than joints of meat haggled and misshapen. 
Every farmer should be master Of the butcher's 
art. If he do not practice it himself, he should 
be able to give the hired man such practical 
instruction aa will make him do clean work. 

We find in the correspondence of the Farm- 
er's Home Journal some directions concerning 
cutting up and curing pork, which will be of 
much value to our readers at this time: 

Have the hog laid on his back on a stout, 
clean bench, cut off the head close to the base. 
If the hog is large, there will come off a con- 
siderable collar, between head and shoulders, 
which pickled or dry ia useful for cooking with 
vegetables. Separate the jowl from the 
face at the natural joint; open the skull length- 
wise, and take out the brains, esteemed a lux- 
ury. Then with a sharp knife remove the 
backbone the whole length, then the long strip 
of fat underlying it, leaving about one inch of 
fat covering the spina] column. 

The leaf lard, if not before taken out for the 
housewife's convenience, is removed, as is also 
the tenderloin — a fishy-shaped piece of flesh — 
often used for sausage, but which makes deli- 
cious steak. The middling or sides are now 
cut out, leaving the shoulders square-shaped 
and the hams pointed, or they may be rounded 
to your taste. The spare ribs are usually 
wholly removed from the sides, with but little 
meat adhering.- It is the sides of small young 
hogs cured as hams that bear the name of 
breakfast bacon. The sausage meat comes 
chiefly in strips from the backbone, part of 
which may also be used as steak. ■ The lean 
trimmings from about the joints are used for 
sausage, the f-xt scraps rendered up with the 
backbone lard. 

The thick part of the backbone that lies be- 
tween the shoulders, called grisken or chine, is 
separated from the tapering bony part called 
backbone by way of distinction and used fresh. 
The chines are smoked with the jowls, and used 
in late winter or spring. 

When your meat is to be pickled, it should 
be dusted lightly with saltpeter, sprinkled 
with salt, and allowed to drain twenty-four 
hours, then plunged into pickle, and kept un- 
der with a weight. It ia good polioy to pickle 
a portion of the sides. 'They, after soaking, 
are sweeter to cook with vegetables, and the 
grease fried out from them is much more use- 
ful than that of smoked meat. 

If your meat is to be dry salted, allow one 
teaspoonfal of pulverized saltpeter to one gal- 
lon of salt, and keep the mixture warm beside 
you. Put on a hog's ear as a mitten, and rub 
each piece of meat thoroughly. Then pack skin 
side down, ham upon ham, side upon side, strew- 
ing on salt abundantly. It is best to put large 
and small pieces in differtjnt boxes for the con- 
venience of getting at them to hang up, at the 
different times they will come into readiness. 
The weather has so much to do with the time 
that meat requires to take salt that no particu- 
lar time can be specified for leaving it in. 

The best test is to try a medium-sized ham; 
if salt enough, all similar and smaller pieces 
are surely ready, and it is well to remember 
that the saltness increases in drying. 

Ribs and steaks shoald be kept in a cold 
dark place without salting until ready for use. 
If you have many, or the weather is warm, 
they keep better in pickle than dry salt. Many 
persons turn and rub their meat frequently. I 
have never practiced this and have never lost 
any. 

When the meat is ready for smoking, dip the 
hocks of the joints in ground black pepper and 
dust the raw surface thickly with it. Sacks 
after this treatment may be used for double 
security, and I think bacon high and dry is 
sweeter than packed in -any substance. For 
sugar-cared hams I append the best recipe I 
have ever used, though troublesome: 

English recipe for sugar-curing hams— So 
soon as the meat comes from the butcher's 
hand, rub it thoroughly with fine salt. Repeat 
this four days, keeping the meat where it can 
drain. The fourth day rub it with saltpeter 
and a handful of common salt, allowing one 
pound of saltpetre to seventy pounds of meat. 
Now mix one pound of brown sugar and one of 
molasses, rub over the ham every day for a 
fortnight, and then smoke with hickory chips 
or cobs. Hams should be hung highest in the 
meat-house, because there they are less liable to 
the attacks of insects, for insects do not so much 
infest high places- -unlike human pests. 

Pickle— Make eight gallons of brine strong 
enough to float an egg; add two pounds of 
brown sugar or a quart of molasses, and lour 
ounces of saltpeter; boil and skim clean and 
pour cold on your meat. Meat intended for 
smoking should remain in pickle about four 
weeks. This pickle can be boiled over, and 
with a fresh cup of sugar and salt used all sum- 
mer. Some persons use as much soda as salt- 
peter. It will correct acidity, but I think im- 
pairs the flavor of meat. 



TtfE D/^ii^Y- 



A California Creamery. 

During our recent visit to the dairy ranches 
on Point Reyes, we had the pleasure of ex- 
amining the creamery building and apparatus 
used by Henry Claussen, one of the tenants of 
Chas. Webb Howard. As there is embodied in 
this establishment a method of dairying not 
common in this State, we have prepared for 
our readers an illustrated description, which we 
doubt not will be suggestive to many who are 
considering ways in which the products of 
milk may be most profitably placed upon the 
market. 

This creamery was designed by the father of 
the present tenant. He was a Swede by na- 
tionality and embodied in his plan some features 
which are characteristic of Swedish dairying. 
The money success which the establishment 
has attained demonstrates the practicability 
of the imported method, under conditions 
which prevail in some parts of this State. 

The main building is twenty-five feet wide 
and seventy-five feel long; one story and a half 
high. It is frame, boarded up and down and 
the exterior neatly whitened. The windows 
are furnished with tight outside blinds, which 
do much to maintain a proper temperature 
within. The following diagram shows the 
ground plan: 




PLAN OF CKEAMEBY. 

Entering the creamery, the visitor comes first 
into the milk room. This is an apartment 
which gives the inspector a favorable impres- 
sion at the outset. It is neatly painted, floor, 
walls and ceihng. In the walls there are ven- 
tilators on three sides, a row near the ceiling 
and another row near the floor. In the floor 
constructed the vats for setting the milk in 
running water, or "pools," as they are called. 
These pools are built watertight, and are about 
eighteen inches wide by two feet deep. Two of 
these vats are placed side by side, as in the dia- 
gram, the dotted line representing a plank 
along which a man can walk. The water 
flows into the pools from the spring through 
an arrangement of iron pipe s shown on the 
right, and the overflow is carried a^ayunder 
the floor, after the water has flowed around the 
vat. The milk is set in large cans or coolers, 
about fifteen inches in diameter and two feet 
deep. These are filled and placed in the pool and 
the cool water flows around them, until the milk 
becomes cool aa the water. Covers are then 
placed over the cans and tho milk allowed to 
stand thirty-six hours. Cooling in this way al- 
lows the cream to rise completely before the 
milk sours. 

Handling the Milk. 

As the word creamery implies, Mr. Claussen 
uses his milk for both butter and cheese. When 
the cream has fully risen, at the end of thirty- 
six hours, the cans are skimmed ; the cream 
from all the cans is mixed in a large oak cask and 
set aside to sour before churning. These 
casks are set on wheels, so that the cream can 
be rolled into the churn room without lifting or 
carrying. After the cream has been removed, 
the sweet skim milk is poured from the cans 
into the cheese vat which stands in the next 



room. This milk is totally devoid of cream, 
and no effort is made to enrich it. It is made 
up into the toughest kind of skim cheese and 
has almost the durability of India rubber. Mr. 
Claussen does not make this cheese because he 
thinks it good, but because the market calls for 
it and he is able to sell it at a good price. He 
heats the milk in the cheese vat up to eighty 
degrees Fahrenheit and adds rennet enough to 
coagulate in twenty minutes. As soon as the 
curd is cut, he lets in the cool water and does 
not "cook his curd" at all. The curd is then 
salted and ground in a curd mill of home con- 
struction and put to press. This process makes 
a peculiar cheese; it shows no signs of soften- 
ing or "breaking down" as is common with 
ripe cheese. We have described Mr. Claus- 
sen 's method because he finds a good market 
for cheese of this kind; of coarse bettor cheese, 
according to the common idea of good cheese, 
can be made from skim milk; by using more 
rennet, and thus getting quicker coagulation, 
and varying the process in other ways, as prac- 
tical cheese makers will understand", he could 
get a softer and to all appearances a richer 
cheese. But Mr. Claussen is a good business 
man and makes what he can sell. He sold dur- 
ing the last year 45,000 pounds of cheese at an 
average of nine cents a pound. It does not re- 
quire much figuring to show that he gained 
more money from the cheese than he could 
from pork which the same milk would have 
made. 

From the diagram it can be seen that the 
skim milk is moved in a straight line after it 
leaves the pools. It goes from the pools to the 
cheese vat, from the vat to the presses, and 
from the presses to the shelves in the curing 
room. This arrangement is convenient and 
praiseworthy. The curing of the style of cheese 
described above is of course very slow. We 
saw a cheese three months old which shewed 
scarcely any signs of softening. Mr. Claus- 
sen's customers do not woit for curing; they 
take the cheese fresh, when it is springy and 
elastic. 

The Butter Making. 

It can also be seen from the diagram which 
way the cream takes after being skimmed from 
the cooling cans. When it is soured in tho 
cask it ia rolled into the churn room, through 
the door connecting with the milk room. The 
cream is churned in a large box churn, revolved 
by a horse power outside the building. The 
churn is rectangular and oblong, about two and 
a half by five feet. It turns on gudgeons 
fastened at the center of the ends. It is an ex- 
ceedingly bimple arrangement, and churns the 
cream by its falling from side to side, as the 
box revolves. This style of churn is common 
in the Point Reyes dairies, and is doubtless in- 
strumental in producing the fine butter for 
which the ranches are noted. The cream ia 
thrown from side to side, and the oil globules 
are broken by pressure and concussion instead 
of friction. This is the true principle involved 
in churning. It preserves the natural grain in 
which the butter particles congregate. Churn- 
ing by friction, aa is done in some of the mod- 
ern complicated churns, smashes these parti- 
clos and gives the butter aaalvy form. 

From the churn room the butter goes to the 
butter worker. This is an arrangement in- 
vented by Captain Allen, when he was dairying 
on Point Reyes. It consists of a revolving ta- 
ble, on which the butter is placed, and a lever 
(catching in a movable socket on one end, with 
a handle on the other,) is pressed down upon 
it continuously, until the buttermilk is ex- 
pelled. As the table revolves the lever strikes 
every part of the mass, and the working is very 
complete. This apparatus, as well as the 
churn, seems well fitted to preserve the gran- 
ular form of the butter particles, providing the 
lever is pushed down perpendicularly, and not 
allowed to slide obliquely over the surface. 

On the counter, near the butter worker, the 
butter is formed in the cylindrical rolls in 
which it comes to the market. The mold used 
is of ligyium vitce, opening in two parts, like a 
bullet mold. The handles are of brass. The 
implement does its work well. 

We have not described Mr. Olaussen's cream- 
ery because we think it perfect, but because it 
offers a basis for suggestion and improvement. 
We trust our dairy readers will study the plan 
and write us the comments their experience 
may suggest. Let us have a free and full dis- 
cussion of all topics connected with dairy hus- 
bandry, for this IS a growing industry on this 
coast, and one which merits attention. 



When to Cut Timber. — A correspondent of 
the New Jersey /JeraW say.s: If oak, hickory, 
or chestnut timber is felled in the eighth month, 
(August,) in the second running of the sap, and 
barked, quite a large tree will season perfectly, 
and even the twigs will remain sound for years ; 
whereas that cut in winter, and remaining until 
next fall (as thick aa your wrist,) will be com- 
pletely sap-rotten, and be almost unfit for any 
purpose. The body of the oak split into rails 
will not last more than ten or twelve years. 
Chestnuts will last long, but no comparison to 
that cut in the eighth month. Hickory cut 
in the eighth month is not subject to be worm- 
eaten, and will last a longer time for fencing. 



Assisting the Gkrmination op Seeos. — Ac- 
cordiug to Bottger, a moderately concentrated 
solution of caustic soda or potash seems to 
promote the germination of seeds even more 
than ammonia, especially of coffee beans, 
which germinate with difficulty. After soak- 
ing a few hours in diluted po'.ash solution, they 
often put forth snow white radicles. 



Tt|E H®flSE. 



The Art of Breeding. 

One of the most ardent lovers of horses in 
the country is Rev. W. H. H. Murray, of Bos- 
ton. At the recent meeting of the Massachu- 
setts State Board of Agriculture, Mr. Murray 
made an address on the Art of Breeding Horses. 
As his positions are of universal interest wher- 
ever the nobility of the horse is maintained, we 
quote for our readers the following abstract of 
the address from the Boston Cultivator: "Mr. 
Murray began by remarking that the propaga- 
tion of life organisms is one of the most beautiful 
and divine mysteries of the universe, and the dis- 
cussion of it should be in a grave, reverential 
spirit, thus he approached it, and thus had he 
learned what he knows of the subject. He 
found the bottom fact of his subject in the 
bible — that "everything shall produce of its 
kind, according to its seed. " Find your typical 
horse of each sex, and then you may realize the 
idea of the "perfect horse." 

No business can succeed until its laws are so 
well understood that results can be known be- 
fore they appear. From whatever cause. New 
England has hitherto made a failure of breeding 
fine stock. His idea of the cause waa that it 
was ignorance. He thought ignorance at the 
bottom of nearly all failures. Breeding is gen- 
erally done by men who have neither time nor 
capacity to study the subject with the careful 
studentship which it demands. 

As a rule, extraordinary offspring were the 
results of extraordinary parents. Yet it often 
happens that a good sire and dam produce a 
poor colt. So another step must be taken, and 
we must decide that parents must complement 
each other in temperament. A sire to be desir- 
able must be a good horse. He must not be 
chosen simply on account of his special beauty 
in any one direction, but of his perfection as a 
whole. Then, , after that, he mast have the 
particular point you wish in your colt in prom- 
inence. Thirdly, the sire being good as a 
whole, and specially good in certain points, he 
must have that mystic power of reproducing 
himself which is the rarest among horses. He 
did not know of over twenty or twenty-three in 
America and eleven in New England that had 
this power. The highest type in this direction, 
he had no hesitation in saying, was Justin 
Morgan, a little horse which stamped its image 
on all its descendants, and not only that, but 
also gave to its descendants the power to trans- 
mit the same image. 

The question is often asked, which influences 
the colt more, the aire or dam ? The Arabs 
have it that the foal follows the sire. They have 
kept their breed of horses for 3,000 years in 
perfection unchanged, and that is proof that 
they have known and obeyed the laws of breed- 
ing for that tioQe. He was inclined to believe 
that they were right. Probably it was under- 
stood in that maxim that such dams only 
should be chosen as would not interfere with 
the sire's transmitting himself. Then they 
chose only the very best stock horses, and 
treated them like kings, as they deserved to be. 

A principle that should always be followed 
is never to breed to an ugly sire or dam. The 
offspring will always reflect the character of the 
parents, and it is a crime to breed an ugly- 
tempered colt. Again, breeding should never 
be allowed except in proper nervous condition. 
Never when the sire is kept fat like a hog; 
never when he is drawn out fine for some great 
nervous feat. Size, color, health, tempera- 
ment and speed are the great essentials of a 
good stock horse. The speaker sought for 
beauty first in his colts. The time was when 
a horse was considered valuable if he could 
"go," no matter how he looked. But now 
beauty is considered of more importance. So 
he bred first for beauty, secondly for docility, 
and thirdly for speed. 

He had been asked to tell what it was that 
made a horse trot. He would say what it was 
not; it was not the whip, nor was it the way 
the horse was driven. The best way to drive 
a horse is to let him alone. He wished it was 
the custom to drive without reins. There 
were a few gifted, prophetic men, like Charlie 
Green, Budd Doble, Woodruff, who knew more 
than both of them, who know exactly what to 
do, but for common drivers the best way was 
to let the horse alone. If a horse be a trotter 
he didn't need be made one; he would show it. 
If he wasn't a trotter, he, Mr. Murray, didn't 
want to have anything to do with any attempt 
to make him one. 



The Ukrmination op Seeds in Ice. — Some 
interestiog experiments on the growth of seeds 
have been conducted by M. Ulsth. These 
were undertaken with a view to determine 
whether seeds could be made to germinate in 
ice, and the process may be described as fol- 
lows: Seeds of various species were placed in 
grooves made in ice cakes, and .over the 
grooved surface other plates of ice were laid, 
and the whole removed to a cool cellar in Jan- 
uary, and there they remained till the follow- 
ing May. An examination then made dis- 
olofl'd the fact that many of the seeds had ao- 
tually germinated, Ihn roots penetrating into 
the ice. It is but nuiurivl, says Appletnn'a 
Joanial, that facts of this startling ctiaracter 
should give rise to controversy, and so we are not 
surprised to learn that opposite views are en- 
tertained as to whence the heat needed for the 
process of growth was obtained. In the opin- 
ion of the experimenter, it was obtained, or 
rather liberaffed, in the growth of the roots 
while forcing themselves into the ice. 



wsMtww mirmjA pmBSS. 



[January x, 1876 




HpIIdKT. 



THE HEADftUARTEKS of the CalHonila 
State Grange are at No. 6 Liedesdorff Btreet, In rear of 
the Grangers' Bank of Oaliforula, No. 41."> California 
■treet San FranciKPo. 

The Oran^irs' Business AsiOJ-latlon of California 1b 
at No. 361 Market St. 



To Seoretarlei and Traavurar* of Subordin- 
ate Oranirea. 

Hereafter yon will please make ynnr reports, and 
pay the quarterly dues to the Secretary of the State 
Oran:je. 

Both reports will be made on one blank, which will 
be forwarded to the Secretary of your Grange, from 
this office. 

Treasurers who remit by express will plea.se have the 
report accompanying the money made up in the same 
package with their quarterly dues. 

Be sure to put the name of your Grange and post 
office address on all packages and communications to 
this office; it pieventB miitakcs. 

AMOS ADAMS. 

Secretary of the State Grange, 
San Francisco, California. 

San Francisco, Oct. 26th, 1876. 



GRANQEKS' BANK OP CALIFORNIA. 

San Frahcisco, December Ist, 1875. 
To the Stockholders of the Grangers' Bank of California : 
(THIKD INSTALLMENT,) 

You are hereby notltled that, at a nnetlne of the 
Directors of the Grangers' Bank of California.which was 
held on the 30th of November, an iUBtallraent of 10 
per cent, was levied on the capital stock ot said Bank, 
made due and payable on the iBt day of January, 1876, 
to the Caxhler, at the office of the Bank, No. 413 Call- 
oruia street. Respectfully, 

G. W. Colby, President, 

C. J. Cbebsby, Vice-PreBident. 

New Constitution and By-Lawa. 

We have the amended form of the Constitution and 
By-LawB and Rules of Order of the State Grange: the 
Declaration of Purposts, Constitution and By-Laws of 
the National Grange, and blank form of Subordinate 
Orange. Constitution and By-Laws now printed in 
one pamphlet. Gran^'es supplied at five rents per 
copy, post paid, from the Kukai, Pbebs office, San 
Francisco. 



Obanoe Dibkctoby.— 'We have concluded to postpone 
the printing of our Grange Directory until the flrBt 
week In February, In order that it may embrace the 
records of elections in the several Granges which are 
now coming in each week. At that time we ehall give 
a full liet of the officers of tbe State Grange, Deputies^ 
names of Councils, Subordinate Oranges, Masters and 
Secretaries. 



Election Returns.— Secretaries will please send us, 
ss early as possible, the result of their election of ofti- 
cera. Write plainly (on one side only) in the following 
form:— "Napa Grange, No. 1. Napa City. Election, 
Dec. 4.— J. B. Saul, M.; J.W.Ward. Jr., O.; Harry 
Haskell, Sec.;" and so on, giving a full list and also 
the names of truBtecB and busiiiesa agent. We should 
like to receive further corr<-spondeuce from Stcretaries 



Christmas with the Elk Grove Grangers. 

Mkssbs. Editoes: — It would be a pity if so 
beautiful an illustration of tbe uaes of tbe 
Order to whicb we are pledged by so many de- 
lightful associations should pass unnoticed. 
Our Elk Grove friends bade ns to th< ir Christ- 
ma-s feast, and though we feared our hearts 
would be in Live Oak hall, we, that is I, 
promised to go some d;»ys iu advance of the 
notice of the intended feast at home. Whore 
the people came from that Cbristmas morniog 
I cannot guess. Tbe outlook from the ball 
windows is over a wide, sparsely settledjprairie, 
but they came in numbers, the Patrons and 
their invited guests, until the building was full 
of happy families, and full to overflowing of 
good things for the waiting tables. If there is 
any especially delicious eatable which farmers 
raiFe that was not brought forth that day I 
cannot imagine what it was. This is a poor 
year for potatoes, but the whitest, mealiest, 
most appetizing potatoes were sotved smoking 
hot, with warm chicken pies, mince pies, In- 
dian puddings, until everybody shook their 
heads even at the splendid bunches of raisins, 
the apples and nuts. Then eame the feast of 
reason and flow of soul, the latter expressed in 
the gifts lavishly displayed on tbe Christmas 
trees. It took three good sized trees to hold 
the presents. I noticed that many of them 
were substantially useful things, but there was 
no lack of toys and goodies. A dear little Pa- 
troness near me opened her eyes so wide and 
looked such a picture of pure content when a 
miniature cooking stove with its tin kettles and 
boiler was put into her hands, that I knew 
some good Granger would one day find in her 
his "household treasure." When so much was 
good and pleasant, how can I particularize? 
The officers of tbe Grange were unspaiing in 
their etforts to make ns all happy, and I am 
sura they succeeded. No one was overlooked 
or forgotten. Tbe elders bad a Christmas of- 
fering from the late Lecturer of Temescal 
Grange, tbe young folks had a dance iu the 
evening, the liitle ones the never failing expec- 
taiiociB and delights of the Christmas trees. 

Among other guests I met Mr. Williamson, 
of Sacramento, whose fine nurseiy will be the 
objective point of my morning walks, if evtr 



the fog lightens and the mud dries. We should 
have brought photographs of the sun and moon, 
for, excepting on Christmas day, we have not 
seen their faces since we came here, after a 
lengthened rainy spell in Oakland. 

Our Elk Grove Patrons have a very pleasant 
ball, and though they, with many other Granges, 
talk about needing a revival, a proposal to 
close the Grange would bring out an expression 
of feeling which would prove bow well its 
social features are appreciated. Tbe churches 
have their chills and fevers, and we need not 
expect a uniform temperature to be main- 
tained in so new an organization as ours. But 
if any one feels a coldness, let him bestir him- 
self for the good of the Order, and I am sure 
it will psss away. Jbannb C. Cabr. 

December 2Rth, 1875. 



Christmas at Nord Grange. 

An hour ago I wouldn't have believed that 
anything could cajole me from my surreptitious 
doll dressing and handkerchief-box making, 
which assumes increased import auce as Christ- 
mas day approaches; but a few moments spent 
with my favorite contributors to the Rubal 
Pbess, have inspired me with a desire to report 
our election of officers at Nord Grange, and chat 
a little on matters in general, on the golden rule 
principle — If that is sanction enough for at- 
tempting a hasty letter. 

First of all, then, I rejoice to say that after 
an absence of six moniha, we found Nord 
Grange alive and ready for a busy winter cam- 
paign, as denoted by a full attendance on elec 
tion day, Saturday, Dec. 11th, the sisters being 
all present excepting three. After a liitle harm- 
less electioneering, which seemed to lend soci 
ability and spice to the occasion, our officers 
for the ensuing year were declared duly elected. 
The result seemed to be especially harmonizing, 
so that when the matter of a Christmas tree was 
named, with one consent it was agreed that 
nothing but storms and floods should prevent 
our enjoying a repetition of last year's festivi- 
ties on the coming holiday. It being rather a 
late day to coni-ider the subject, we resolveii 
ourselves into a committee of the whole, with 
an especial committee on decoration; and, at 
present, the prospect is most favorable for a 
grand success. 

Bachelors and all persons generously dis- 
posed, were invited to put their hands in their 
pockets for the small sum required to furnish 
the candy bag^, tapers and presents for any 
children who would otherwise be neglected; and 
for the rest, each family supplies its members 
with gifts suited to the occasion, so that we 
anticipate a good time at very little labor or ex- 
pense to individuals. 

At the risk of the aforesaid dolls remaining 
unclothed, I will add, that Butte county re- 
joices in just tbe kind of weather that brings 
fjladness to the heart of the farmer — the whole 
country presenting an appearance of a beautiful 
lawn, such is the growth of volunteer and sum 
mer fallowed crops of wheat and barley. We 
have had no frosts, and in the garden our 
orange trees and vines are as green as on the 
4tb of July. 

Something Interesting for the Little Folks. 

We were rather dreading the long storms of 
winter for the little ones, but since our return 
to rural life, about a month ago, our little six 
year old has hit upon a plan of amusing her- 
self so novel, that I will describe it for the 
benefit of mothers who have children endowed 
with an imagination. 

Having a natural love of animals she has 
searched the library for pictures of them, but 
this winter, not being content with tamely view- 
ing them in books, she conceived the notion of 
carefully cutting them out, pasting upon thick 
paper, and tlius has stocked an imaginary 
ranch with blooded animals of all soits. I 
mu-^t hasten to explain that the only books thus 
multilated are public documents, of whioh we 
are the happy possessors, and I hereby tender 
my thanks to all who have from time to time 
kindly remembered us in this way. The read- 
ing still remains intact for the benefit of future 
generations. 

All illustrated agricultural pamphlets are 
eminently useful in adding to the collection, 
altbungh it may be discouraging to publishers 
to know that they are used in this way. The 
cows constitute a specialty, all being provided 
with fancy names and a pedigree, thus making 
them extremely rfal, the only fine point, how- 
ever, which their mistress recognizes being a 
"good bag," which was for some time faithfully 
milked nigbtand morning, producing unlimited 
quantities of imperceptible milk in invisible 
milk pails. To be sure, the little one announced 
at one time tbat she had "turned them all out 
to run with their calves," (following the too 
common practice among t-biftless farmers,) 
but they are still ready for a rainy day, and it 
has occurred to us that a dairy may Kome day 
be as fitting busiuosA for our daughter as bee 
keeping has come to be for other girls. So we 
humor the conceit that the flowers on our 
carpets are pastures for these harmless animals, 
and even tolerate the "really grass" which is 
sometimes brought into the play room to appease 
their supposed hunger. And now, to you, and 
all who enliven the columns of our cherished 
RuBAL with their thoughts, we wish a merry 
Christmas and happy New Year. "May your 
shadow ntver grow less," but always greater, 
is tbe hope of your constant reader, 

CjAKRTE a lyOT rv 

Nord, Butte county, Cal., Deo. 18th, 1875.* 



The New Officers. 

Our readers will no doubt be pleased to learn 
something of the newly elected officers of the 
National Grange. A late number of the Louis- 
ville CourkrJouDial gives the following brief 
biographical notices of the principal ones: 
The Master. 

Judge John Thompson Jones is a native of 
Essex county, Virginia, having been born in 
that county in the year 1813; was educated at 
the University of Virginia, graduating in the year 
1833, having taken the law course. He removed 
to within ten miles of Helena, Philips county, 
Arkansas, where be settled on a plantation, and 
has lived there since that time. Was elected 
judge of the First Judicial Circuit of Arkansas 
in 1842, and again in 184G, serving two terms 
of four years each. He was elected to the Sen- 
ate of the United States in 18C6, before the 
State was reconstructed, and was not admitted 
to a seat, this being the only political office for 
whioh he ever offered. 

He retired from the bench in 1850, and has 
been devoted to planting ever since, as well as 
having carried on a large planting interest 
while on the bench. 

Judge Jones has two largo plantations in 
Philips county, Arkansas, cultivating yearly 
about 1.000 acres, and one on Red river having 
about 400 acres in cultivation. His first oare 
was to have an abundant provision crop, in 
which he never failed, in addition to making 
about 800 bales of cotton annually, and other 
crops in proportion. His election gives great 
satisfaction, and it is felt that the Grange will 
prosper under his leadership. 
The Overseer. 

Mr. J. J. Woodman, the newly-elected Over- 
seer, is a native of Vermont, having been born 
in tbe township of Sutton, in Caledonia county 
of tbat State, in the year 1825, being now fifty 
years of age, but is much younger looking. 
His father moved to New York State when Mr. 
Woodman was six years of age, and from thence 
removed to Michigan, forty years ago, when 
that State was a wilderness. Mr. Woodman 
has spent ten years in teaching, and two years 
iu the mines of California. Has owned a farm 
.since arriving at the years of manhood, and 
most all of tbat time has been actively engaged 
in farming. Was elected to tbe Legislature of 
Michigan in IStiO, and served for twelve years 
consecutively ttiereafter, being two years 
Speaker pro tern, of the House, and four years 
speaker. Mr. Woodman now lives at Pawpaw, 
Van Baren county, Michigan. 
A. B. Smedley, 
Of Iowa, the newly-elected lecturer, is a bright, 
clear-headed man, who has gained high prom- 
inence in the Order from an admirably written 
work on Grange Jurisprudence, which has 
made his name familiar to the Order every- 
where. 

The Secretary, 
Mr. 0. H. Kelley, was re-elected. Of him it is 
unnecessary to speak. Wherever the term 
"Granger" is known, there is Kelley known 
also. He has made a good Secretary in the 
past, and will do bo in the future. 

Of the other new officers we are, as yet, 
unable to speak biographically, from a failure 
to obtain the necessary data. 



Linn's Valley Grange. 

The Secretary of this Grange, Bro. Sainnei 
E Reed, writes an encouraging letter in regard 
to it, and sends us a list of officers elected for 
the ensuing year, which was published in our 
last issue. Bro. R. says: 

"You may think strange tbat none of tbe 
former incumbents were re-elected to the same 
office, not because they were not efflpient or 
well beloved, but because there was plenty of 
material equally good and willing to labor on 
this 'mystic form of onre,'and give a season 
of rest to those who have borne the burdens of 
establishing the Order here, and in building 
a house in which we may meet in fnture, and 
call it our bouse. All this has been accom- 
plished by the people of Linn's valley, within a 
year and a half, and the house is almost paid 
for, perhaps $100, a little more or less, of debt; 
but that is pretty good for a community so 
isolated, and individually so impecunioux ai 
we have been during the past dry season, with 
a failure of crops, and many of us no credit, 
even among our friends. 

"Tbe festival, which will take place on the 
last Friday of this month, at tbe Grange hall 
in Glennville, is to be a grand affair, and I 
hope will reduce our indebtedness much. We 
are on the water and bound to swim or drown ; 
let us go clear ; don't weight us down with com- 
pounds ; quarterly, gentlemen, if you pitase." 

In regard to the matter of bank accommoda- 
tions referred to by our correspondent, every- 
thing will bo fully explained and all informa- 
tiou given on application to the bank itself. 
Our Linn valley brothers and all others may 
rely upon it that every accommodation, within 
reason, is rendered by the bank to Patrons. 



A Live Obdeb. — No better evidence of the 
active condition of the Grange body in this 
State could be desired than tbe testimony borne 
by our columns in our last igane. The "Elec- 
tion of Officers" space extended itself into more 
than two columns and contained reports from 
thirty-three Granges. This is more than ever 
appeared in a single issue before. 



Election of Officers. 

Alliance Gbanqe, No. 75, AztrsA.— Jas. D. 
Durfee, M.; C. Vaughn, O.; J. W. Marshall, 
L.; O. H. Shorey, 8; H. Cleveland, A. S.; 
Wm. GwiDD, C; Mrs. D. B. Durfee, T.; E. M. 
Haskell, Sec'y; H. Smoot, G. K.; Mrs. R. J. 
Dougherty, Ceres; MiasE. V. Reeves, Pomona; 
Mrs. M. Vaughn, Flora; Miss M. J. ReereH, 
L. A. S. 

AN'nccB Gbanoe, No. 116, Amtioch, Cal — 
Election, December 4th and 18th : Joeiah Wills, 
M.; F.J. Quant, O.; R. O. Dean, L.; Seth 
Davison, S.;S. Abbott Sellers, A. 8.; H. B, 
Juett, C; G. W. Kimball, T.; Mrs. 8. A. Sel- 
lers, Sec'y; D. S. Hawkins, G. K.; Mrs. J. A. 
Dean, Ceres; Mrs. M. L. Phelps, Pomona; 
Mrs. Adelia Schott, Flora; Mrs. Oliye Veal, L. 
A. S.; B. G. Dean, Trustee. 

Ballena Gbanoe, No. 237, Ballena, Cal. — 
Election, Dec. 18th: C. O. Tucker, M.; W. C. 
Billingsly, O.; A. W. Luckett, L.; D. Hal- 
stead, 8.; J. J. Sandeman, A. 8.; M. C. Cas- 
ner, C; Mrs. W. C. Billingsly, T.; Mrs. C. O. 
Taoker, Sec'y.; A. Green, G. R; Mrs. M. C. 
Casner, Ceres; Mrs. J. Halstead, Pomona; 
Mrs. M. D. Pntman, Flora; C. O. Tucker, J. 
J. Sandeman, W. C. Billingsly, Trustees. 

Bennett Valley Gbanoe, No. 16, Sonoma 
Co.— Election, Dec. 25th: A. Burnham, M.; 8. 
C. Story, O.; I. DeTurk, L.; John Barnham, 
S.; R. Allen, A. 8.; N. Carr, C. ; B, Lucque, 
T.; G. N. Whitaker, Sec'y.; A. Lacque, G. K.; 
Mrs. A. Lacque, Ceres; Mrs. E. E. Whitaker, 
Pomona; Miss B. Burnham, Flora; B. Lacque, 
N. Carr, W. Phillips, Trustees. 

Bebbtessa Gbanoe, No. 206, Monticello. — 
Election, Dec. 18th: J. W. Smith, M.; C. Gos- 
lipg, O.; Mrs. M. Stafford, Sec'y; A. M. Jack- 
son, T.; J. C. Owen, L.; L. H. Sweilzer, S.; 

A. Weston, A. 8. ; Miss Nellie Gillespy, L. A. 
8.; Mrs. L. H. Sweitzer, Pomona; Miss May 
Stafford, Ceres; Mrs. A. M. Jackson, Flora; P. 
Laflech, G. K. 

Cache Cbeee Gbamc.k, No. 82, Cache Cbeek, 
Yolo CoDNTY.— Election, December 4th: S. B. 
Holton, M.; Godfrey Rudolph, 0.;8. J. Tutt. 
L.; J. C. Tadlock, 8 ; H. C. Thompson, A. S.; 
G. M. Dameron. C; D. Q. Adams, T.; E R. 
Holton, Sec'y; E. R. Howard, G. K.; Miss 
Ellen Holton, Ceres; Miss Anna Rndolph, 
Pomona; Mrs. Laura Dole, Flora; Mrs. M. 
Keller, I,. A. 8. 

Cahto Gbanoe. No. 202, Cahto, Cal. — Elec- 
tion, Dec. 18th: J. J. Thomas, M.; O. R. Ben- 
nett, O.; ./as. H. Braden, L.; G N.Grubbs, S.; 
William Burns, A. 8.; J. G. Burns, C; J. G. 
Wilson, T.; J. H. Clarke, Sec'y; D. E. Wilson, 
G. K.; Mrs. Paulina Wilson, Ceres; Mrs. M. 
Burns, Pomona; Mrs. Mary Burns, Flora; 
Miss A. Wilson, L. A. 8. 

Cabfintebia Gbanoe, No. 51, Cabpintebia, 
Santa Bakbaba Co., Cal. — Election, Dec. 17tb: 
0. N. Cadwell, M.; D. M. Whitford. O. (re- 
elected); S. H. Olmstead, L. ; John Pettenger, 
S.; Henry Fish, A. S.; Mrs. S. A. Olmi-tead, 
C; A. Martin, T. (re-elected); Marcius Whit- 
ford, Sec'y.; B. H. Nurse, G. K. (re-elected); 
Mrs. J. Pettenger, Ceres; Miss Mina Whitford, 
Pomona; Mrs. Barnard, Flora; Mrs. Carrie 
Paice. L. A- 8. 

Cebes Gbanob, No. 64, Cekrs, Stanislads 
CoDNTT. — Election, Dec. 25th: H. W. Bronse, 
M, (re-elected); John Service, O. (re-elected); 
M. B. Kitterell, L.; E, Hatch, S. (reelected); 
J. M. Henderson, A. S.; 8. A. Hawkins, C; 
Geo. Reich, T ; R. K. Whitmore, Sec'y; W. 

B. Harp, G. K.; Mrs. R. Whitemore, Ceres, 
(re-eleoted); Mrs. P. H. Sobafer, Pomona; 
Mrs. Julia Service, Flora; Mrs. E. Hatch, L. 
A. 8. 

Gkysebviluc Qbanoe, No. 67, Getsbb'villb, 
Cal.— Election, December 18th: Alex. Stites, 
M.;C. M. Bosworth. O; John Patrick, L.;E. 
HcimiUon, T.; O. Jacobs. 8.; G. W. Benjamin, 

A. S.;W. S. Beeson, C; W. H. AdamNon, 
Sec'y; C. P. Moore, O. K.; Mrs. M. Stites, 
Ceres; Mrs. E. Moore, Pomona; Miss L. Wol- 
cott. Flora; Mrs. C. Beeson, L. A. S. 

Oalt (iBANOB, No. 180, Galt, Sacbamknto 
County.- Election, December 4th: A. B. Bry- 
ant, M.; 8. Carr. O ; G. W. Gray, L.; 8. E. 
Wriston, 8.; O. V. Harvey, A. S.; L. H. Frank, 
C.;E.Ray, T.; J. L. Fifield, 8ec'y;Wm. Brew- 
ster, G. K.; Miss J. L. Fifield, Ceres; Mrs. A. 

B. Bryant, Pomona; Mrs. J. B. Gates, Flora; 
Miss Alice Brewster, L. A. 8. 

Healdsbdbo Gbanoe, No. 18, HEALoeBUBO, 
Sonoma County. — Election, Deo. 4th: B. B. 
Oapell, M. (re-elected); Charles Alexander, 0.; 
E. H. Kraft, L.; Geo. Allison, 8.; F. M. Lay- 
mance, A. 8.; W. T. AUen, 0.; A. Hassett, 
T. (re-eleoted); W. N. Gladden, Sec'y, (re- 
elected); J. B. Farley. G. K.; Mrs. Lizzie 
Haseett, Ceres; Miss Lizzie Allen, Pomona; 
Miss M. A. McClish, Flora; Miss Lizzie Gordon, 
L. A. S. 

Hollistkb Gbanoe, No. 11, Hollistkb, San 
Benito County. — Mark Pomeroy, M.; Edward 
Nason, O.; Mrs. C. W. Pomeroy, L.; 8. W. 
Stockton, 8.; Jacob Parmer, A. 8. ; A. Martin, 
C; Miss Mary A. Flint. T.; J. D. Fowler, 
Sec'y.; J. B. Swan, G. K.; Mrs. Celia Butts, 
Ceres; Mrs. N. G. Stockton, Pomona; Mrs. B. 
8. Harrison, Flora; Mrs. P. H. Barer, L. A. 8. ; 
Uriah Wood, Trustee. 

Jackson Valley Gbanoe, No. 234, Ionb Vai.- 
ixY.— Election, December 18ih : W. H. Prootv, 
M.; Jas. Richey, O.; Chas. S. Black, L!; Jas. 
Violet, C; John Ringer, 8.; J. P. Martin, A. 
8.; C. C. Prouty. T.; J. C. Hamrick, Sec'y.; A. 
J. Hamilck, G. K.; Mrs. C. 8. Black, Ceres; 
Mrs. W. H. Prouty, Pomona; Mrs. C. C. 
Prouty, Flora; Mrs. A. K. Crawford, L. A. 8. 



January i, 1876.] 



La Honda Gbanoe, No. 222, La Honda. — 
Elpotion, Dec. 4th. Manrioe Woodhams, M.; 
J. L. Edwards, O.; Miss Sadie Seara, L.; C. B. 
Sears, S.; Henry Wilbnr, A. S.; Miss Emma 
John, C; James Menotti, T. ; Mrs. J E. Wood- 
hams, Sec 'y; O, J. John, G. K.; Mrs. C. B. 
Sears, Ceres; Mrs. M. Eay, Pomona; Mrs 
Ella Merrell, Flora; Mrs. Henry Wilbur, L. A. 
S.; J. L. Edwards, Trustee. 

Mancbesteb Grange, No. 150, Point Arena, 
Cal.— Election, Dec. 18th : William H. Cureton, 
M.; C.B. Pease, O.; John Lane, Sec'y; W. 
Antrim, L.; William Munro, 8 ; Clark Hunt- 
ley, A. 8.; D F. Cain, T.; William R. Lane, 
C; H. V. HoUz, G. K.; Mrs. C. B. Pease, 
Ceres; Mrs. P. Huntlev, L. A. S.; Mrs. Bettie 
Cain, Flora; Mrs. A. Haggreen, Pomona; Miss 
Ella Cain, organist. 

Mt. Whitney Grange, No. 231, Pobtbbville, 
Tulare County.— Election, December 18th: A. 

F. Thompson, M.; O. H P. Duncan, O ; O. 
W. Catlin, L.; H. S. Witt, S.; T. J. Snyder, A. 
S.; J. W.Moore, C; G. W. Duncan, Sec'y; 
Mrs. M. Duncan, T.; J. R. Graham, G. IC ; 
Mrs. E. Vincent, Ceres; Mrs. A. M. Hotchkiss, 
Pomona; Mrs. N. Crabtree, Flora; Mrs. A. 
Catlin, L. A. S. 

Napa Grange, No. 2, Napa City.— D. Grid- 
ley, M.; S. Eaton, O.; J. T. Ward, L.; H. 
Kneif, S.; C. Dell, A. S.; E. W. Robbinson, C; 
Jos. Henry, T.; H. W. Haskell, Sec'y. (re- 
elected); J. Knejf, G. K.; Ida Goodrich, Ceres; 
Mary Eaton, Pomona; Rosa Saul, Flora; Miss 
Martha Amos, L. A. S. 

Paradise Grange No. 5, Paradise Valley, 
Nevada.— Election. December 4th: Joel Brad- 
shaw, M.; 0. W. Winkey, O.; J. B. Case, L. ; 
W. A. Sperry, S; R. Burge, T. ; W. H. Holt, A. 
S.;J. P. Mullinix, Sec'y; James Byrnes, G. 
K. ; Mrs. E. Sperry, C; Mrs. H. M. Burge, 
Ceres; Mrs. Mary Byrnes, Pomona; Mrs. E. 
Mullinix, Flora; Miss L. E. H. Ward, L. A. S.; 
S. B. P. Pierce, Trustee. 

Pesoadebo Grange, No. 32, Pescadero, San 
Mateo County. — J. C. Steel, M. ; J. H. Osgood, 
O.; E. C. Burch. L.; Alex. Moore, 8.; J. C. 
Fritch, A. 8.; N. Corey, C; A. Helms, G. K.; 
J. Goulson, T.; E. Leightoo, Sec'y; Mrs. J. T 
Reed, Ceres: Mrs. B. V, Weeks, Pomona; 
Mrs. E. Burch, Flora; Mrs. M. J. Leighton, 
L. A. S. 

San Lois Obispo Grange, No. 28, San Luis 
Obispo. — Election, December 20th: George 
Steele. M.; L. M. Warden, O ; R. Davis, L ; 
John Dunbar, S.; J. C. Cloud, A. 8.; R. E. 
Jack, C; O. F. Thornton, T.; A. T. Mason, 
Sec'y.; Jas. Lee, G. K.; Miss M. E. Barnett, 
Ceres; Mrs. Bell Either, Pomona; Mrs. M. 
Burrett, Flora; Miss H. Calaway, L. A. S. 

St. Helena Grange, No. 30. — Election, Dec. 
3d: John LeweUing, M.;J. W. Say ward, O.; 

G. B. Crane, L.; J. C. Wienberger, S.; Frank 
W. Hewes, A. S.; D. Edwards, C; Charles A. 
Storey, Sec'y; William Peterson, T.; Harvy J. 
Lewelling, G. K.; Mrs. J. F. Crane, Ceres; 
Mrs. H. E, Wienberger, Pomona; Miss Bell 
Simmons, Flora; Miss Aurelia Decker, L. A. 
S. 

SuisuN Valley Grange, No. 9, Suisun, 
Solano Co. — Election, December 4th: R. 0. 
Haile, M.; James L. Miles, O.; Mrs. R. B. 
Cannon, L.; Henry Martin, S.; Chas. Turner, 
A. 8.; Joseph Cuiiniugham, C. (re-elected); 
Frank McMuUin, Sec'y; J. h. Jjemou, T. (re- 
elected); L. B. Abernathie, G. K.; Miss Annie 
Morris, Ceres; Miss Amelia Barbour, Pomona; 
Miss Ella Kittridge, Flora; Mrs. Nannie Berry, 
L. A. 8. ; Wm. H. Turner, Trustee; J. B. Lemon, 
Agent, (reelected); Miss Annie Morris, Or- 
ganist. 

Table Bluff Gbange, No. 101, Tablk 
Bluff, Cal.— B. W. C. Pollard, M.; H. Foss, 
O.; L. Y. Clyde, L.; E. B. Long, S.; J. H. 
Still. A. S.; W. R. Worthington, C; Jackson 
Sawyer. T.; M. Fertier, Sec'y; E. Clark, G. K.; 
Mrs. S. J. Perrott, Ceres; Mrs. T. Y. Clyde, 
Pomona; Miss Emma Knight, Flora; Mrs. M. 
Knight, L. A. 8. 

Ukiah Grange, No. 114, Ukiah City, Men- 
docino Co.— Election, Dec. 25th: A. O. Car- 
S enter, M. ; Geo. McCowen, O.; Mrs. M. E. 
[cCowen, L.; D. P. Cowsert, S.; T. R. Lncas, 
A. S.; E. Weller, C. ; 8. Orr, T.; W. D. White, 
Sec'y; G. W. Jackson. G. K.; Mrs. H. M. 
Carpenter, Ceres; Mrs. L. White, Pomona; 
Flora Purdy, Flora; Mrs. C. 8. Wayonseller, 
L. A. S. 

Washington Grange, No. 228, San Joaquin 
CotTNTT; P. O. Cauancbe, Calavebas Co. — 
Election, Dec. 18th;— A. A. Vansandt, M.; Jas. 
D. Cook, 0.; Mrs. A. E. BIyther, L.; W. W. 
Cook, 8.; H. B. Stamper, A. S.; W. B. 
Stamper, C; C. H. Little, T.; C. Bamert, 
Sec'y; W. Holman, G. K.; Miss T. Cook. 
Ceres ; Mrs. E. Dill, Pomona; Miss L. Bacon, 
Flora; Miss L. Little, L. A. S.; A. W. Sollars, 
Trustee. 



Good Words for the Rural. 

Messbs. Editors: — I send you the names of 
the officers elected by Table Blufif Grange, No. 
101. I am satisfied that all wish their subscrip- 
I tions to your valuable paper continued. As for 
myself, I would be completely lost without it, 
and will attend to renewing and getting new 
subscribers as soon as possible. The weather 
has been beautiful for tbo last two weeks, and 
tbfi farmers in this ntighborhood have luade 
use of it io the way of doing their first plow- 
ing on the bottom lands, and sowing on the 
hill lands. The pastures are looking fine. 

B. W. C. Pollabd. 



In Memorlam. 

Clara Westlake, Secretary of Salinas Grange, 
Salinas City, informs us that the following 
resolutions were adopted at a meeting held 
October 30th : 

Whereas, It baa pleased our Divine Master to remove 
from our midst our worthy Bister, Mbs. Donma M. 
Ohamberlain, therefore it is 

Resolved, That in the death of Sieter Ohamberlain 
Salinas Orange has lost an estf^emed and worthy mem- 
ber, her husband a devoted wife, her family a beloved 
daughter and sister, and the community a kind-hearted, 
amiable woman. 

Resolved, That we extend our heartfelt sympathy to 
the family and friends of our deceased sister. 

Resolved, That a copy of the^e resolutions be spread 
upon the minutes of this Orange, a copy sent to her 
relatives and to the Rubai. Press for publication. 
J. R. Hebbhon, 
Wm. Bamsay, } Com. 
Wm. Robson, 



^qi^icJLTJRi^L floTES. 



California. 

ALAUEDA. 

The OvrijOOK.— Iiidependeid, Deo. 25: We 
have had most beautiful weather this 
week up to the time of writing this. 
The farmers are busy on all sides turn- 
ing up the furrows with their plows. We just 
now looked out of the window and saw ten 
gang plows at work in the same field. The 
little rain that fell last Sunday morning only 
served to moisten the ground and make it more 
pliable to the tools of the agriculturist. Thous- 
ands of acres not ordinarily cultivated will be 
put to use this year. The heart of the farmer 
is full of rejoicing at the prospects of a most 
bounteous harvest now opened to his charmed 
eye. 
BUTTK. 

Crops. — Record, Dec. 25: The farmers have 
had the best kind of a time for planting, and 
are and have been profiting by it. The grass 
and grain are growing finely, and if there is 
any fear it is that the grain is growing too fast. 
The early mornings are quite cold, but the 
days are not unpleasantly so, and the season 
has been an excellent one thus far, so far as 
agricultural interests are concerned, and the 
general prospect is much better than for several 
years past. 
KERN. 

Alfalfa. — Courier, Dec 25: There will be a 
large area of land put in alfalfa this season in 
this section— we have heard it estimated as 
high as 10,000 acres. One party alone, Mr. 
Souther, has received enough seed for planting 
upwarus of a thousand acres, and Mr. Thorn- 
ton of the Carr & Haggin ranch, enough to sow 
six or seven hundred acres. On every part of 
the island gang plows are busily turning up the 
soil, preparatory to sowing alfalfa. 
LAKE. 

A Bio Lot of Bacon. — Democrat, Dec. 18: 
Mr. Stonebreaker last Sunday finished killing 
445 hog-, wLich, when dressed, averaged 225 
pounds apiece. So that he now has on tables 
in salt 800 sides of baoon, and the same num- 
ber of hams and shoulders. A firm in Clover- 
dale has ott'ured him fourteen cents per pound 
for the lard, of which he has rendered down 
4,000 pounds. 

Sick Goats. — Last week, Mr. E. O. Riggs, 
of Scott's valley, informs us that all his goats 
were taken sick from an overdose of buckeye 
bark and buckeyes. They soon recovered, how- 
ever, under Mr. Riggs' treatment, and no mor- 
tality ensued. 

[Will Mr. Riggs tell us what his treatment 
consisted in.— Eds. Press.] 
LOS ANGELES. 

Pomegranates. — Herald, Dec. 25: The pome- 
granate is one of the most profitable fruits 
grown in this valley. The trees bear fruit in 
three years from the cuttings, and will grow on 
the most ordinary soil without irrigation. The 
pomegranate is a delicious fruit and possesses 
medicinal qualities of great value. It will bear 
shipment better than ahy other fruit. It may 
be barreled up and sent round the globe in good 
order. The retail price of pomegranates on 
the street is ten cents a piece, and General 
Stoneman informs us that he has a standing 
offer from a San Francisco firm to take all the 
pomegranates he can produce at five cents a 
piece. 
MENDOCINO. 

The Outlook. — Democrat, Dec. 18: The farm- 
ers have had the best kind of a time far plow- 
ing, and are and have been profiting by it. The 
grass has been growing finely, but is receiving 
a little check now because of the recent cold 
and frosty nights. The early mornings are 
quite cold, the middle of the day warm. Take 
it all in all the season thus far, so far as agri- 
cultural interests are concerned, has not been 
surpassed in this section of country for years. 

NAPA. 

Tobacco. — Register, Dec. 18: Capt. 8. D. 
Goodrich this morning showed us a sample of 
the third cutting of tobacco grown on his place 
this season, "rhe stalk was about two feet 
high and covered with large leaves. This is 
pretty good considering the time of planting, 
which was last July. Capt. Goodrich intends 
in another year to plant five acres in tobacco. 

Chiles Valley. — The ranch in Chiles valley 
has thriven and populated till from one family 
it has grown to twenty, and all along its nine 
miles of extent neat dwellings and well tilled 
fields greet the eye of the traveler. The mill 



has been carefully improved, and is now in ex- 
cellent condition and its flour of the best in the 
country. It is run by both steam and water, 
having a locomotive engine for dry weather, 
and Col. Chiles believing that water power 
makes better flour, has been at the expense of 
putting in, at a cost of eleven hundred dollars, 
a wheel of the most improved modern pattern, 
and thought to be one of the best on the coast. 
It uses up most of lAie wheat of Chiles and 
Pope valleys, and several hundred tons of 
cereal are now stored in adjacent warehouses to 
keep up the steady grinding that goes on all 
the year round. 
NEVADA. 

Alfalfa Killed. — Transcript, Dec. '20: Ned 
Burroughs is at present engaged in digging up 
the alfalfa with which the court house yard is 
seeded. Some of the roots are an inch in di- 
ameter and they are as hard and fine grained as 
most kinds of wood. There was a good crop 
until last year, when a parasite peculiar to the 
plant appeared and killed the top most effect- 
ually. If other fields are similarly afl'scted 
there will be no use in planting that kind of 
grass seed, for it will prove a failure every time. 

Siebba Valley. — Republican, Dec. 22: Mr. 
David Russell favored us with a brief call yes- 
terday. He says the abundant rains have 
placed the ground in excellent condition for 
plowing, and that farmers are jubilant over the 
prospect of abundant crops. 
PLACER. 

Obanoes. — Herald, Dec. 25: In this section 
of country are quite a number of bearing 
orange trees, on which the fruit is just now 
getting ripe. In Auburn, Mr. Andrews has a 
tree which is well loaded; in Ophir there are a 
number of trees, owned by different ones, that 
are bearing well, also at Newcastle are there 
several trees well laden with the luscious 
golden fruit. But perhaps the finest orange 
tree in the county is owned by H. Barkhaus, 
whose place is on Dutch ravine, between New- 
castle and Gold Hill. He has several bearing 
orange trees besides a large number of younger 
ones, but that of which we speak in particular 
ii now eighteen years old, and bears this year 
fully 500 oranges, equal in size and superior in 
quality to the best imported fruit. 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Farmers Busy.— ^rgMs, Dec. 17: We had a 
call yesterday from Dr. St. Clair, of San 
Jacinto. He informs us that the farmers in 
San Jacinto are all busy putting in grain, and 
the grass is growing finely. Messrs. Frink, 
Hamner and Horton are putting in a heavy 
crop of grain. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Thobodghbukds. — Mercury, Dec. 23: Mr. A. 
C. Wright has just arrived in San Jose with 10 
head of thoroughbred horses, 7 of whicU are 
mares; also a dozen head of Jersey cows. All 
of these animals are thoroughbreds, the pedi- 
grees whereof are duly recorded. If they are 
permitted to remain in this valley they will 
be a valuable accession to our array of fine 
stock. 
SAN BENITO. 

Somkty. — Enterprise, Dec. 25: The San 
Benito agricultural society, formed for the pro- 
motion and encouragement of stock raising, 
agriculture, horticulture, etc., filed this week 
in the office of the Secretary of State articles 
of incorporation. Capital, $25,000, in shares 
of $100 each. The principal place of business 
will be in Hollister. The directors are R. M. 
Shackelford, Sam. Duncan, Wm. Eastman and 
O. D. Peck. 

Wool Clip. — A copious and refreshing 
shower on Saturday night last, remoistened the 
soil and gave new vigor to vegetation. Pastur- 
age is good for both cattle and sheep, giving 
us the promise of a good wool clip in 187G, 
greater than ever before — it is even estimated 
as high as 00,000,000 pounds. 

SAN DIEaO. 

Wool Growers' Association.— The wool 
growers of San Diego county met last Friday 
in San Diego, appointed a Committee on Consti- 
tution and By-Laws, and adjourned to January 
10th. It was stated that there are 337,000 sheep 
in this county at the present time. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

A Santa Babbara Scene. — Press, Dec. 18: 
I have brought my writing table out, this De- 
cember morning, on the verandah. The 
thermometer hanging by the door marks G9 ' 
in the shade. Italian skies were never more 
clear. Italian airs were never more soft. At 
one end of the verandah climbs a Baltimore 
belle, which grew 23 feet in as many weeks. 
At the other end a La Marque of equal vigor is 
lifting its great clusters of white buds and 
blossoms. Just beyond the old-fashioned 
nasturtium intertwines its crimson flowers witk 
those of the Australian pea. Garden pinks 
nestle at the foot of a ev\m|b'ptu8 tree, four 
years old from the seed, twelfs inches through 
at the base and forty feet high. The fence 
beyond is scarlet with the geraniums that have 
overgrown it. There the callas are lifting their 
stately cups of blossoms, and there are the 
lemon trees and the palm, the English walnut 
and the Japanese loquat, which mine own 
hands have raised. My young potato vines 
are a foot high, and the field across the way is 
carpeted with young barley six inches tall. 
The hills are emerald, and a flood of molten 
sunshine is pouring down from a cloudlcs.s 
sky. — J. W. Howjh. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Prosperity in San Joaquin Valley.— /?w/e- 
pendmt, Dec. 21: The present season has thus 



far been one of the moat auspicious for the ag- 
ricultural interests ever experienced in Califor- 
nia. The encouraging farming prospect is not 
confined to any particular locality or section of 
the State, but it is of the most cheering char- 
acter everywhere. From all parts of the great 
valley of the San Joaquin comes the tidings 
that the rains have thoroughly soaked the 
ground and that the young grass has grown 
with a rapidity rarely if ever before known, 
and that not only on the valley lands but 
throughout the vast extent of foothills, pasture 
is becoming abundant. The early sown grain 
is in the most promising condition, and land 
not yet wholly tilled could not be in a better 
state for the plow. All depends, however, 
upon later months, and should the promise 
then be even half as good as at present, the 
California harvest of 1876 will far surpass any- 
thing in our past farming history. 
SOLANO. 

The Coldest of the Season. — Chronicle: 
This morning was the coldest of the season ; 
the thermometer marking forty degrees. 

Mushrooms.- E. R. Thurber has been ship- 
ping mushrooms from his place to San Fran- 
cisco by Roney's express in large quantities. 
Some mornings as much as 300 pounds are 
shipped, and every day at least a hundred 
pounds. 

SONOMA. 

Stbawbbrbies.— .Pfaf/, Dec 17: Last Satur- 
day, J. R. Williamson brought to the office 
some ripe strawberries, raised in the open air 
in his garden— in the berry line hard to beat. 
One of them was five and one-fourth inches 
around one way and four inches the other. 

Tomatoes. — Mr. Corbaley's tomato vines are 
producing a winter crop, presenting at this 
time all stages from blossoms to the ripe fruit. 

New Potatoes. — Argim, Deo. 19: We were 
shown on Wednesday some potato vines and 
young potatoes of the Goodrich and Early Rose 
varieties that have grown since the first rains 
this season, and were as healthy and vigorous 
in appearance as any that could be found in 
July and August last. The vines were over 
fifteen inches in length, and some of the- pota- 
toes nearly an inch in diameter. Mr. Burns, of 
East Napa, has an acre and a half of volunteer 
potatoes growing, the tops of which are eight- 
een inches high. The chances ure that he will 
get a crop of potatoes in mid-winter. 

Laegk Potatoes. — Democrat, Dec. 25: Mr. 
W. B. Griegs has just brought into our office 
five potatoes of the common Red Bodega vari- 
ety, weighing sixteen pounds. All these were 
raised in one hill, and besides these five there 
were others in the same hill, all good eating 
potatoes, from the size of a hen's egg up to the 
size of the five brought us, aegregating thirty- 
one pounds. Just think of it; thirty-one 
pounds of good eating potatoes raised in one 
hill, and five weighing sixteen pounds. 

New Road. — Articles of incorporation of the 
Middletown and Geyser toll road have been 
filed in the office of the Secretary of State. 
The object of the incorporation is to construct 
and maintain a wagon road from Anderson 
springs. Lake county, to the Little Geysers, 
Sonoma county, a distance of 5>4 miles. Cap- 
ital stock, $1,500. Directors, Alox. Anderson, 
Seth Dunham, L S. Patriquin, T. H. Soper, 
E. J. Cassidy. This road will cross the sum- 
mit of Cobb mountain, from whence one of the 
grandest views in Northern California cau be 
obtained. 

Blackbebbies. — Mr. W. C. Andrews brought 
into our office on Monday a large bunch of 
Lawton blackberries, gathered on his ranch in 
Blucher valley, Sonoma county, this morning. 
On this bunch are blooms, and green and ripe 
berries. Mr. Andrews informs us that he could 
have gathered a dozen bunches like the one 
brought US. He also informs us that on his 
patch of blackberries, which is a fraction less 
than one-eighth of an acre, he gathered year 
before last 1,400 pounds. 

A Favobable Outlook. — We learn from our 
country friends that work on farms is being 
pushed forward rapidly. The ground gener- 
ally has been in good condition for the plow, 
and during the past two weeks everybody has 
been active in preparing it for the grain. We 
have heard that in a few localities, where the 
soil was adobe, owing to daily moisture from 
the fogs and the want of any sunshine for two 
weeks to dry the surface, the work has been 
somewhat heavy, but as a general rule the 
earth has been sufficiently dry to work splen- 
didly. Up to this date the indications for a 
fUll harvest next summer are very favorable. 

STANISLAUS. 

Grain.- iVcMs, Dec. 25: The acreage sown 
to grain will not vary materially from last year. 
The plowing is improving somewhat, the soil 
being broke deeper than usual. More sulkey 
and leas number of gang plows in use. The 
" Proper " seed wheat is gaining in use, still 
the heavy bulk remains as mixed Chile and 
Australian. The early and unusually heavy 
rains have somewhat retnrded farming opera- 
tions in that division of our county north of 
the Stanislaus. In that locality the soil is 
heavy and cannot be handled when wet, and as 
winter plowing is practiced quite extensively, 
the area sown, for that reason, is less than 
usual. In the adobe lands of the upper Dry 
creek the farmers rely mostly on summer fal- 
lowing, consequently their crops are, as a gen- 
enil thing, already well advanced. In the cen- 
tral or sandy sections, as well as west of the 
Joaquin, plowing and seeding has not been re- 
tarded to any great extent. 

(Oontlnu«d on Page IS.) 




WMmwm Hwmjj^ ^miss. 



[January i, 1876 



The Reapers. 

The reapers bend their dustj- baokHj 

The bounding sickles sway: 
At every stroke the golden sea 

Kccedea to give them way; 
TUe heayy ears fall bowing down, 

And nestle at their feet. 
Such will, such work as theirs perforce. 

Must win— must homage meet. 

So careless of fatigue they po, 

So true, go steadily, 
The admiring traveler on the road 

Leans o'er the gate to see; 
With marvel of the soon-fallen breadth, 

The lounging noBsips tell; 
Bnt the reapers labor for us all; 

'Tis need they should work well. 

Ere the great sun that burns above 

Shall criinson in the West, 
And the chililren's poppy nosegays fade. 

And they lie down to rest. 
Each golden spear that upward points 

Shall fall upon the field, 
And the farmer drain a sparkling glass, 

Bejoicing o'er theyield. 

Ply, bonny men, your sickles bright. 

And give the people bread! 
At every connuering stride you take, 

On want and woo you tread. 
Drop, heavy ears, and give the strength 

You gathered from this plain. 
That man may rise refrt'8he<l and firm. 

And do great things again. 

Ood b!ess the bands, all hard and brown. 

That guide the cleaving plow; 
That cast abroad the shining seed, 

And build the wealthy mow; 
They rear the bread our children eat; 

'Tis by their toil we live; 
Hurrah ! give them the loudest cheer 

That grateful hearts can give! 



Deacon Gorum's Temptation. 

(Written for the Phess by Jeanne C. Cabb— Concluded.) 
AVliile Deacon Gorum was uudergoing the 
ordeal of tho probate office, Achsy Hemingway 
had been confiding her fears of farther changes to 
the Widow Eiggius. 

"You see a widower's a widower, no matter 
how he's darned and mended," she said. 

"Don't be down-hearted, Achsy," returned 
the Widow, "I know a person who would be 
glad to have you for a housekeeper, or to make 
a real pardner of you." 

"No," said Achsy, rocking nervously in her 
chair and shaking her head — "I never shall be 
any man's pardner; I gave my promise ouce, ex- 
pectin' to have a home of my own sometime, 
but mother died and father was poorly; there 
was four little ones to bring up, an' no money 
to hire help with; somebody got tired waitin', 
and uow they're all in heaven," and the old 
maid wiped away a few unbidden tears. 

"Well," said tho Widow, cheerily, "bein' a 
woman, Achsy, I can't marry ye, though I 
would in a minnit if I could, but I want you 
to be my pardner all the same, and to live here 
with me." 

"Do you mean it ?" said Achsy, "cos if you 
don't, it's cruel to speak so. I think I could 
earn enough to keep me out of the poor honso 
if I ever worked for wages, but to feel as inde- 
pendent as you do, is more than I have reasoQ 
to expect at my age." 

"Then," said the Widow, laughing, "I take 
thee, Achsy Hemingway, for richer, for poorer, 
for better, for worse, and with the half of my 
savings and earnings do thee endow, bnt you 
must let me go to the West and stay a year 
with my son, and you must keep this place, 
sell the honey, butter and eggs, and take care 
of the hoifer and the fruit trees. Besides," she 
added more seriously, "in case of accident to me 
1 want to leave it in trust for my grandchild, 
and I mean that you shall be my trustee. Will 
you ? You are a single woman and can legally 
transact business." 

Achsy had ceased rocking, and was looking 
straight into the Widow's eyes, as she put the 
question. 

" Will I ?" Achsa repeated; then she rose up, 
took the Widow's face between her hands, 
kissed her without saying a word, and then put 
on her sun bonnet and went home. "The com- 
pact was sealed. 

As Deacon Gorum rode homeward, his anger 
at the parties who had miniatered to his'em- 
bariassmont had somewhat cooled, and the us- 
ual mixture of cunning and good judgment 
came to his aid in meeting the new condition 
of things. Although the testimony of the dead 
exonerated Achsy from any designs upon his 
substance, none the less did his habitual cold- 
ness towards her deepen into aversion. His 
wife's will inposod no legal obligation, but he 
dreaded publicity concerning it; he must,man- 
age socueuow to escape blame. He might give 
Achsy a sum equal to the interest on one-third 
of hia property and say nothing of the will. 
Would not a conference with the Widow Hig- 



gins about this open the way for him to speak 
of another subject yet nearer to his heart ? He 
calculated that it would pay to exchange Achsy 
and a few hundreds, for the capable mistress 
of those coveted acres. 

With Deacon Gorum, to resolve was to act. 
The evening of the day in which the Widow 
bad taken her partner found him at the door 
intent upon his mission. His professions of 
interest in his sister-in-law's comfort, and the 
generous provisions he proposed to make took 
Mistress Higgins completely by surprise, and 
for the moment she was quite eonscience 
stricken. Had she not for years held this 
brother in the church, this "neighbor" whom 
the gospel bade her love as herself, in secret 
aversion and contempt ? Had she not in an 
unguarded moment once said at a quilting, 
that "Deacon Gorum's soul would rattle in a 
mustard seed ?" Possibly some trace of these 
softened emotions stole into her face and em- 
boldened the Deacon to ask her to ride out 
with him on the following afternoon. At any 
rate ho asked, and.she gave a hesitating consent, 
and now had seriously to consider the conse- 
(juences which were involved in this act. 

The truth was, the Deacon's visit came so 
soon after Miss Hemingway departed, that 
Widow Higeins had been confused by a feeling 
of guilt, as if she had been caught in a conspir- 
acy against the Deacon's household peace, and 
while receiving bis confidence she had not thd 
courage to refuse him her company. She was 
no coquette, and she knew that a proposal of 
marriage was coming which she was honorably 
bound to consider favorably. She accused her- 
self of weakness and meaness, for she never 
would marry the Deacon if he were the last 
man in the world, said her heart. Yet, ;/ the 
Deacon was really such a good man as he now 
seemed, and was he not honored by the com- 
munity who had chosen him as their represent- 
ative ? She might do a more foolii'b thing, 
said worldly wisdom. The Widow loH a good 
night's rest pondering over the use she would 
mabe of her opportunities. 

The Deacon was promptly in attendance the 
next day, and poor Achsy, seeing him stop for 
his companion and drive away, both dressed in 
their iiest, was seized with a cruel stispicion. 
Was this the solution of Mistress Higgins' un- 
expected generosity to heraelf; was there a con- 
trived plan to get her out of the way to make 
room for the new mi-^tressV 

It was late in the evening when the Deacon 
returned to his house, finding Achsy sitting 
with folded hands by the kitchen table, as 
much like a visitor as possible. Under ordinary 
circumstances she would have been knitting, 
and would have inquired if he had supped. 
He hung his hat on its accustomed peg and sat 
down, while the clock ticked an encouragement 
for them to break silence. The Deacon cleared 
his throat. 

"Miss Hemingway," he said, rather stiffly, 
"I've been a thinbin' its my duty to change my 
situation." Achsy made no reply. "Yes," he 
continued, ignoring her silence, "a man in the 
prime of life had onghter have a companion — 
I alius calculated you'd have a home with your 
sister, but she's gone. She left you her clothes 
and the beddin' an' furuiter she had when she 
was married, an' I've concluded to pay you well 
for your time, and for nussin my wife." 

He stopped short, for„ an ashy look came 
over Achsy 's face. He took out his leather 
pocket book and slowly counted ten fifty dol- 
lar notes and laid them on the table before 
her; and still the old maid never spoke a word. 
She took up the new crisp papers and laid them 
down side by side, putting the edges together 
as if she were matching her patchwork, then 
she lighted a fresh candle and turned away. 
As she passed into her own room, she looked 
back at the Deacon and said, "I worked for 
love for her and her's, I don't want your 
money." »♦»'»*•««•»► 

"Beats all," said Deacon Gorum, to himself, 
"the natur o' women folks ! Achsy 'II clear 
out, and the Widder mighty onsartin," and he 
put up the rejected riches in his wallet again. 

The next few days were eventful ones. The 
widow managed to reinstate herself in Achsy 's 
good graces, and the latter was transferred 
with her chests of linen, and other belongings, 
to the gambrel-roofed cottage. The widow left 
home in the Hartford stage, ostensibly to visit 
a relative, who was carrying on the dress mak- 
ing business in that city. Deacon Gorum went 
over to the cooper's again, and this time 
brought Billy's sister Cynthia back with him, 
no amount of persuasion being able to .induce 
Rilly to stay after Miss Achsy's departure. 

It was June when the wife of Deacon Gorum 
was laid to rest in the churchyard, and now the 
October winds were blowing drifts of yellow 
leaves against her white headstone. Golden 
pumpkins lay piled against the door yard 
fences, the Indian summer haze was in the 
air. It was the hour of social cheer and neigh- 
borhood festivity, and one topic furnished 
material for animated discussion at quiltings 
and husking bees, viz., the approaching mar- 
riage of Deacon Gorum and Widow Higgins. 
The banns had been read once in the meeting 
house, and it was a little wonder why this was 
not followed by two succeeding proclamations, 
in accordance with the law. Some surmised 
that Deacon Gorum was going to the city for 
his bride, and would be married there on his 
way to the Assembly; even Mistress Wilkins 
was at a loss to explain matters, while Achsy 
and the Deacon were very close mouthed. 

The first Sunday in November came, and 
the mystery seemed about to clear, for Mistress 
Higgins walked deliberately into her pew in 
church, so unlike her former self, that u change 
of situation seemed imminent, if it had n«t 



already taken place. Widow Higgins had been 
away for a month, and there she sat, hymn 
book in hand, and no Beacon Hill matron could 
have been more elegantly or becomingly attired. 
Her brown pelisse fitted to a nicety, the satin 
lining of her velvet bonnet gave a delicate color 
to the comely face, shaded by a thread lace veil. 
A handsome "boa" of fine dark fur was wound 
around her neck, and hung in a graceful loop 
below her waist. The partridges of the woods 
were not more becomingly clothed in their 
pretty browns than our Widow in hers. All 
eyes turned from her to Deacon Gorum's empty 
seat, and when at last he came, late, as was 
his wont, he took his accustomed place under 
a battery of curious eyes. He looked defiantly 
around until his glance fell upon the Widow, 
when he colored, but the keenest observer saw 
no other sign. The two came to meeting, 
worshipped (?) and went their ways, alone. 
Two or three days passed in suspense, and 
finally the minister concluded that it was his 
duty to Crtll and make enquiries. First he 
dropped in at the Widow's; there was no one 
at home but Aohsy Hemingway. 

"Is Mrs. Higgins about?" he asked. 

'•She's about — well, I guess she's about as 
far as Buffalo, by this time," replied the old 
maid. 

•Wluit?" said the parson, "have they given 
me the slip?" 

"I don't know what you mean by they," 
said Achsy. ''Miss Higgins has gone to stay 
a year with Joel, and left me to take care of her 
place. She had some company from Harford 
that ehe was goin' to jine at Albany." 

■'Miss Hemingway," said the Parson, quite 
severely," don't you know that Mrs. Higgins 
and Deacon Gorum were published in due form 
frpm my pnlpit? Levity on these subjects is 
not becoming in professing Christians." 

"Professin' C&ristians and practicin' Christ- 
ians don't alius pull together," remarked Miss 
Achsy. 

The minister was not more fortunate in in- 
vestigating at Deacon Gorum's. No opening 
remark elicited confidence; the Deacon was in 
ill humor, and forbore to ofi'er his usual hos- 
pitalities. Yet something was doe to the min- 
ister and to the church. The broken match 
was solemnly discussed in the Friday meeting, 
and a committee of brethren, according to the 
Congregational discipline, formally waited ou 
the recusant member, to talk and pray with 
him. "We are lold to bear one another's 
burdens, Brother Gorum," remarked Deacon 
Wilkins. 

'Did ye ever hear of the man who got a good 
livin' mindiu' his own bizness," retorted Dea- 
con Gorum, in a tone which discouraged the 
committee from their spiritual efforts. Bat the 
matter was not allowed to rest there. The 
curious student of Milford history will find 
a thick volume in which the records of the 
ecclesiastical council, consisting of ministers 
and laymen from adjoining pirishes appointed 
to try Deacon Gorum's case, was duly recorded 
"For conduct unbecoming a Christian," was 
the wording of the general charge. One of the 
specifications named the day on which Deacon 
Gorum's intended marriage with Mistress 
Higgins had been published; another, that four 
weeks thereafter he had married, without tke 
notices required by law, Cynthia Martin, spin- 
ster, and that he had defied and otherwise 
brought discredit upon the church. There is 
a curious affidavit among these papers from the 
Widow herself, taken in duo legal form, in 
which she further deposes and says, she "har- 
bors no ill will, and brings no accusation 
against the aforesaid brother, inasmuch as the 
said property, held in her own right, had been 
devised and entrusted to Achsy Hemingway for 
the benefit of Joab Higgins, Junior, a minor, 
without the said brother's knowledge, when the 
said brother made the promise of marriage 
aforesaid, whicb promise she fulfilled on her 
own part by appearing at the time and place 
specified." 

It is t-aid that the reading of this affidavit, 
received while the trial was progressing, was 
the turning point in the case. If the SVidow 
declined to accuse, who would condemn! It 
was not the business of the council to say 
whether tho Deacon's sudden marriage with 
Cynthia was one of pique or affection. 

The Deacon was never the same man after- 
wards. Year by year he lost influence, and 
when "she that was Widow Higgins" came 
back from Ohio to spend money in fixing up 
the old place, when the kind lawyer who had 
defended her son took her to brood his mother- 
less little ones, and by and by found his right- 
ful place in Congress, making a summer home 
in the Milford meadows, it was hard for Dea- 
con Gorum to recognize the gentlewoman who 
presided there as the cause of his temptation 
and trial. But she made him neighborly in 
spite of himself, and one day said, half jest- 
ingly, "You are a young man yet, Deacon 
Gorum, and have a young family coming on in 
the world; why not sell out to us, and go 
West?" 

"It's a bargain," said the Deacon, "you can 
set your own price." 

What Did Twsed Run Aw at FB0M?--The 
conundrum at first seems a perplexing one. He 
was living very comfortably; and his lawyers 
seemed as industrious and as shifty as ever. 
But that was the very rub. Under their hands 
his vast possessions were absolutely melting 
away in the shape of enormous fees. He did 
not run away from the jailers at all. He ran 
away from the lawyers. They are entitled to 
the sincere sympathy of the public in their 
bereavement. 



The Good Wife. 

There is no combination of letters in the 
English language which excites more pleasing 
and interesting associations to the mind of 
man than the word "wife.'' There is magio in 
this little word. It presents in the mind's eye 
a cheerful companion, a disinterested adviser, 
a nurse in sickness, a comforter in uiislortuue, 
and an ever faithful, devoted, and affectionate 
friend. It conjures up the image of a lovely, 
tender, confiding woman, who cheerfully un- 
dertakes to contribute to our happiness — to 
partake with us the cup, whether of weal or 
woe, which destiny may offer. The sweet word 
"wife" is synonymous with tbe greatest 
earthly blessings; and well should be cherished 
in tbe "heart of hearts" that being whom the 
Infinite and Allwise Creator designed should 
smooth the rugged inequalities of life, plant 
the wayside with fairest flowers, double our 
joys, and divide our sorrows. Such is the 
good helpmeet. 

A valued friend, when in the city a short 
time since, in referring to the hallowed and 
purifying associations of home, "the most 
precious of human possessions," alluded to the 
unbounded influence exerted by a good wife 
and mother upon those nearest her heart; and 
although her loved ones may journey to the tit- 
most parts of the earth, yet will her gentle voice 
annihilate space, still will her counsels of truth 
and virtue haunt, as the sweetest music, mem- 
ory's reverberating chambers, guarding against 
the wiles of the adversary, preserving in the 
heart high regard for all that is good, and keep- 
ing the feet in the way of rectitude. And how 
will tbe absent ones yearn for the sacred 
joys and nrivileges of " the dearest spot on 
tarth!" How like a lode-star will home's de- 
voted inmates attract the wanderer to its famil- 
iar shrine, where dwells his embodied reality 
of happiness. When the long absent one turns 
his weary footsteps toward the dear old home- 
stead, it rises before him, transfigured into par- 
adise, and as it dawns upon his sight, be will 
gratefully adopt the glowing language of Burns: 

"At length his lonely cot appears in view, 

Beneath the sbelti;r of an aged tree; 
Th' expectant wee thingn. todlln, ataoher tbroueh 

'I o meet their dad, wi' flichterln noise an' glee. 
His wee-bit-ingle, b inkiu bonnlty, 

Uis clean hearth-stane. his thrifty wife's smile. 
The lispint; infant prattling on his knee. 

Does a' his weary, carklog cares beguile. 
An' makes him quite forget his labor an' his toil." 



Will the Farmers Support their Press? 

This question has often been asked us by 
persons opposed to the " great farmers' move- 
ment." We have as often answered, we believe 
they will; for it should not only be their pleas- 
ure but their interest to do so. Bnt he who 
strives to be a reformer and lead public opinion 
in any cause, however just, and aims to dis- 
charge his trust with strict and single reference 
to the responsibilities of his vocation, will often 
be sadly admonished by his dwindled receipts 
and accruing debts, that he has not chosen the 
path of profit, however much he may be con- 
soled by knowing that it is that of right and 
honor. 

The journals that have notoriously the largest 
and most profitable support are not those con- 
ducted in the interests of agriculture, but those 
in the interests of nearly every other business 
or profession. 

It is the wise fostering of their own papers, 
(hat advocate and disseminate all the knowledge 
of their peculiar branches of basiness, that 
makes the merchants and business men of our 
cities and towns so wide awake and well in- 
formed. If the farmers ever expect to compote 
in the race of progress with the other profes- 
sions, they must foster, support, read their own 
papers. 

We have plenty of men to praiso our paper, 
admire our pluck, and say our editors and pub- 
lishers are worthy fellows, but this does not put 
bread in our mouths or clothes upon our backs. 
We may well say as in Juvenal: 

" Modest worth is praised and starves: 

While vice, with gardens, villas, costly boards, 

Bare plate, and caps embossed, tbe world rewards." 

—Hoositr Patriot and Granger 



ExPBBiMENT IN ViBEATiOK.— Placo a glasB tum- 
bler, filled with water to about a half inch from 
the top, on a table, holding the glass to the ta- 
ble with the left hand, and, using a com- 
mon fine-grained tobacco pipe for a bow (tak - 
ing the bowl of the pipe between the finger and 
thumb), draw the stem briskly and evenly with 
only downward strokes on the edge of the glass, 
causing the water to vibrate. This continuous 
vibration elevates the water in the center of the 
glass into the shape of an inverted oone (like a 
convolvulus flower), diffusing it by centrifugal 
force for some distance round the glass, where 
it falls in a circular shower of dew and mist. — 
Journal of Chemistry. 

A CoNusbBUM .VxswEBED. — You inquire. "How 
can I prevent my little boy from wearing out 
the knees of his pants?" That problem has 
been in the market ever since Eve asked Adam 
the same thing about young Cain. We only 
know three sure ways: You can kill the boy, 
or you can make his pants without any knees; 
but perhaps the best way would be to get some 
other little boy about tbe stme size to wear the 
knees out, if you have such objections to yotir 
own boy's doing it. 

No other occupation is so pleasant as farm- 
ing, and if rightly managed no other is to 
profitable. 






January i, 1876.] 



Some One to Love. 

Perhaps one of the most positive proofs we 
have of the Boul'a iodependence of the body is 
our great need of love and of somethiog to love. 
Were we mere animals — creatures doomed to 
perish after a few years of life in this world — 
that which contents the brute would also con- 
tent us. To eat and sleep well, to have an 
easy time of it, would be enough. As it is, we 
may have all these things, and health to enjoy 
them, and yet be utterly wretched. Neither 
can mental food satisfy us. "Some one to 
love" is our heart's cry. 

"When the atmosphere of tenderness is about 
us we rejoice; when people are harsh and un- 
kind we suffer. We begin life wishing to love 
all people, and believing that they love us. Ex- 
perience hardens us. Our dear ones grow fewer; 
but, as long as reason lasts, we must have 
some one— we must at least imagine that some 
one loves us. The parents, sisters and broth- 
ers — that dearest friend whom we promise to 
love and cherish until death parts us — these 
come into our lives and fill them up. After- 
wards come the little childrer— frail, helpless 
babes, who need our care so much, and friends 
to whom we are not kin, yet who grow dear to 
us. 

Some have many loved ones, and some but 
one. Heaven help those who have none, 
though they are generally to blame for their 
empty heartedness, for kindness wins love. 
They are always wretched, and they often 
show their craving for Rometbing to love by 
cherishing some dumb animal — a dog, a kitten, 
a parrot, perhaps, on which they lavish oa- 
reases, which, better spent, would have bound 
some human heart to theirs. Pride or morbid 
sensitiveness may have been at the bottom of 
their loneliness, and these pets of theirs fill the 
aching void a little. 

Some one to love! It is the cry of the human 
soul, the note to which every human heart 
responds; the bond which will biud us all to- 
gether in that other world where mourners 
shall be comforted and love shall reign forever. 
—Ex. 



Right Living. — Christ did not come to teach 
truth primarily, but to communicate life. It 
was not his light which was to be the life of 
men, but his life which was to be the light of 
men. He came to give new faith, hope and 
love to the human heart, and so to enable it to 
see more of truth. By the influence of his 
presence, by the power of his example, by the 
sontagion of his lofty soul, by the magnetism 
of his love, he awakened the souls of others. 
He did not give a course of lectures at Jeru'-a- 
lem on a new philosophy; nor did he publish a 
series of volumes of systematic theology; but 
" went about doing good." This is what cre- 
ates 1 f e in men's souls, the contact with the life 
in the souls of others. Do we not know it by 
our experience? What has made us capable of 
love? What has made us believe in the possi- 
bility of generjsity? Is it not tk&t we have 
known generous souls, that we have come in 
contact with lives full of devotion? " Let your 
light so shine before men, that others seeing 
your good works, may glorify your Father 
which is in heaven," is what the blessed Mas- 
ter taught. 



" We knows the public is down on us," re- 
marked the old milkman, as he dipped out the 
desired quart from one of his big cans, " but 
the public is mistaken. In the fust place we 
put in a leetle water— only a bit, to make up 
for shrinkage. It goes to the big dealers, and 
they ain't a bit keerful when they gits to pour- 
ing in water. They sell it to the grocers, 
and they put in chalk with one hand and wa- 
ter with the other, and they are thinking of 
politics and get in too much. The servant gal 
goes after milk for the family, drinks a third of 
it, and she puts in water to make up the meas- 
ure; and, you see, when the family gets it the 
taste ain't there, the look ain't there, and they 
goes for us poor old men who hasn't a dishon- 
est hair in our heads. That's the way, mister — 
gee up there, Homer!" — Detroit Free Press. 



Who is Most a Christian?— It is not what 
man denies or accepts that makes him a Christ- 
ian. The man whose thought, temper, speech 
and action show him to be most like the Lord 
Jesus, is most a Christian. Christianity differs 
from all other religions precisely in this: that 
it makes essential, not the rites which a man ob- 
serves, nor the creed which he believes, nor the 
mere ontward morality which he practices, but 
what he is. Not to observe the sacraments, 
not to say, ""Lord, Lord, Lord," in creeds, 
not to make a fair show of correct living, but 
to be a pure and devout soul, is the essential 
thing. The observance of sacraments and sab- 
baths, and the holding of right opinions, are 
of importance in proportion as they promote 
the development of character; and good mor- 
als are the offspring of a pure heart. — Beecher. 



That cyclone which killed 1,550 cattle and 
horses on one Texas ranch, and over 1,000 on 
another, not to speak of smaller losses, may 
serve to impress a lesson that even stock-rais- 
ing on the great plains is not beyond the possi- 
bility of serious pull-backs. 




A Painful Occurrence. 



YoJl'Q F®^*^®' CoLllpjpJ. 



Before School. 



"Quarter to nine ! Boys and glrlB, do you bear?" 

"One more buckwheat, then— be quick, mother dear !" 

"Where ia my luncheon-box?" "Under the shelf, 

Just in the place you left it yourself I" 

"I can't say my table I" — "Oh, find me my cap !" 

"One kiss for mamma and sweet Sia in her Up."' 

"Be good, dear !"— "I'll try.— 9 times »'9 81." 

"Take your mittens 1"— "All right '.—Hurry up, Bill; 

let's run." 
With a slam of the door, they are off, girls and boys, 
And the mother draws iireath in the lull uf their noise. 

After School. 

"Don't wake up the baby I Come gently, my dear." 
"O, mother ! I've torn my now dreSH, just look here 1 
I'm sorry, I only was climbins the wall." 
"O, mother I my map was the nicest of all I" 
"And Nelly, iu spelling, went np to the head I" 
"O, say ! can I go on the hill with my sled? ' 
"I've got such a toothache."— "The teacher's uufair." 
"Is dinner most ready ? I'm Just like a bear." 
Be patient, worn mother, they're growing up fast. 
These nursery whirlwinds, not long do they last; 
AStlll, lonely house would be far worse than noise; 
Rejoii'e and be glad iu your brave girls and boys I 



The effective length of a sermon is measured 
by the feelings of the audience, not by their 
watches. About all the good watches can do is 
found m their always giving a preacher the 
chance to see to it that they are noi )Qo)ced at. — 
CQnyrerjatwnalijti. 



A Short Talk With the Boys. 

Dear Boys: Sometimes boys think they are 
more neglected than any other class of human 
beings, and have to put up with second rate 
things. I think there is some reason for your 
thinking so. I have seen families where the 
boys' chamber was not as well furnished as the 
girls' and where the boys were not as well 
dressed. Some one will tell me that girls do 
these things for themselves. That is true, but it 
is no proper excuse; for if large enough to do 
for themselves they can sew for their brothers 
too; and if they can fashion tasteful things for 
their own rooms, they can study the boys' tastes 
as well. To be sure the brothers will not care 
for tbe same chamber decorations that will suit 
their sisters, but they have their own notions 
of comforts and conveniences, and if any one 
can tell me one single reason why they ehould 
not be gratified by mother and sisters, they will 
tell me something I have never been able to 
think out. 

Again, we see girls at home with company 
in the parlor while the brothers of about the 
same age will shy off to the kitchen, shed, or 
barn. One reason of this is in their dress; an- 
other is they are not enough used to the parlor. 

You see, boys, I am not going to excuse the 
ladies of your home for their part in your dis- 
comfort and short-comings; but then, I took 
my pen to have a talk with you, so after the 
above hints let me ask you privately, if there is 
not some blame attaching to yourself? Do 
you habitually take off your hat when you go 
in-doors. Boys have come to my house of er- 
rands and been asked in ; some remove their 
hats on entering and some stand or sit with 
them on ; but what a difference that one little 
habit makes in their appearance. Again, are 
you careful to clean your feet before going in 
doors? And are you careful to speak gently 
and not loud and blustering in the house. Just 
these three things, boys, will make you agree- 
able, and the lack of them will make you dis- 
agreeable and awkward.— JKc. 

Carlyle's Keverence fob Bread. — Most of 
even our young readers have heard of the cele- 
brated writer, Carlyle. We introduce his name 
here in connection with an anecdote which 
should convey an important lesson of economy, 
and thoughtfulness to every one who reads it. 
Mr. Carlyle could never bear to see anything 
eatable wasted, particularly bread, and it is re- 
lated of him that as he one day approached a 
street crossing, he suddenly stopped, and 
stooping down, picked something out 
of the mud, at the risk of being run over by 
one of the many carnages in the street. With 
his bare hands be brushed the mud off and 
placed the substance on a clean spot on the curb- 
stone. "That," said he, in atone as sweet 
and in words as beautiful as I ever heard, " is 
only a crust of bread. Yet I was taught by 
my mother never to waste, and, above all, 
bread, more precious than gold, the substance 
that is the same to the body tbat^the mind is to 
the soul. I am sure that the little sparrows, 
or a hungry dog, will get nourishment from 
that bit of bread." 



QooD He^^tH' 



Little Willie having hunted in all the cor- 
ners for his shoes, at last appears to give them 
up, and climbing on a chair, betakes himself 
to a big book on a side table. Mother says to 
him: " What is darling doing with the book?" 
" It ith the dictionary; papa lookth in the dic- 
tionary for things, and I am (goking \u it U) 
B»a if I cap ftod pay shoes," 



The Effect of a Diseased Liver. 

A healthy liver secretes each day about two 
and a half pounds of bile, which contains a 
great amount of waste material taken from the 
blood. When the liver becomes torpid or con- 
gested, it fails to eliminate this vast amount of 
noxious substance, which, therefore, remains 
to poison the blood and be conveyed to every 
part of the system. What must be the con- 
dition of the blood when it is receiving and re- 
taining each day two and a half pounds of 
poison? Nature tries to work off this poison 
through other channels and organs — the kid- 
neys, lungs, skin, etc., but these organs become 
overtaxed in performing this labor, in addition 
to their natural functions, and cannot long 
withstand the pressure, but become variously 
diseased. 

The brain, which is the great electrical center 
of all vitality, is unduly stimulated by the un- 
healthy blood which passes to it from the 
heart, and it fails to perform its office health- 
fully. Hence the symptoms of bile poisoning, 
which are dullness, headache, incapacity to 
keep the mind on any subject, impairment of 
memory, dizzy, sleepy or nervous feelings, 
gloomy forebodings and irritability of temper. 
'The blood itself being diseased, as it forms the 
sweat upon the surface of the skin, is so irri- 
tating and poisonous that it produces discolored 
brown spots, pimples, blotches and eruptions, 
sores, boils, carbuncles and scrofulous tumors. 
The stomach, bowels and other organs spoken 
of, cannot escape becoming affected, sooner or 
later, and costiveness, piles, dropsy, dyspepsia, 
diarrhoea, female weakness and many other 
forms of chronic disease are among the neces- 
sary results. 



IC tlCQ) 



Tape Worms. 

The origin of tape worms is the eating of 
measly pork, which has not been sufficiently 
cooked to destroy the germ. It may also be 
communicated to beef by the knife of the 
butcher, should he cut pork and beef with the 
same knife. The germ adheres to the interior 
of the human intestines, soon becomes the 
head of the tape worm, and then the links 
grow, each of which eats and digests independ- 
ently of the head. 

To remove it, a large dose of Rochelle salts 
is given at night; at ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing a dose is given made of one-half ounce of 
bark ot pomegranate root, one-half drachm 
pumpkin seed, one drachm ethereal extract of 
male fern, one-half drachm powdered ergot, 
two drachms powdered gum arable, and two 
drops of croton oil. The pomegranate bark 
and pumpkin seed are to be thoroughly bruised 
and, witb tbe ergot, boiled in eight ounces of 
water for fifteen minutes, then strained through 
a coarse cloth. The croton oil is first well 
rubbed up with the acacia and extract of male 
fern, and then formed into an emulsion with 
the decocion. In each case the tape worm 
will be expelled alive and entire within two 
hours. 

The above prescription is from the Drug- 
gist's Circular, and is similar to the old estab- 
lished method; but a recent publiction informs 
us that where this has failed, the tape worm 
was effectively driven out by means of diluted 
carbolic acid, which is a poison for all small 
animals and inferior forms of lite. 



New Mode OF Administering KawMeat. — 
M. Laborde, in a French medical journal, rec- 
ommends the following method for the prep- 
aration of raw meat: Make a not very thick 
broth of tapioca, and let it cool. The meat, 
finely scraped, is diluted with a quantity of 
cold soup, with which it is thoroughly mixed 
until it looks like tomato soup. The tapioca 
is then turned in, little by little, with constant 
stirring. A homogeneous liquid is thus ob- 
tained, in which, when properly made, the 
meat is so thoroughly disguised that the per- 
son eating it does not suspect its presence. 
The preparation has been often given under 
the name of "medicinal porridge of tapioca," 
and has proved very acceptable to the patients. 

UsEFiTL Application of the Dog's Strong 
Digestion. — The daily papers announce 
the following item: "A Hartford man re- 
cently got a piece of tough meat lodged in 
the lower part of the esophagus, making 
breathing difficult and threatening inflamma- 
tion, and was treated by Dr. Ellsworth of that 
city, who killed a number of dogs, and with 
the gastric juice of their stomach coatings, suc- 
ceeded in dissolving the piece in the course of 
the day." As no animalhas a stronger diges- 
tion for bones and tough meat than the dog, its 
gastric juice being very powerful, it was a happy 
idea of Dr. Ellsworth to employ this for the 
solution of the difficulty. 



How to Carve and Help at Table. 

It is considered an accomplishment for a 
person to know how to carve well at his or her 
own table. It is not proper to stand in carving. 
The carving knife should be sharp and tkin. 

To carve fowls (which should always be laid 
with the breast uppermost,) place the fork in 
the breast and take off tbe wings and the legs 
without turning the fowl; then cut out the 
merry thought, cut slices from the breast, take 
out the collar bone, cut off the side pieces and 
then cut the carcass in two. Divide the joints 
in the leg of a turkey. 

In carving a sirloin cut thin slices from the 
side next to you (it must be put on the dish 
with the tenderloin underneath), then turn it 
and cut from the tenderloin. Help the guests 
to both kinds. 

In carving a leg of mutton or ham, begin by 
cutting across the middle to the bone. Cut a 
tongue across, and not lengthwise, and help 
from the middle. 

Carve a forequarter of lamb by separating 
the shoulder from the ribs, and then divide the 
ribs. 

To carve a loin of veal begin at the smaller 
end find separate the ribs. Help each one to a 
pi< ce of kidney and its fat. Carve pork and 
uMiltou in the same way. 

To carve a fillet of veal begin at the top, and 
help to the stuffing with each sljce. In a breast 
ot veal separate the breast and brisket, and. 
(hen cut them up, asking which part is pre- 
ferred. 

In carving a pig it is customary to divide it 
and take off the head before it comes t < the ta- 
ble, as to many persons the head is revolting. 
Cut off the limbs and divide the ribs. 

In carving venison make a deep incision 
down to the bone to let out the juices, and turn 
the broad end toward you, cutting deep, in 
thin slices. 

For a saddle of venison cut from the tail to- 
ward the other end, on each side, in thin slices. 
Warm plates are very necessary with venison 
and mutton, and in winter are desirable for all 
meats. — National Agriculturist. 



Dyspeptic HtTNOBB.— If a man is hungry 
within an hour, more or less, after a regular 
meal, he is dyspeptic beyond question, and it 
shows that the stomach is not able to work 
what he has eaten, so as to get nourishment 
out of it; but to eat again, and thus irufio^a 
more work, when it could do nothing for what 
had already been eaten, is an absurdity; and 
yet all dyspeptics who eat when they are 
hungry do this very thing, au,( (bus aggravate 
and prot-raot their sufferings. 



To Make Dutch Cheese.— The domestic ar- 
ticle made of sour milk, often known as 
"Dutch cheese" or "pot cheese," is prepared 
in the following way: "Set the vessel con- 
taining the sour milk on the stove over a ket- 
tle of water, and let it heat up slowly till the 
milk thickens and the whey is partly separated. 
As soon as tbe curd becomes firm enough to 
handle (before it becomes hard and the whey 
all separated) it is removed and suspended in a 
cloth or perforated tin long enough to drain off 
the whey and cool. If for domestic use, it is 
broken up, and about half as much sweet 
cream added as originally belonged to the 
milk, and salted and otherwise seasoned to 
taste with some aromatic, if desired, and either 
made into hand cakes or packed away in a 
vessel for use. If for market, the card is 
drained and broken up, and salted and season- 
ed with a little pepper or caraway seed, and a 
little butter added, so that the particles of curd 
will adhere, and then molded by hand into 
four-ounce cakes or cheeses and placed at 
once upon tbe market, where a ready sale is 
usually found at remunerative prices. The 
original German practice was to place the hand 
cheese as above made between layers of straw, 
and let them lie till cured, so as to develop 
some of the Limburger flavor. But the general 
practice in America is to use them while fresh. 

Breaded Tomatoes. — Cut off the tops of 
twelve ripe tomatoes, scoop out the seeds, set 
them in a pan with one gill of salad, and fill 
with the following preparation : One-half pint 
ot mushrooms, one handful of parsley, four 
shallots, two ounces of fat bacon and two ounces 
of lean ham, all chopped fine and seasoned 
with a little thyme, pepper and salt; heat this 
mixture over the fire five minutes, take it off 
and stir in the yolks of (our eggs; fill the to- 
matoes, cover them well with browned bread 
crumbs, cook in a hot oven fifteen minutes 
and serve with or without Italian sauce. 

Dressed Mdtton.— To have it as it should 
be, the dish must be lined with mashed pota- 
toes, the mutton nicely minced and properly 
seasoned, placed in a dish, a little stock added, 
and then covered over with mashed potatoes 
roughed with a fork, and placed before the 
fire till the little dish assumes the appearance 
of a nicely baked hedgehog. The hotter served 
the better relished, provided it has only been 
allowed to simmer and not to boil. 

',' What shall I cook?" is a short but vexa- 
tious question, engrossing more serious thought, 
probably, than any other one question in the 
world. Many a good and industrious wife can 
be greatly relieved, and many a farmer's table 
bless his sight and appetite, by providing now 
for a good garden. If you love your wife and 
daughters do not put it off for money making 
enterprises on the farm. 

Stewed Potatoes.- Take cold boiled pota- 
toes, pare them and cut in thin slices; to a 
pint of milk, when scalding hot, stir in a table- 
spoonful of butter and flour, rubbed together; 
salt to taste; add the yolk of one egg and some 
parsley chopped fine. When weU mixed, 
throw in the pstatoes, shaking carefijUy with- 
out a spoon to avoid breaking. Lot thepa stew 
for a few moments and servfit 



^j^mwm H^mAS 



[January i, 1876 




POBLIBBED BT 



A. t. D»W«I. W. B. CWXB. O. B. BTBONO. I. L. BOONl 



PRISOITiX EDITOB. 



..W. B. EWKR, A. M 



lyear 
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iOKM FRANCISCO 

Saturday, January i, 1876. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GKNEBAL EDITOBTAl. S-American Progress; 
Meat for EugUnJ, Farmors , Support Your Paper; 
Duty on Sacking, Page I.m. TheNewVear; Florida 
Oranges; Produce the Best, 8. What Trees «ball We 
Plant? Ihylloxettt 'on Vini.'^.,noot8; Vhe Gastor^Bean 
Ques^on; '^ow to Propife^^a Product, 9. Booi No- 
tices; Patentsran.l luveution, «, 12- 

ILHT3TRA.XION3.-Au»e rican Progress, 1. Yel- 

ow Rircriptj,.9- V 

CORRESPONDENCE -Tfie Alameda Avenue. Past 

anil rrrsint; A Ra\ib\tTi^hani.enre. 2. 
SHEEP AND WOOL. -cSouibing Wool; The Wool 

Mark"'; U )W to Kill Sheep, ^2. 
STOCK BREEDERS. — • How to Know a Good 

Bull, 2 
THE SWINE YAKD.— Cu ttmg Tp and Curing, 3. 
THE DAIRV.-A <'ali«omi a Creamery, 3. 
THg HORSE.- r lie Art of Breeding, 3. 
PATRONS OF HtJSBA NDRY. — Christmas 

With tJia^Elk Grovu Orangern ; Liun's Valley Grange; 

Otiristm>i3>atrNord GranRo; The New Offlcccs; Elec- 

ion of OlDoors; Good Words for the Rhbai.; In Me- 

m»iam, 4-3. 
HOICE CiaCtiE— Deacon Gorum's Temptation; 

The Good WitV; Will the Farmers Support their 

Press; Si>mo One to Love, 7- 
YOtTNO FOLKS' COLUMN. -Before School; 

A Short Tulk Willi ti.e Boys, ?. 
a~)OD HEALTH. — Thf Ettlct of a Diseased Liver; 

Tapi- Worm-i. DvHp .pile Hiiuycr, 7.' 
DOMESTIC EOONOJI Y. -How/ to Carve and Help 

at Tai>I>; To Msk>,l)ut;l^[^hee6e; 'Breaded Tomatoes; 

Drissnd Mutton; Sta wedfPotatoes, 7. 
HORTICULTDRE.— A Pest on the Almond Tree; 

Pine Appl.^ Sprouts, 9. 
UaEFlTL,INFORM/vTtON. —Will Human Saliva 

Kill Snakes; How Far Will Bros Gofor Honey; Gold; 

OiiloriuR Oik WooJ; A Proposed Insect Coiumiseion; 

Bursting of a Tire, 10. 
AORICULTTIRAL NOTES from varionn conn- 
ties in California and Washington Territory, 5-12. 
MISCELLANEOUS. -Rainfall, 2. When to Cut 

Timber; Origin of the W«ter Cure; The Germination 

of Seeds in Ici-, 3. A Practical Test, 10. 



Stitched and Trimmed for the Good of 
Our Patrons. 

Our readers will receive this lirst number of the 
Pbess for 1876 stitched and trimmed, ready tor reading 
upon whichever page they choose first, without let or 
hindrance. This feature will be one of the improve- 
ments promised in our sheet for the New Year which 
we hope our readers will fully appreciate. It will be 
a real convenience to them at least fifty-two times dur- 
ing 1876. The present ago calls for time saving expe- 
dients. This Is one of them. It trims^up the avenues 
to our advertising as woU as reading pages, and thereby 
is an important benefit to our advertisers as well as 
subscribers. It nearly doubles the value of our adver- 
tising pages, but we shall not raise accordingly on our 
rates; neither shall we allow new advertisers to over- 
ride our reading columns if we have ever so great a 
rush. 

Large folding and pasting machines are expensive* 
In the principal Eastern cities, a dozen or mote journals 
are often printed In a single job office. lo such cases- 
one folding and pasting maehine may do the work of 
all at a comparatively small ccst to each, but on this 
coast we can have no such co.operative opportunities, 
and we have to accomplish the new work exhibited to 
our readers to-day single handed. 

If this first week every copy is not finished as per- 
fectly as desired, wo will try and do the wor.i belter 
with each eucceoding issue. Although somewhat ex- 
pensive to the publishers, we believe the improvement 
will be well appreciated by our readers, whom we invite 
to assist ub in extending the circulation of the Pbess. 



The New Year. 

The KnKAL Pkess extends a New Year's 
greeting to its readers. It is a time for oon. 
gratulation and rejoicing and thauksgiving. 
The year which i» now opening is of peerless 
promise. Other years have been good, other 
years have been years of plenty, but the first 
of January, 1876, dawns amid indications that 
the year will be bettor than those which have 
gone before, and that where there has been 
plenty before there will be abundance. 

To the agriculturist who pnrsaes his in- 
dustry beneath these skies the signs are of 
prosperity beyond that of other seasons. The 
early rains have been copious and wide reach- 
ing and we may trust to-day that the All Wise 
One, who promises seed time and harvest so 
long as the world shall endure, will vouchsafe 
a favorable growth and a bounteous harvest- 
home to crown the glory of His early gifts to 
this Centennial year. 

It is iu aalicipation of such prosperity that 
wo greet our readers to-day, and while we 
heartily wish for each and all of them a year 
full of happiness and joy, we would have none 
of tUem forget that even the promise of pros- 
perity will grant its fullest realization only to 
those who fit themselves for the discharge of 
the duties which prosperity requires. Let us 
look for a moment at success and its duties. 

The agriculturist who gains most from this 
year of promise will be ho who deserves most. 
Success will crown the head of the most zealous, 
industrious and intelligent. Success to such a 
one will be an honest, honorable success; for 
true success is not otherwise. What is it then, 
to be zealous, iudubtrious and iutelligentV 

To be a zotilous agriculturist is to labor as 
one who believes his calling is worthy of his 
best endeavor. It fills his thoughts with a con- 
scions pride in its nobility. He looks upon 
the, blessed acres stretching out before him, 
and waiting for Ihe influence of his mind and 
hand to shape their productive ability, with 
Bomething of the noble glow of spirit with 
which the painter beholds the scene of beauty 
which he can fix upon the waiting canvass, or 
the sculptor discerns tbo angel in the patient, 
waiting marble. If a farmer cannot awaken 
.zeal in his pursuit, if he cannot fill his soul 
with the consciousness that it is a thing 
worthy to enlist his highest powers of hand 
and thought, then he cannot possess that zeal 
which should go forward half way to welcome 
coming prosperity. 

It is useless to tell farmers, as a class, that 
industry is the price of success in their busi- 
ness, for no school of the world's workers in- 
culcates industry like the school of the farm. 
But let even the industrious take to themselves 
new industry for the labors of the opening 
year. Let no good thing which springs from 
the esrth fail of a caring hand. Let moments 
of leisure be times of preparation. Let the 
tool house, that arsenal of the farm, hold no 
defective weapons. The busy time will try the 
soundest metal to serve its increased needs. If 
the industry of preparation be fitly exercised 
the industry of action will be half encompassed. 

Intelligence is the third measure of success 
in agriculture. The agriculturist who fails to 
fortify his zeal and industry with the constant 
strengthening of increasing intelligence and 
understanding of his business, will miss one of 
the grandest lessons of success. There is no 
industry of men which is so far reaching in its 
demands upon intelligence as agriculture. 

In the field, in the stock-yard, in the gaiden 
and in the orchard there are practical problems 
which reach even beyond any outpost of knowl- 
edge which the science of the day has estab- 
lished. In the market there are questions 
new as the conditions under which they bave 
arisen, which the intelligence of the farm must 
determine and solve to its advantage. In the 
laws of the land the go:)d of the greatest num- 
ber, that is of the industrial classes, must yet 
be given an enduring place. It is in a year of 
prosperity that the intelligence of the farm can 
work most effectually. The farmer who does 
not give this year of success opportunity to 
stimulate and extend his intelligence will be 
true neither to his calling nor himself. 

And the Rural Press, in urging upon the at- 
tention of itn reader-s the duties of this promis- 
ing year, is not unmindful of its own. It is 
onr duty to be zealous, industrious and intel- 
ligent. It is our glory that our l.ibjrs have 
won for us the proud title of "the leading agri- 
cultural journal on the coast." We feel a 



proud zeal in our work and the glorious utility 
of the ends for which we labor gilds the hard 
lines of our industry with the ^low of enthu- 
siasm. To increase the intelligence of the 
farm, we drink unceasingly atevety fountain of 
true science and right practice, and it is with 
the satisfaction of those laboring in a good 
cause that we receive the frequent plaudit 
"well done" from onr readers. 

But we must remind those who approve our 
work that they owe us their constant aid and 
co-operation. AVe have reached a measure of 
success in furnishing the farmers of this coast 
a trustworthy journal, but let our friends re- 
member that we have not the millions ol the 
thickly settled regions of the E ist from which 
to draw support and patronage. Let them re- 
member that to enable us to do our best work 
for them, they must secure for us the sinews of 
newspaper work in constantly increa.siug 
amount. As the coming year will fill the fields 
with plenty so let it extend the circle of our 
patrons. As the influence of a better success 
is stimulus toward better knowledge and better 
practice on the farm, thus it will be in the 
field of our enterprise. Our interests and 
yours, readers of the Prkss, are identical. Let 
us enter upon the promising months of 187G, 
with this assurance before us, confident that 
zealous, industrious and intelligent efTort will 
win a Hapfy N ew Year for us all. 



Florida Oranges. 

There have bo«n received in this city during 
the last week some oranges of unusual excel- 
lence. They are of the IJahia variety and were 
grown in Florida. The trausphiutiag from 
Bahia to Florida was successfully accomplished 
and wo are informed that the varie'y will be 
introduced into California. It is wise to take 
every possible measure to improve our fruit 
and we trust the enterprise will succeed. Of 
course, much will depend upon the cultivation 
which the now cuming varieties receive. They 
have been improved in their habitat by careful 
culture and they can be brought to an even 
higher development here by the same means. 
Apropos of the iutroduclion of Florida orange 
stock, we find an interesting item concerning 
the care of an orange grove in that State in 
the correspondence of The South. It is con- 
cerning "Hart's grove," and is as follows: 

I doubt if any orange grove in the South is 
so highly cultivated, or more attractive to the 
visitor. The trees are neatly trimmed, and the 
trunks washed with wh ilo oil soap, which gives 
them a beautiful polish. No fruit is allowed 
to grow on the inside of the branches, and the 
bearing qualities of the trees can also be regu- 
lated to some extent by the manipulations of 
the pruner, whose business it is to look care- 
fully after the growth and fruitfalness of the 
grove, which covers about six acres. I noticed 
a wild orange tree stump iu one part of the 
grove on which had been grafted lime, citron, 
sweet orange and Sicily lemon cuttings, all ol 
which are now bearing fruit and doing well. 
Such trees as this are quite frtquent in Florida, 
as a more ready and profilubie growth is 
thereby secured for fruit that is far mote 
valuable and marketable than wild oranges, 
the highest price of wtiioh is but a dollar a 
hundred when in demand. I also noticed a 
Tangarine orange tree, the fruit of which is 
called the "kid glove orange," as it can be 
eaten without breaking the inside skin of the 
sections and staining the gloves worn by the 
person eating it. Just beyond, on the next 
slope, is one of the oldest orange trees in the 
State, from which were gathered last year forty- 
five hundred oranges. This was a prolific 
yield, and an unusual one, as twenty-fivo hun- 
dred oranges from one tree is considered a very 
profitable crop. At three cents for each orange 
this would give the producer seveuty-five dol- 
lars per year for his trouble and expense. 

The Winb Gbowbbs' Pboposition.— A Wash- 
ington dispatch of Tuesday is as follows: Rep- 
resentative Luttrell yesterday submitted to the 
Commisi^iouer of Internal Revenue the bill 
drafted by the California Wine Growers' Asso- 
ciation for Ihe relief of native brandy distillers, 
and iut'ited his approval or suggestions con- 
cerning it. The Commissioner will examine 
the subjfict and probibly advise some modifi- 
cation. In a recent interview with Page he 
said he saw no chance for relief under tlie 
ptestnt law, but was disposed to recommend 
some system of bonded warehouses in the man- 
ufacturing districts which would remedy the 
chief evil experienced. Sargent is also urging 
attention to this matter. 



Windmills.— In our advertising columns it 
will be noticed that the names oi a number of 
residents of Watsouville are appauded to a full 
recommendation of the Eclipse windmill, sold 
by Charles P. Hoag, 118 Beale street, S. F. 
Such testimony will prove of value to all those 
needing water-drawing apparatus. 



Produce the Best. 

A city contemporary notes the large ship- 
ment of California Bartlett pears last season to 
the East ru markets. It is fitly remarked that 
only the best fruit can reap the reward of this 
profitable trade. The large and fine quality 
fruit was sought out by the buyers from the 
East and fine prices were gained by the pro- 
ducers. There are wholesome lessons in this 
feature of trade. The market reports always 
show a wide margin between "choice" and 
" common " in the quotations. Any farmer 
who has sent his produce to the market and 
had returns sent back to him at the prices for 
"common," can easily figure the profit it 
would give him to make his products all 
"choice." This is the legitimate field which 
is open to every producer. It is a field which 
embraces nearly all the branches of agricultu- 
ral production. It is the field in whicn intel- 
ligence and enterprise do their best work. 

In the growing of fruit there is as wide op- 
portunity for brain work as in any division of 
scientific and learned research. The beauty of 
it to the farmers is that it is so practical. It is 
not theory which tells the fruitgrower to lop 
off the branches of his unprofitable trees and 
insert the drafts of varieties of fruit which win 
the most golden opinions in the market. It is 
not theory which calls upon him to uproot 
poor trees and fill their places with the choicest 
varieties which win the patronage of consum- 
ers. This is the best practice. It is enter- 
prising effort leading to actual and tangible 
success. 

This is the method which should prevail 
in all departments of farm production. It 
' should lead to a must careful and intelligent 
choice of seed of various kinds, whether for 
field or garden crops. No farmer, except in 
very rare instances, should how a seed merely 
because be has it on hand. It is better econ- 
omy in the end to seek new seed which will 
yield a finer or fuller harvest. By such action 
the ground will be able to do its most profita- 
ble work and the labor expended will yield a 
higher percentage of reward. 

The same spirit of enterprise and improve- 
ment will lead to better returns in all the ani- 
mals which are bred upon the farm. No wise 
farmer will be content with " scrub " stock, 
when he can double their productive worth by 
the infusion of new blood by securing animals 
which a long conrse of intelligent breeding has 
developed into forms and traits of the highest 
value and usefulness. He will not be content 
to keep a dairy of cows which do no profitable 
service at the pail. He will not grow stock 
for beef upon whom the rich pastures have no 
more effect than the corn upon the " lean 
kine" of Pharaoh. He will not keep poultry 
which do not enable him to have a share in the 
golden harvest which eggs and birds are now 
reaping in our markets. He will not grow hogs 
which arc formed upon the fish model, but will 
gain those breeds which assume profitable 
roundness with each day's feeding. 

No farmer in this age of agriculture can 
afl'ord to overlook the advantages which he can 
secure by always producing the best. As he 
reviews his season's work he should be critical. 
He should measure each success, not by what 
he has gained, but by that which remains to be 
gained. This is the spirit which should pre- 
vail in all the farmer's operations. This is the 
spirit which it shall be onr aim to foster and 
promote in our conduct of the Rural Pbess. 
All our departments shall speak the language 
of progress toward better methods and better 
results. We shall register each step of ad- 
vancement which practical men have attained. 
To this work we invite the co-operation of all 
our readers. Let us begin from this day to 
labor until nothing "common" comes from 
our fields, but every product shall be classed 
as " choice." 



Captain Ohables Thobne has received a 
handsome gold watch and chain as a present 
from Goodall, NpIsou <k Perkins steamship 
company, for meritorious service in navigating 
the steamship Los Ani/eles through the severe 
gale encountered on the late voyage to Victoria, 
when fears were entertained for the safely of 
the vessel. The chief officer, Mr. Lyons, and 
the chief engineer, Jlr. Hutton, were the recip- 
ients of $100 each. 



Con -EET. — The private organ concert givi n 
in Oakland by Miss Delaye. assisted by Mrs. 
Marriner, Mr. Louis Schmidt, Mr. C. Makin and 
others, was very creditable to the artists engaged. 
The selections were flue and the rendering 
praiseworthy. The occasion was one of pleas- 
ure to all who were present. 

Thk great astronomer of Paris, Leverrier, 
who discovered the planet Neptune, has made 
a prediction which is noteworthy. It is that 
the wititer of 1875 G will be uncommonly severe. 
Enormous quantities of snow are to (all in De- 
cember and January. 

On File. — " Agriculture in the Public 
Schools," Prof. I. K ; "Funk Slough Grange," 
•T. K. T., Colusa; " Inquiry Concerning Bee 
Hives," H. J., YonntvUle; "Items," Patron, 
PeSQ^dero. 

Thk Detroit Seed Co., Detroit, Mich., have 
issued thnir New Floral Guide for 187G. It is 
a superior publication, and they are offering it 
free by mail to all applicants. Write to them. 



January i, 1876,] 



4 



What Trees Shall we Plant? 

Messrs. Editobs: — The persistent and long 
continued efforts you have made through your 
columns in advocating and pointing out to farm- 
ers and ranchers the advantages of improv- 
ing and ornamenting their farms by setting out 
deciduous and evergreen trees, have not been 
without result. Tree planting is becoming 
more general, and the example set by one is 
frequently followed by a whole neighborhood, 
for seeing is believing. One is struck, how- 
ever, by the undue prominence given the 
eucalyptus, or Australian blue gum, while 
many much more desirable and ornamental 
trees are little thought of, or entirely neglected. 

Now, I, like probably many others, intend to 
set out a large number of forest and ornamen- 
tal trees this winter and coming spring, but it 
being an object to embrace as great a variety as 
possible, and know the characteristics of each 
kind, as regards rapidity of growth, hardiness, 
beauty and the nature of soil best adapted to 
them, I believe you would be conferring a gen- 
eral favor could you afford this much needed 
information and give a list, supplemented by 
such comments as your experience and knowl- 
edge might suggest — which would enable your 
readers to make their selections intelligently. 

The soil in which I purpose planting the 
larger portion of my trees is the very heaviest 
description of adobe, and I should give the 
preference to those of quick growth, ornamen- 
tal, and which would thrive well with no assis- 
tance after once being put properly in the 
ground. Thanking you in anticipation, and wish- 
ing the EuBAL Pbess a prosperous Kew Year, 
lam Yours, etc., Sonoma. 

San Francisco, Dec. 27th, 1875. 

Our correspondent's conditions are hard. To 
plant trees upon a heavy adobe soil with the 
condition that they shall not receive cultiva- 
tion in the way of mulching, irrigation, etc., 
is difficult if one desires them to grow and 
flourish. The eucalyptus has demonstrated its 
ability to do well under such conditions, but 
our correspondent desires greater variety, and 
we think his taste is good in that respect. An 
adobe soil left to itself during the summer will 
kill almost any tree which is placed in it. The 
cracking and drying are fatal unless measures 
are taken to overcome them. 

Of forest trees our correspondent will probably 
do best with the deciduous varieties. If he 
plants at once and gives^is land thorough cul- 
tivation before planting, he may plant elms 
with a reasonable prospect of success. Elms 
of all kinds will have a fair chance; the cork 
elm is especially adapted to the conditions re 
quired. Next best to the elms are maples and 
the locust. All these deciduous trees give 
more chances of success than evergreens. Of 
the latter the Monterey cypress will do best. 
We shall be pleased to hear from experienced 
correspondents in comment on the points in- 
volved. 



Phylloxera on Vine Roots. 

Messes. Editobs: — In answer to the inquiry 
of your Los Angeles correspondent concernin g 
the possible importation of the phylloxera 
through cuttings from infested vines, I should 
say that the use of such cuttings would be al- 
together iinsafe. It is true that the phylloxera 
is ordinarily known to winter on the roots, and 
is not likely to occur in great nttmber on the 
branches. Bat it is now known that according 
to the nature of the vine, climate, locality, etu., 
the root-inhabiting typo may become leaf- 
inhabiting, and uice versa, that the egg bearing 
females deposit their eggs largely at random, 
in the furze of leaves, buds, etc., where the 
majority perhaps perishes under ordinary cir- 
cumstances. Moreover, a single egg is capable 
of stocking the whole country in a few yea s, 
since sexual reproduction is unnecessary for 
five or six generations. It is altogether prob- 
able that the insect was originnlly imported 
into France in cuttings of Americiiu vines, and 
with a knowledge of the habits of the pbyllr>xerii, 



The Castor Bean Question. 

Messbs. Editobs: — I see in your excellent 
paper of December llth an item from "An Old 
Subscriber," asking if castor beans will keep 
away gophers, and if they will kill cattle. I 
would refer the party to my letter of April 10th, 
in No. 1.5, page 234, in regard to growing the 
castor bean, and. I might reiterate the facts 
there stated, for I speak from an eight years' 
experience in raising castor beans, and know 
whereof I speak, that castor beans will neither 
drive away gophers nor injure stock of any 
kind. I have about fifteen acres of land upon 
which I have raised castor beans for the past 
thrf*e seasons; adjoining this are two acres of al- 
fulfa. The gophers are about as thick in the 
beans as in the alfalfa, and I cnn assure you 
there are plenty in both. I never knew them" 
to cut a castor bean root, bit they will work 
among them as readily as among corn stalks. 
My garden this year was upon land ou which I 



How to Prepare a Product. 

The advantage of presenting an article iu 
good style upon the market can hardly be over- 
estimated. There is a fine art about produc- 
tion, and its practice is profitable. The eye uf 
the consumer is often the avenue to his taste. 
Trade yielding continuous profit is often estab. 
lished, first by presenting an article in a neat 
and attractive form, and it is maintained by 
observing a characteristic uniformity. The 
fruit growers' association is aware of this fact, 
and one of its avowed objects is to place the 
fruit upon the market in uniform and attiact- 
If this alone should be effected, 



the association would have occasion to be sat 
isfied with its work. We notice, also, that the 
honey producers of San Diego county have 
formed a determination to place their honey 
upon the market in more attractive form. 
They will find their sale greatly increased by 
it. Honey is a luxury, and it must win con- 
samers where a staple food supply would com- 
mand them. It must please and attract its 
patrons. And the increased profit from taste- 
ful presentation will be found of advantage in 
other products as well as fruit and honey. 
Dairy produce is capable of most artistic 
adornment as well as plain, and handsome 
purity an'-l cleanliness, and so are nearly all 
food supplies coming from the farm. This is 
not a fanciful consideration; it is a tangible 
business question which can be demonstrated 
in gold and silver. Every producer should 
bear it in mind, and contrive ways in which 
be, in his special line, can gain its rewards. 

The Yellow Rareripe Peach. 

We present upon this page an engraving 
representing the "Yellow Rareripe" peach — a 
freestone. This variety ripens at nearly the 
same time as "Crawford's Early," and is much 
esteemed on account of its flavor. The fruit is 
large and roundish, the suture extending half- 
way round. The skin is orange yellow 




4©E^p<2^'-T^^E' 



A Pest on the Almond Tree. 

Messrs. Editobs. — Your correspondent, A. 
H. Nixon, seems to be in trouble with his 
almond trees. Some five years ago we noticed 
the depredations of insects on the almond 
trees just as he states. The tree growing where 
the summers are hot, the thfermometer ranging 
from !)0° to 110^ temperature, will be attacked 
by two species of insects, one the red spider, 
and the other, Thrips. The former is Amrus 
lelarms, almost imperceptible to the naked eye. 
When the Acari are very numerous, they work 
a fine web over the whole of the undr'r-side of 
the leaf, as also round the edges of it, aud it is 
curious enough to observe that they generally 
carry this web in a straight line from one angu- 
lar point to another, on which boundary line, 
on a hot day, they pass and repass in vast 
numbers. We think there are several species 
of the Ar.arus, which are confounded under the 
general name of red spider, as well as several 
species of Thrips, which also in its mode of 
attack is similar to the Acarus telarius. To the 
scientific observer this is worth inquiry; to the 
practical horticulturist le.-fs so, as the means of 
their destru'-tion are certain and well known. 

Acarus holosericus is often confounded with 
Acarus telarius, as they are otten found at wouk 
together on the same leaf, and exactly similar 
in their mode of destruction. The Acari in 
formation are round or nearly so, whereas 
Tlirips are long, but very small, and are of two 
colors, black and white, furnished with wings. 
We have often seen them, on shaking a tree, 
rise in swarms, settle down again quietly to 
secrete in hosts ou the under side of the leaves 
to again commence their work of leaf destruc- 
tion by puncturatiou. 

We are not aware that these insects generate 
until the summer gets very hot, and con- 
sequently by that time the wood and blossom 
buds have pretty well matured for their neces- 
sary development in the coming season, and, 
although we have seen tho foliage, say of this 
season, much mutilated by the joint action of 
these insects iu question, still tho next season's 
growih did not appear damaged ihrough the 
tppaieut deijr{d itious of the previous year. 
We think at the .'^ame time that the almond 
woultl pt-rfect its truit and geueril develop- 
ment much better without these little posts of 
nstcts, aud in order to avoid them, should 
select liu I for their growth in such latitudes 
here in California where the summer average 
of the thermomt-ter did not range so high as 
noted previously iu these remark -i. To destroy 
insects iu the open air is always attended wi.h 
much lalior and Jiffioulty. In glass structures 
the application of water through a syringe or 
hose finely jiud with some force is f-ure de- 
struction. The best and only remedy iu the 
open field that we are able to suggest is to t ike 
two bandfuls of flowers of sulphur, roded very 
fine, to a barrel of soft water, aud syringe the 
trees from the under side of the foliage. The 
leaves being wtttud, the sulphur will adhere 
to the foliage after the water has evaporated. 
The sulphur when dry will gradually yield sul- 
phurous acid gas. Thi se (uines constantly 
being given out, the Acari and Thrip will not 
L-ome near it. The application should be ap- 
plied when the leaves are fully developed iu 
size. This remedy may bo ajjplied to any 
other species of trees in the open air that may 
be attacked by this species of insects. 

John Ellis, Horticulturist, 

State University. 



YELLOW RAKERIPE. 



and all previous experience before them, the 
European governments interested in viniculture 
have prohibited the importation of cuttings 
from infested districts, aud vines attacked are 
ordered to be destroyed by fire, root and branch, 
where the plague first appears. 

With these facts before us, and the additional 
probably that the mild winters of California 
may allow both eggs and pupfo to winter above 
ground, under a scale of bark, I would earnestly 
recommend the utmost caution in plantini^ cut- 
tings from districts not known to be exempt. 

EUG. W. HiLGABD. 

University of California, Deo. 25th. 



The skin is 
rich red cheek. Flesh, yellow, 
stone. Flowers small. 



but 



with 
ted at 



The Concobd Vine for Safety.— Wo were 
favored on Tuesday with a call from W. A- 
Sanders, of Fresno county, who is well known 
for many good deeds, and especially for enter- 
prise in matters connected with the new indus- 
try of raisin culture. During his call Mr. 
Sanders left us the following item concerning 
the Concord grape, which is the result of his 
experience: "The Concord grape vine proves 
the best stock on which to graft the finer and 
more delicate foreign varieties to insure ex- 
emption from harm from phyloxera. I have 
had Concord growing beside other vines whore 
both were equally exposed to injury from 
phylloxera; the foreign grapes were killed, 
while the Concords wore not perceptibly in- 
jured. 

The trotting stallion, Rhode Island, formerly 
of Sprague farm, Tl. I., purchased by Governor 
Sessionlfor $0,000, aud ttikou to the sea coast, 
died ou Sunday. 



had raised cas'or beans the two previous sea- 
sous. Of course there were any quantity of 
volunteer beans, which kept me hoeing aud 
cutting thorn out all summer. Still this did 
not prevent the gophers from taking most of 
my beets and onions. And again, there is no 
fence betweea the alfalfa aud the Vieans, and 
my milch cows were running in the field most 
of the fall. They would feed on the alfalfa 
awhile and then browse on the bt ans awhile, 
ajipearing to relish them as well as any green 
feed, and without any apparent effect upon 
their health or milk, for we used the milk for 
making butter and otherwise. I have no doubt 
but that the castor bean itself would affect 
stock in the same manner that it does people 
if they could be persuaded to eat them, but 
they will not. I have had tons of beans piled 
up in the fields where stock, hogs and chickens 
had free access to them, but they never dis- 
turbed them. J. K. Totman, 
Colusa, December 20th, 1875. 



Bleeding Kansas.— We have icceived a 
proposition by mail which gives us tho im- 
pression that Kansas has stopped her ensan- 
giiined pores and is now endeavoring to bleed 
the rest of the country. It is an ofl'er to pay 
us our own price for advertising a lottery con- 
cert and giving us seveial tickets to draw prizes 
with besides. Wo are not publishing a new.s- 
paper for the j.urpose of promoting fuch de- 
lusive schemes as this. Wo do not subject our 
readtrs to the insult of this class of advertise- 
ments. Wo shall throw the full weight of our 
influence against them every time. 



Pine Apple Sprouts. 

Mb^sm. Editobs:— I see in the Eue\l Phkss 
of December 11th, 1875, a communicatiou from 
"T. H. M.," asking why the farmers of South- 
ern California do not cultivate the pine apple. 
I for one would like to try thfl experiment, 
iherefore would like to know where tho sprouts 
or slips cau be obtained, and what they would 
cost pi r thousand, and what would be the best 
season of the year to plant them. If "T H. 
M." or any of your nSany readers will answer 
I he above questions thoy will oblige. 

W. M. O. 

Wilmington, Cal., Dec. 23d, 1875. 



The Eight to Sukvey Public Lands.— Two 
interesting decisions affecting the ri^ht to sur- 
vey public lands were rendered in the United 
States Circuit Court on Monday. J. O. Messio 
and Daniel Bell had been indicted by tho 
Grand Jury for having obstructed a United 
States Deputy Surveyor in the performance of 
his fluty. A demurrer was pleaded to the in- 
dictment that an alligation essential to an 
offence had been omitted. Tiie charge merely 
was that the defendants "prevented the survey- 
ing of public Inmis by a deputy appointed and 
authorized by the Surveyor General." It was de- 
fective in not alleging that tho Surveyor was act- 
ing under direct instructions from tho Surveyor 
General to survey tho particular lands in ques- 
tion. The court had no doubt that the Sur- 
veyor was a duty ai)pointed official, but ho 
might not havo liad definite instructions in 
thcsw cuB-s, and iu order to make out an oflonce 
the statute requires the whole to be averred. 
Tho demutrers wore therefore sustained. Time 
was alloweil the District Attorney to ascertain 
whether the dofccl iu tho indictmeutfl can be 
cured. — Call. 



10 



MBS* 



[January i, 1876 



Useful I|<FOE\^i^Tio'<' 



WrLL Human Saliva Kill Snakeb?— The 
Marietta (Ga.) Journal was told by a geutlemao 
the other day that human spittle was as deadly 
to poiBono'is snakes as their bites were deadly 
to man. He says while picking np a bundle of 
straw and trash uuder his arm, while' cleuuing 
a field, a ground rattlesuake, four feet long, 
crawled out from it and fell to the ground at 
his feet. Ht' at once placed his heel upon the 
bead of the snake aud spit in its mouth. 
Shortly afterward the snake showed symptoms 
of inactivity and sicknej-s, and he picked it up 
by its tail and carried it to the house and 
showed it to his wifn, telling her he had spit in 
its mouth and that it was poisoned. At the ex- 
piration of fifteen minutes the snake was dead. 
To farther experiment he came across a blow- 
ing adder (snake), which ejected from its 
mouth a. yellowish liquid. He caught it and 
spil in its mouth, and it died. He caught au- 
other blowing, and it refused to open it^ 
mouth. He spit upon a stick and rubbed the 
spittle upon the adder's nose, and it died. Af- 
terward he came across a black snake, regarded 
as not poisonous, and he caught it aud spit 
in its mouth. Instead of the spittle killing the 
black snake, as it did the poisonous reptiles, it 
only made it stupidly sick, from which it re- 
covered. This conclusively shows thai poison- 
ous snakes have as much to fear from the spit- 
tle c^ man as man has to fear from their bites. 

How Far Will Bees Go fob Honey?— This 
is a question which has never been satisfac- 
torily answered. A bee-keeper once tried the 
old experiment of dusting his bees with flour 
as they left the hive, then rode to a heath 
seven miles away, where he discovered his 
white bees most busily collecting honey; how- 
ever, this experiment cannot be relied upon, 
for the simple reason that pollen, with which 
bees are often completely covered, bears a gen- 
ei al resemblance to flour, and might be mis- 
taken in color when the bees are on the wing. 
We think they seldom venture more than three 
miles from home, for we have known them to 
be in a starving condition when another apiary 
four miles away was flourishing, and gathering 
stores rapidly. It has in recent years been 
proved by Italian hybrids that queens have 
met with drones which wore known to be at 
least three miles away, but this will scarcely 
apply to worker bees flitting about from flower 
to flower; they must become weary before they 
are three or four miles from their home. 



Gold. — The New York Mercaniile Jownal 
says that in view of the small amount of gold 
in the world in proportion to the increased 
amount of commerce, the efforts to regulate ex- 
changes and pay balances in gold is as fruitless 
as to endeavour to quench the thirst of an ele- 
phant from a tea saucer. Within the pust year 
over $G0, 000,000 worth of gold have been 
shipped from the port of New York, and about 
half as much more from San Francisco. This 
country is sending to Europe annually about 
$200,000,000 in gold for interest on national 
aud state bonds held there, and for the balance 
against us for gewgaws and delicacies we do 
not need, and for the traveling and living ex- 
penses of our snobs who go there and spend 
their money because this country is too much 
of a democracy for them. 



CoLOBiNo Oak Wood. — According to Nied- 
ling, a beautiful orange-yellow tone, much ad- 
mired in a chest at the Vienna Exhibition, may 
be imparted to oak wood by rubbing it in a 
warm room with a certain mixture until it ac- 
quires a dull polish, and then coating it after 
an hour with a thin polish, and repeating the 
coating of polish to improve the depth and 
brilliancy ot the lone. The ingredients for the 
rubbing mixture are about three ounces of tal- 
low, tbree-fourths ounce of wax and one pint 
of oil of turpentine, mixed by heating together 
and stirring.— £<«(y/is7t Hichanic. 



BoBSTiNo OP A TiBE.— One of those accidents, 
not very common but still well known aud un- 
derstood, of the bursting of a locomotive tire, 
recently occurred near Oakes station, Penn., 
on the Perkiomen railroad. It was a steel tire, 
and the accident occurred while the train was 
in sl'iw motion, just nearing the station. The 
tire first struck the foot board, near where the 
ongineer stood, broke it into a thonsaud 
splinters, and next bounded thirty feet into the 
air, aud came down in a field more than a hun- 
dred yards distant. 

The Use op Iodine.— The objection which 

many persons urge against using tincture of 
iodine on the sJiin is, that the Kuiin is ineradi- 
cable, except after considerable time. If a few 
drops of carbolic acid be added to the tincture, 
says a medical journal, it will not stain; more- 
over, the tincture itself is more eflicacious. 



Fob Smoking Gbates, Etc. — A screen or 
blower of wire gauze, from thirty-six to forty 
wires to the incb, placed in front of range or 
stove fires, or grate, will prevent, it is said, 
smoke coming into the room when the chimney 
fails to draw well. 



A POTATO parer is among the latest inventions, 
which, it is claimed, will pare perfectly, long, 
crooked, unevenly shaped potHtoes with a great 
saving of lime, aud a large saving of the potato 
over ordinary band paring. It also pares tur- 
nips or apples. 



A Proposed Insect Commis.sion. — A memo- 
rial was submitted to the meeting and approved, 
which addresses Congress with relation to the 
establishment of a national insect commiKsion, 
The document states that the dnmage done by 
the noxious insects in the Uailed States 
amounts to §300,000,000 per anunm. The 
subscribers propose either the reorganization 
of the Department of Agriculture, under the 
control of the highest scientific authorities, or 
the appointment of a commission of five per- 
sons, to wit: Three entomologists, one chemist, 
and one botanist, eminent in their re.-peclive 
branches of science, to be chosen by the council 
of the National Academy of Science, and ap- 
proved by the secrotiiry of the trea--ury, with 
salaries adequate for the responsible work. 
The duty of this commission would be to in- 
vestigate the causes which affect injuriously 
agricultural interests, and to suggest the best 
means of diminishing the lo.sses. The results 
of such inve^.tig•itions should be embodied in 
brief reports, cout lining practical instructions 
and made accessible at a small price; or the 
results should be made useful, by personal edu- 
cation, to every farmer in the country. 

An Alloy of Copper Adherent to Glass. — 
An alloy of copper which will adhere to glass 
or porcelain is made by mixing from twenty to 
thirty parts of copper in powder, (obtained by 
the reduction of the oxide by hydrogen or by 
the precipitation of the sulphate by zinc) with 
sulphuric acid and then with seven parts of 
mercury. The mixture is triturated and min- 
gled with care. The acid is removed by wash- 
ing in hot water, and the mass allowed to dry. 
At the end of ten or twelve hours, the latter 
becomes quite hard and susceptible to a fine 
polL-ih. On heating it softens, but oii coolitg 
does not contract. This alloy may also be used 
for joining delicate objects which will not with- 
stand very high temperatures. 



Lamp Chimneys. — Most people in cleaning 
lamp chimneys use a brush made of bristles 
twisted into a wire, or a rag on the point of 
scissors. Both of these ore bad; for without 
great care the wire or scissors will scratch the 
glass as a diamond does, which under the ex- 
pansive power of heat soon breaks, as all 
scratched glass will. If you want a neat little 
thing that costs nothing, and will save half 
your glass, tie a piece of soft sponge the size of 
your chimney to a pine stick. 



To Deodorize Cocoanut Oil. — Mix with 1.32 
parts freshly prejlared bone black and 1.32 
parts calcined magnesia, digest for three days, 
shaking frequently; let stand till clear and 
filter. 



Origin of the Water Cure. 

The water cure, or hydropathy, owes its 
origin to the fertility of invention of a Silesian 
peasant, Vincenz Priessnitz. Having at the 
age of thirteen sprained his wrist, young 
Priessnitz intuitively applied it to the pump; 
and afterward, to continue the relief thus ob- 
tained, he bound upon it a wet bandage. Ee- 
wetting tbis as it became dry, he reduced the 
inflammation, but excited a rash on the surface 
of the part. Soon after, having crushed hi» 
thumb, he again applied the bandage, and the 
pain once more subsided, but the rash re-ap- 
peared. He inferred that the rash indicated 
an impure blood; and Ibis conclusion was 
strengthened by the result of experiments 
which he was induced to try upon injuries and 
ulcers in the case of some of his neighbors, 
since the rash in some instances appeared after 
the treatment, and in others did not. Thus he 
was led to frame for himself a humoral pathol- 
ogy of all ^seases, and a doctrine of the 
elimination of morbific matter by "crisis." 
According to this view, the cure of disease is 
to be efl'ected by favoring the activity of those 
organs through which the purification of the 
system is carried on, and, through a regulated 
and pure dietary and correct regimen, prevent 
ing further morbid accumulations. In his 
nineteenth year, being run over by a cart. 
Priessnitz had some ribs broken aud received 
severe bruises; on learning that the physicians 
pronounced his case hopeless, he tore oft' their 
bandages, and recovered under the renewed ap- 
plication of the wet bandage, and replaced his 
ribs by inflating the lungs while pressing the 
abdomen against a window sill. This incident j 
confirmed the idea and initiated the practice of I 
the water cure. ' 



The Pablio Lands of Cali- 
fornia." 

The demand (or tbis new work is steadily Increasing, 
and the more widely tbat its merits are becoming 
known, it6 UHCfuIne»s to everyone is becoming more 
luUy demonstrated. Tbu m»p of California aud Ne 
vada aloue is worth more than fifty cents, the price 
asked lor the work, and the fact that a {glance at its 
pages shows the Irading products, population, etc., of 
each county in the State, besides a litt of the surveys 
of fnited States Land, subject to the homestead and 
pri-i iii])tion laws of OongresB; a Correct copy of the 
l:nrK ijf Congress in regard to locating aud holding this 
luiid, etc., renders it of inestimable value. Orders scut 
to Dewey & Co., enclosing fifty cents, will meet with 
prompt attention, as it will be forwarded immediate- 
ly post paid. 



TuE HuBAi. PiiBBs.— This sterling California agricul- 
tural pupcr enters upon its tenth volume with tlio first 
week in July. It is an able advocate of the int rests of 
the Orauge, and a thoroughly good farmers' paper, and 
well deserves the success it has attained. — [Semi-Tr>>p- 
ical Farmer. 



SANBORN & BYRNES, 




Mechanics' Mills, Mission Street, 

Bet. First and Fremont, San Francisco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended to. All kinds of Stair 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ten Pins, Fancy Newels and 
Balusters. 36v8-8m.bp 



To Fruit Growers, Commission Mer- 
chants, Proprietors of Fruit Dryers 
and Canning Factories, 

And all others interested in the Production 
and Sale of Fruit. 

Notice is given that the adjourned meeting of the 
persons who arc intert-sted in the formation of a Co- 
operative Assfidation for the purpose of developing a 
system whereby the fruit product of California can be 
fully utilized and sold at fair prices, is called for 
Tuesday, December 21pt, 1875, at two o'clock p. M., at 
the office of A. W. Thompson, No. 6 LeidesdorfT street, 
San irrancisco. By order of the committee, 

A. W. THOMPSON, SecreUry. 



BENNETT &, I> A G E 

NO. 304 DAVIS STREET. 

SAN rnANCISOO, 

GRAIN AND WOOL 

IttEllCriA-NTS. 

PKOMPT RETURNS MADE ON CONSIGNMENTS. 
Address, - P. <0. Box 1206. 



VIRGINIA CITY SUFFERERS' 
I*EJL.IEF FUIVr>. 

NOTICE.— All persons who wish to coutrilmte money 
to the assistance of the sufierers by tile late fire in Vir- 
ginia Oity, will olease make out their checks in the 
name of GEO. S. DODGE, Treai-nrcr. anJ leave the 
same at Rooms Vi or 17, Bayward's Buildinu, Califor- 
nia htriiet. Those sending cash will please forwanl 
to the same name and destination. 

Several solicitors have been appointed, who are pro- 
vided with pass-books signed iiy the President, Treas- 
urer and Secretary. The Secretary will be daily in 
attendance Irom 9 a. h. to 3 r. m. 

HON. J. I'. JONES, President. 
GEO. S DODGE, Treasurer. 

RiOHARb Wbeeleb, Secretsry. 



A Practical Test — A correspondent sends 
us the following, which shows the importance 
of a close examination of our health columns: 
"A subscriber not at all interested in your 
'split beau' remedy when she read it, soon 
found occasion to do something for a rough 
nail puncture which was very painful ; and was 
perfectly astonished at the speedy relief, quick 
and painless heahng. Her faith is now strong 
in that remedy." This fact illustrates a whole 
class of experience, and shows the utility of 
knowledge and facts in store for the moment 
when some emergency will prove their value. 
Some do not read the health column because 
they are not then needing such information, 
but when they do need that knowledge they 
have not time or opportunity; similarly excused 
as was the Arkansas farmer for not roofing his 
house. 

Sick Headache.— Two teaspoonfuls of finely 
powdered charcoal, drank in a half tumbler of 
wiiter, will often give relief to the sick head- 
ache when caused, as in most cases it is, by a 
snperabundauce of acid in the stomach. 



A. Vortiine for Some Person 
from a '-mall Investment. 

For sale, the patent right for the Pacific Coast tn the 
EXCEI-SIOK PORTABLE FAMILY FRUIT DRIER. 
A long felt want hitherto imsiijiplied. A low prii'id, 
portable, economical family fruit drier. Can be used 
In ronuection with tho onlinary cook stove. Sells for 
$(>r..(IO to $7,^ (K). Dues ns good work as any drier cost 
in;; thou.-ands of dollars. For sale »nd can be seen 
in operation at 31 Benin stnet, near Market. 

J. W. FAULKNER, Patentee. 



GUANO FOR SALE, 
luLutM t6 ^$11. it, by 

CROSS & CO., 
31fi California Street, - - _ gan Francisco 



CHAS. H. PHELPS, 

ATTORNEY AT l.A.Mr, 

306 PINE ST.. N. W. Cor. Sansome, SAN FRANCISCO 

^^Especial attention given to ca^^ea involTing Min. 
ing, Pateat or Comwerciftl Law, 



Bl^EEDEI^s' OlI^ECJOI^y. 



PUBCHASEBS Or STOCK WILL FIHD I^ THIS DiBXCTOBT 
THK NaMSS of bomb OF THB MOST BEUABLE BBSBDBBS. 

OoB Rates.- Six Imes or !•>• Inserted in this dirscton at 
60 Ota a line per month, pajrabia quarterly 



CATTLE. 



B. ASHBURNER, Baden Station, San Mateo Oo. 
Oal., breeder of Short- horn cattle. Pure Bred Bulla 
for sale, from cows of choice milking strains. 

J. BBE'WSTER, Oalt Station, Bacrunento Oo., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 



POWERS & STANTON. Sacramento, Cal ..breed- 
ers of A. J. C. C. Registered .lersey Cattle. Oows and 
Calves tor sale at low rates. Addreeg Lather 0. 
Powers. 



A. MAIIXAIRD, San Bafael, Marin Co., Oal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Oalves for sale. 



PAGE BROTSERS, 304 Davis street, San Fran. 
Cisco, (or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) : 
Breeders of Short-Horns and their Orades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



H. F. BUCKLEY, Hopo.ton, Oal. Thoroughbred 

also ^4 and \^ Cotswold erade sheep. 



LANDRUU & RODQEBS. Wateonvilla, Santa 
Cruz County. Pure-Bred Angora Ooatg and Cotswold 
Sheep for sale. 



SEVERANCE & PEET, Nilea. Alameda Co.. 
Cal., breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino 
Sheep. 

A. G. STONESIFER, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co., 
Oal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle 
and Essex SwIne. 



B. F. "W ATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thor- 
oughbred Spanish Merino Pheep. 



M. EYRE. Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Sonthdo jni ; 
Sheep. Bucks and Ewea, 1 to 2 years old, $2U each 
Lam1>8, $16 each. 



POULTRY. 



U. EYRE, Napa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Oeese 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Kabbits, Ferrets. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, Cor. 16th and Castro sreeta, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale. 

ALBERT E. BURBANK. 43 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, PiKCons, Rabbits, etc. 

URS. L. J. W ATKINS, Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, B. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahmas, B. B. Red tiame Bantams and 
Aylasbury Ducks. Also Eggs. 



WILLIAM KNOWLES, P. O. Box 337, 0«kland, 
Cal., has for sale Eggs for Hatching, carefully pack- 
ed, from Brown LcHliorns at $4 per doz. Houdang, 
White Leghorns and Buft Cochins at $;) per doz; two 
doz. for $5 Sent C. O. D. to any address. 



Live Stock Notices. 



OA-BIX^AIV HERD 

SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 



I havejust purchased of Mr. George Hammond, of 
Vermont, three car-loads of Spanish Merino Sheep, 
(33Sbead Ewes and Bucks, 
which, with others that I 
purchased last Fall, (also 
direct from Vermont) 
makes my band of Thor- 
oughbred bpani£b Merlnog 
about 650 head. 

I am prepared to sell 
both Bucks and Ewes, of Pure Bloodel Spanish Merinos 
—as good as can be had in the world— so says Mr. 
Hammond. Parties Interested will please give me a 
call. I am ten miles from Salinas City, Oabilan P. C, 
Monterey county. 

J. B. OABB. 
N. B.— I have also Qood Graded Bucks (or sale, and 
can dispose of gome Qood Graded Ewes. J . D. 0. 




THOROUGHBRED JERSEY CATTLE. 



FOR SALE, twelve bull calves of 1876— three yearling 
bulls— Also cows and heifers bred from the best Im- 
ported stock. Address, 

A. MAILLIARD, 

San Rafael, Marin County, Cal. 



NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Clay and 114 Commercial Sta., 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

BAGS of All Kinds, 
TKIVTS*, All Sizes and DescriptionB. 
HOSE for Hydraulic Ufo. 
CA.1VVA.S, All Numbera. 
X'WIIVK for Sewing, Etc. 



A-LEX. BIJSlVEr^I.4, 

BOOK BINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MASUFAOTUREB, 

621 Clay Street. 8- F. 

8U0k Sooks Ruled, Printed, Mid Bound to OrdW 



January i, 1876.] 



11 



Agricultural Articles. 



J. "VTAGNEK., 

MiUrnrAOTCtBEK ov 

FRENCH BURR MILL STONES 
PORTABLE MILLS. 



AND 




General Mill FnrBlshing. Portable Mills specially 
adapted for Farmers' use. 113 and 116 Mission streat, 
San Francisco. 13v7-3m-2am 



OAKLAND GANG PLOW 




-AT THE 



Agricultural Implement Works, 

Pacbeco, Oal.. Ustablished in 1858. 



This Plow 1b constructed In the best style of work- 
manship and flnish, and is guaranteed to run witli 
LIGHTER DfiAFT. to do MORE PERFECT WORK, 
and to be more E4SILY and PERFECTLY IMANAQED 
than any other yet offered the farmer. 

The essential feature of the device, which is illus- 
trated la the annexed enyraving, Is a coiled spring, 
which acts apon a crank axle, turning the latter so 
that the plow may work to a depth of nine inches into 
the ground, or be raised seven inches above it, and 
the eang will work on side bill as well as on level 
grouBd. For Illustrated circulars and prices, send to 

HENRY N. DALTON. 
Pacheoo Agricultural Works, Pachoco, Cal. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premlnm OTer all at the great Plowing 
Hatch In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have b«en long in the bnsiness and know what is re- 
qnlred in the constmction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor. 
reotly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied apon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Bend for circular to 



14Ta-8m 



JUTTEBON k WILLIAMSON, 
Stackt,on, Cal. 



—CELEBRATED— 

Worcestershire Sauce. 

Declared by OoDnoisseurs to be the only 
good 8AU0E. 

Caution Against Fraud. 

The success of this most delicious and 

unrivalled Condiment having caused cer- 

I tain dealers to apply the name of " Worces- 

mmti tershlre Sauce" to their own inferior com- 

K^l pounds, the public is hereby informed that 

1 the only way to secure the genuine is to ask 

for LEA & PERRINS' SAUCE, and see that 

I their names are upon the wrapper, labels, 

PI stopper and bottle. 

Some of the foreign markets having? 
I been supplied with a spurious Worcester- 
shire Sauce, upon the wrapper and labels of 
which the names of Lea & Perrins have been forged, L. 
k P. give notice that they have furnished their corre- 
spondents with power of attorney to take insiant pro. 
ceedings against manufacturers and vendors of such. 
or a«y other imitations by which their right may he 
infringed. To be obtained of 

IIESS&S. CROSS «e CO., 

San Francisco, 




Lands and Homes for Sale. 



Rich Farm Land For Sale. 

L. F. MOULTON, of Colusa, 

OFFERS FOR SALE VERY CHEAP, FOUR THOUSAND 

ACRES OF EXTRA WHEAT OR VEGETABLE 

LAND, ADJOINING WHICH HAS GROWN 

FORTY BUSHELS TO THE ACRE THIS 

YEAR, AND IS EASY TO IRRIGATE, 

YET HIGH LAND, AND ON THE 

LINE OF THE COLUSA AND 

CHICO RAILROAD. 

This is the best and cheapest land in the State. 

Address the owner, at Colusa, for partic- 

lars. 



FRUIT RANCH FOR SALE. 

Ten miles soiith-east of San Bernardino. Eighteen 
acres of viney.'vrd. Ten acres of alfalfa. Several thou- 
sand young fruit trees. Abundance of water. Beau- 
tiful location And only five miles from the railroad. 
Terms easy. For particulars, address 

"WM. CRAIG, San. Bernardino, Cal. 



HUMBOLDT COUNTY LANDS 

And Building Lots in the city of Eureka. For sale 
by DOLLISON & DART, Eureka, Humboldt Co., Cal. 



Miscellaneous Notices. 



SAVE YOUR HORSE'S FEET! 

NO MORE BA.SrrNG AND HAMMKRINCl TO CLINCH 

HOnSE-SHOK NAILS. TfcNDKIl FOOTKD HORSES 

SHOD WITH EASE. EVERY TEAMSTER HIS 

OWN BLACKSHnTH. 

The new patent implement used is an attachment to 
an ordinary pair of pincers. A scoop-shaped graver, 
or chisel, and a flattened, roughened plate, (formed in 
one piece) are hinged and fastened on to tlie handle of 
the pincers. When tlie forceps are closed the graver 
projects from one side of the handle, and is retained 
in that petition by allowing the end of the plato lo 
enter a slot between another plate on the other handle, 
and the handle, tlius holding the graver steadily, while 
the forceps are grasped by both hands, and the grooves 
cut in the hoof below the point where the nails come 
through. When the grooves are cut the handles are 
opened, and the roughened plate turned outward, thus 
carrying the graver into a slot in the socket, out of the 
way. 

To clinch the nails after the grooves are cut, tlie 
handles are opened, and the roughened plate is put 
beneath the hoof. The edge of a steel plate on the 
handle of the forceps is then placed above the nail 
point, andhy closing the handles the nail will be bent 
down into the groove already cut, where it lies nearly 
flush with the hoof. The plate can be adjusted for 
large or small hoofs. The groove cut by the graver is 
about one-eiehth of an inch long and one-eighth of an 
inch wide. No hammering or rasping is necessary. 
The foot is not bruised or scarred. Any one can learn 
to use it in a tew minutes. Teuder-footed horses ran 
be shod with no pain to them. Further intormation 
given, if desired, by CARLES R. DONNER, 
Inventor, or C. F. 8UHL, Cor. Commercial k Iirumm 
Sts., 8. F. eowbp 



THE ALOKIN 

FRUIT PRESERVING COMPANY, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 

OFFICE, 426 MONTGOMERY ST.,S, P. 

Our improved apparatus will do one-third haOro work 
than that erected last season, while our prices have 
been materially reduced. A portion of the purchase 
money may be paid in the products of the Alden fac- 
tories. We guarantee against infringements. The 
Alden is the oldest, the best and the cheapest process 
known for preserving fruits, vegetables, meats, etc. 

It would be unwise to purchase the new asd untried 
dryers before they have demonstrated their superiority 
by at least one year's regular work. Send for our cir- 
culars. 

HoUoway's Sure Death 

— lo — 

GOPHERS, SQUIRRELS AND RATS. 



This preparation, compounded by a most skillful 
chemist, is the most efficient poison for the extermina- 
tion of Gophers and Squirrels. It is cheaper than 
strychnine, and in using it, saves a great deal of time 
and unpleasant work. Price, 75 cents per pound. For 
sale everywhere. 

ABRAMS & CARROLL, 
Wholesale Ducooists, 
^ Sole Aoknts. 




1j O O It ! 

ALBERT E. BURUANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder «>f Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, otc. Also Eggs 
for hatching from the finest of im- 
ported stock. Eggi and Fowls 
reduced prices. jend for Prl 
List. 

ALBERT K. BURBANE, 
lv8-3m i3&iy Cal, Market 8,F 



NEW FRUIT DRIER 

FCm. TPJE CJENTENJVIA.L. 

A man of limited means has recently invented a 
New Fruit Drier, which he wishes to exhibit at the 
Centennial. It is adapted to cither farm or factory 
purposes. 

Dries all kinds of Fruit and Vegetables, 

And makes the linest kind of Raisins, with less labor 
and less fuel than any other Drier ever invented. He 
wishes to dispose of an interest in it or take a partner 
who will furnish means to carry out his idan. This 
will afford some enterprising man a good opportunity 
to visit the Cei teunial, and make money at the same 
time by selling the Patent. For particulars call 
on or address 

TIFFANY & ROBERTS. 
207 Kearny Street, S. F. 

P. S.— We refer to Dewey & Co., Patent Solicitors, 
through whose Agency the patent was obtained. 



Ayerill Chemical Faint, 



manufactured by the 



Cal. Oliemical Paint Co. 



PURE WHITE, AND ANY SHADE OR COLOR. 

This Paint is prepared in liquid form, READY FOR 
APPLICATION — requiring no thinner or dryer, and will 
not spoil by standing any length of time. 

It is Cheaper, more durable, more Elastic, and pro- 
duces a more Beautiful Finish than the best of any 
other Paint. 

It will not Fade, Chalk, Crack, or Peel off, and will 
last twice as long as any other Paint. 

In ordering White, state whether for Outside or In- 
side use, as we manufacture au Inside White (Flat) for 
iireide use, which will not turn yellow, and produces 
a finish superior to any other White kiKiwii. 

Put up in ii, ^,1,2 and 5 gallon packages, and in 
Barrels. Sold by the Gallon. 

For further information send for Sample Card and 
Price List, or apply to the office. 

OFFICE and DEPOT: FACTORY: 

117 Pino Street, near Front. Cor. 4th & Townscnd Sts. 

3v9-cow-bp-ly SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



AMMONIA! 

For Washing- and Cleaning; Purposes. 

^F'ox' JSa^lo by all Grocers. 

This article is universal Uy usefl in Europe, and, receiity 
introduceti for general family use in San Francisco and 
neighborhood, is already in great demand. It la now the 
intention of the mannracturers to introduce it all over the 
Pacific (J( ast, at prices which will bring it within the reach 
oJ" every household. 

It is unequalleii for clean^inff Wonlen Fabrics, Cutlery, 
<'arpet^ .^r Crockery ; for Scrubbins Floors, Washing Paint, 
Reniovinj Grease Spots, Shampooing or Kathinf;. 

It renders water .'ioft, and imparts a deli^'htiul sense of 
coolness atter washing. 

DIRECTIONS.-For Laundry.' use two to four table- 
spooonfuls to a washtub of water. For bathing, use one 
tablespoonful in the bath tub. For removing grease spots, 
apply with a brush, undiluted, and wash with water after- 
wan. For stimulating the growth of plants, use a lew 
drops in every pint of waier used in watering. 

PRICE. -Per Pint Bottle, 25 cents; per quart Quart Bot- 
tle. 41) cents ; per Halt Gallon, 7 > cent.s. 

Also, SULPHATK OF AMMnNlA for chemical pur- 
pose, fertilizirnr, and the prep.iriition of artificial manures. 
AMMONIACAL PKKPARATION. for the prevention and 
removal oi boiler scaln. CRUDE AMMoNIA, for general 
manafacturinfj, and PURi: LKH'OR and At^UA AMMO- 
NIA for chemical and pharmaccntical purposes. 

JBS^Manufactured by the 

SAN FRANCISCO GAS-LIGHT CO. 

eowbp 



SEED WHEAT. 

For sale in lots to suit, Seed Wheat, raised from gen- 
uine imported Australian, French and English Wheat 
of best quality. Apply to 

J. W. H. CAMPBELI,, 
433 California Street, S. F. 
(Merchants' Exchange.) 



H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

I>. D. T.-l^O^, 

Is gaining a wide spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast show it to bo a companion iu 
evry family. It quicltly removes Wind Galls, Spavins, 
Callous Lumps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the 
horse, while the family finds it indisponsablo for 
Sprains, Bruises. Aches, Pains, and wherever a good 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 

fcstoolctoii, Cal. 



HOOPER'S SOUTH END WAREHOUSES, 

FIRST-CLASS KIKKPROOFliKICK F.UILDINd, 

coil. .lAPAN & TOWNSKND hTUiiETS, 

SAN FUAXCISCO, CAL. 

Goods taken into the Warehouse from the dock and 
th 1 cars of tlie O. P. K. R. and 8. P. K. K. free of ex- 
pense, at current rates of storage. Advances and 
Insurance ellected at LowJSt Bates. 

JOHN JJENNINaS. Proprietor. 



.1. D. BLAN(^!IAK, Pres't 
«. P. KICLLOGC, I'rciisurer 

I.e. STKISLIO Snn Mateo 

A. WOLF Sloakton 

W. H. KAXTER S. 1-' 

J. C. MERRYKIEI.D, Dixon 
A. B. NALLY . . . .Santa Bos,-, 



California Farmers' IVIutual . 
Insurance Association. 

No. 6 Leidesdorff St., Rear of Grangers' Bank. 
CAPITAL, $200,000, GOLD. 

OFFICEKS AtiD TRUSTEES: 

r. ()- g*rdnh;r ..V. Pre.,'t 

A. W- THOV1P.S0N Ait'v 

CHAS. LAIRD, Salinas 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa 

G. W. (;(;L'iy Butte Co 

O ,1. ( RESS15Y. .-Oakland 

x.i.,,.,. „-„„ '^ ^ STKKLf, S. L. Obispo 

FKKD. K. RULIO, Secretary. 

First Annual Statement for Year Ending- 
Sentember 30th, 1875. 

TOTAL RISKS WRITTEN )S.'t,0,-J«t,:j'yiS.< ><> 

TOTAL PRKMIUMh 03,30«; 41* 

LOSSES I'AID «4<i.OO 

No. of Policies Issued During the Year, 1.4J5. 

This association is organized for the purpose of iitt'ord- 
ing the farmers of this Slate the means of safely ii'surini; 
afiamst loss Ijy tire, at noiual oust of iusuraucc, without 
being coniiected with city risks. 

FARJMEK,!^' xjrviorsf. 

SnCCESSOBTO A. Pl'ISTEB & Co., 

Cor. Second and Santa Clara Sts , San Jose. 
CAPITAL, --..-.--- $100,000. 

WM ERKSON PRKSIDENT 

H. E. HILLS MANA(iEB 

Directors:— Wm Erkson, L. ¥. Chipman. Horace Little 
■I- P- Duilley, David (Campbell, James Singleton, Thomas 
E. Snell. O. T. Settle, E. A. liraley. 

Will do a General Meroantile Business, also receive De- 
po,sits, on which such iniereat will be allowed as may be 
agreed upon, and make Loans upon aDProved securitv. 

Union Box Factory, 

GEO. W. SWAN & CO., 

115 and 116 Spear St., bet. Mission & Howard 
SAN FKANCISCO. 



Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Cherry, Grape, 

Orange, Lime and Wino Cases. 

Tomato, Potato , Fig and Raisin Boxes. 
Strawberry, Raspberry and BlaokbiTrv tJhests 

and Drawers, and Baskets for all kinds of Berries. 
Peach and Picking Bas-kets, Butter Che.sts and 

Boxes, Cheese Boxes, Square and Hound Egg Carritrs. 

Drums for Figs, Cherries, Raisins, and for 

other Dried Fruits. 

Free Packages— Boxes not to be returned — a 

good article, costing less than Sawed Boxes. 
Lard Caddies, Coffee and Fruit Caddies. 
Turkey and Chicken Coops, Bee-Hivos, Etc. 

Packing Boxes for DryGooods, Cigars, Can- 
dies, Candied Fruits, Honey, Maccaroui, Crackers, 
Sugar, Soap, Boots, Etc, 

In fact, every style of Boxes manufactured in 
the Union, and turned out in the Best Style at Favor 
able Prices. Orders from the country well attended to 



MICROSCOPES AGAIN. 

,Just arrived, anotlior lot of Microscopes, only more kinds 
and niore„o( them, as follows: 

No. 1. A lianflv little brass moun'ed Microscope, very 
powerful for the. -ize; just the thing for everyhody to 
have in their waistc'iat pocket, to increase their field of 
vision from twenly-tive to tiftv times, whether a tinv 
flower or blasted gruin; it is good for either. Sent for 
one dollar poslai-'e stamps or currency. 

No. 'i. A two.siory Microscoiie, not ill size but simply hav- 
ing an uuil-r story, put in to raise up the upjicr stnrv, 
which is enclo-id in glass. The top ciiu he taken oil 
iinila>mall objc -I, like a Ilea or lly. can be dropped in. 
Aboutas iPowerfulasNo. 1. .Sent free to any address 
foronfi dollar, postage stamps or currency. 

No. 3. Much larger, and is also enclosi'd in glass. Too 
lart'e for the pocket. These last have from ten to one 
hundred, more or less, mounted objects, consisting of 
bugs, shells, grain, moss, etc. The top of this al-o comes 
oil and a ticacan lie dropned in , wliieli will make it very 
large, showing its rings, looking som^wliai like an arma- 
dillo loose in a fairy palace. Sent free to any address for 
two dollars, postage stamps or currency , Address 

CHAS. P. KIMBALL, 

513 Hayes Street, San Francisco. 



LEA & PERRINS' 



CKI.KHUATEl 



WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE, 

DECL.vKED BY CONNOISSEURS TO UK 

THE ONLY GOOD SAUCE. 

/n consequence of Spurious hnilaltoiis of 

Lea & Perrins SaiLce, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, 
x^EA y PERRINS have adopted 

A New Label, 

bearitig their Signature, thus — 

ivhich ivill be placed on every bottle of 

Worcestershire Sauce, 

after this date, and ivithout which none 

is genuine. 

November 1874. 

*jf.* This does not apply to shipments 

made prior to the date given. 

Ask for LEA ^ PERRINS' Sauce, 
and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle 
and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the 
Proprietors, Worcester; Crossel^ Blackwell, 
London, iZc, (sfc. ; and by Grocers and 
Oilmen throughout the World. 



No AoENTs are anthorizcd to receive subscriptlonii (or 
tbU paper at less tlisn oui adToitigud rates. 



12 



[January i, 1876 



(Continued from Fag-e 6.) 



TULARE. 

Grain. — ri»((fs, Dec. 25: There will be by 
far a larger crop of grain sown in this cunnty 
than ever before. The prosperts are flattering 
for rain, and there will be over 50, OuO acres 
irrigattd in this county this year, which will be 
sure to yield a large crop. The future of onr 
county is great. 
VENTURA. 

Blossoms. — Signal, Dec. 18: Peach and 
almond trees are in bloom. M. Gra», of Santa 
Piiulft, hopes, by protecting some of the trees 
in bloom, to have early fruit. 

Santa Paula.— It was with pleasure that we 
accepted an invitation to visit the home place 
of our friend Sewell. of Santa Paula, one day 
during the week. Wo found that since last 
year his great grove of blue gums, the largest 
in the county, had grown wonderfully. Some 
of bis trees are now over forty feet high and 
six inches in diameter. These are only three 
ypars old from the seed. Next to Mr. Sewell 's 
place iw Clark and Blanchard's young orauge 
orchard of 100 acres, which looks thrifty, as if 
well cared for. In hastily passing through 
Sinta Paula we noticed many new business 
houses and residences. The town is evidently 
flourishing, and bids fair to become a city of 
no little importance. There is is no question 
now but thnt the orange, lemon and lime, and 
nil the semi-tiopieal fruits will grow to per- 
fection thtre. The experience of M^s.-^rs. 
Haines, Todd, Gries and others, is amply sufS- 
cient to demonstrate the fact. Three years 
since land near Santa Paula could have been 
purchiised for S'25 per acre; now it is worth 
Irom $oi) to $75, aiid rapidly lising. Those 
who would secure homes in this lovely locality 
shiiuld do so at once. It is just far enough 
from the sea. All the rough winds and heavy 
fo^s are escaped. 
YOLO. 

Gbain Pbospkct. — iJemoural, Dec. 24: The 
eiirlv grain is all that cuuld be desired up to 
this point in the season. The summer-fallowed 
that was sown before the rains and also the 
volunteer wheat is looking very tine— ihick and 
even on the around and of a dark green color. 
So far everything bids fair for a very favorable 
harve-t next summer. 

Tall Whkat.— .WaiZ, Dec. 21: H. M. Chs- 
silis, of Wtat G'aflon township, Yolo county, 
pulled a sample bunch of wheat from a field of 
volunteer, last week, which uica.sured nine and 
one haif inches above ground. The buueh 
taken from this tield was a s:imple of the 
whole, which i.s said to be very even in growth 
Beports from that part of the country are very 
flattering as regards the coming crops. The 
urea which will be covered with wheat tlie 
coming aensou is simply immense. 

Washington Territory. 

Inckka.skd Ttadk. — Uuica: The sbipiUent of 
valley produce still continues as rapidly as the 
stenmer can lake it down the river. We notice 
of lute that the amount ot flour shipment is 
increasing, while the shipment of wheat must 
of course decrease to some extent, not for the 
wunt of any amount of wheat to ship, Viut for 
the lack of river transportation. The flour 
mad« here is nearly all shipped out of the 
country as fast as it is made, and as a conse- 
iiucnce there is but very little on hand. 



New Books. 

Vice's Flobal Gdide. — We have received a 
copy of Vick's Floral Guide for 187G It is an 
excellent publication, and is praiseworthy in 
many wavs. It is replete with new faets con- 
cerning flowers and voaetablcs, and with in- 
structions concerning their culture. Among 
the most interesting topics we noiice an illus- 
trated essay on mushroom growing, and an- 
other concerning berry-bearing plants which 
are used for decorations. Mr. Vick al-io gives 
an entertaining account of his recent visit to 
the YoBemite valley. The Floral Guide is 
published lit twenty-live cents a year, and may 
be obtained by addressing .James Vick, Roches- 
ter, New Y'ork. 

Ckofltt's Gl'idk — The typical illustration, 
"Wes-twaid Ilo," which wo print elsewhere this 
week, was designed for Orofntt's (iiiide for the 
Overland Trip. Mr. Crol'utt's publicilion has 
met a hirge sale, and is the stiindard work in its 
class. It 18 purchasable from the train boys 
on the overland irtins. 

Pbicks in Mkndocino Co.— Rainfall up to 
Dec. 2.')lh, fourteen and a half inches. Scarcely 
any frost at all, no damage done; grain growing 
finely — a large breadth sown. Considerable 
old grain on hand. Uny scarce and com- 
mands S20 per ton. Hogs, five cents on foot; 
bacon, fourteen cents from the wagon, eighteen 
cents from store. Tnxes, §1.85 ptr $10U. In- 
teri St, one and a quavter per cent, per month, 
p:i) able quarterly. Sheep in good order and 
some lambs diopped in small bands. Mutton 
sheep, $2 25 ; beef, six and a half cents. Retail 
from shops, eight to twelve and a half cents. 
Cabbage, four cents retail. A. O. C. 

Ukiah, Dec. 25th. 

Pr.ospKRiTY IN Sonoma. — Messrs. Editors: 
Wo hiive had a beautiful winter, so far. Farmers 
ttre plowing and sowing grain. Wtather warm 
and pleasant. No frost yet to kill tomatoes. 
Voluuteej- potatoes nearly in blossom, and 
plrnty (f green feed for stock on the hills. We 
have had suflicient rain to insure a full crop, 
and farmers are jubilnnt. W. A. Gi..u)den. 

Healdsburg, Dec. 27th, 1875. 



General News Items. 

Thk Supervisors have refused to cede Union 
square for a postofliuo site. 

United States troops are en route for the 
Southern frontier. 

Moody and Sankev are to bo invited to this 
coast by the Ministerial Union. 

The "Commercial Bank'' of this city sus- 
pended on presentation of a check for §800. 

The Board of Underwriters of this city have 
petitioned the Supervisors to extend tlie fire 
limits. 

MouLTON has instituted another suit against, 
Beecher for malicious prosecution, setting the 
damages at $50,000. 

Captain James Towle has been re-appointed 
by the State Prison Commissioners Captain of 
the Prison Guard. 

The annual election of oflSoers of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences will take place on 
Monday, January 3d, 1876. 

An eighty-hour trip from New York to San 
Francisco is contemplated. Three days and a 
third will be pretty good time. 

Cai't. W. F. Swasey, the first Marshal ot 
California, has been appointed United States 
Marshal of Wyoming Territory. 

A great battle has been fought between the 
government troops and insurgents at the seat 
of war in Herzegovina. 

President Grant has signed the bill further 
extending the time of duration of the Court of 
Commissioners of Alabama Claims to the 22d 
of July next. 

One of the keepers of Queen's menagerie 
at San L'andro, came neirly being annihilated, 
recently, by the infuriated mother of a cub 
lion. 

The Pacific mills, Lawrence, Mass., an- 
nounce a reduction of from 10 to 15 per cent., 
in wages after January Isl, owing to tho de- 
pression in the price of print cloths. 

In the Louisiana State lottery. No. 16,709 
drew $50,000 and No. 2,249 drew §20.(100. 

Hknry C Bowes, who sued the Brooklyn 
Eaule fur libel, $100,000 damages, has been 
awarded $1,000 damages. 

There has been received a formal acceptance 
by the Pope of an invititi m Dy the Centennial 
autht>rilieB requesting him to give his recogni- 
tion to the enterprise by a contribution of art 
from the galleries of the Vatican. 

The Three Brothers sailed Friday for Liver- 
pool, carrying a cargo of 8.960,000 pounds, or 
4,480 tons, of which 4,410 tons were wheat. 
On her first trip, October 23d, 1.^73, she carried 
4,366^ tons iiad on the second trip. December 
28, 1874, she ha I on board 4,480 tons of 
wheat. 

Mbk. Alvisza Haywabd sues for a divorce 
from her husband, Aivinza Hayward, the capi- 
talist, on the ground of deser.ion. The answer 
to the complaint makes no denials, and joins 
with the prayer of the plainlifl' to divide the 
common property — estimated at $10,000,000. 

Thkeb miners were killed by a snow slide at 
Little Cottonwood, Utah, on Monday last. One 
of them was J imes O. Moore, superintenddut 
of the Highland Cbief mine. 



Patents & 1nvention& 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents lu 
sued to Paoifto Coast Inventors. 



Fbom Official Kepobts fob the Minino and Scikn 
Tine: PBE8B, DEWEY & 00., Publikhbrs ahd 

U. 8. AND FOBKIQN PaTEHT AaKNTB.) 

By Special Dispatch, Dated Washlnirtoi), 
D. O., Dec. 23th, 1875. 

Fob Week Ending December Mth, 1875." 

Slkepinci Cabs. - Joseph Bolt, Benicia, Cal. 
Gas Holders.— Louis Mirks, S. F., Cal. 
Watch Cle,\nino Fluid.— August Monnier, 

Sacramento, Cal. 
TiLxiNd Dbawkr. — William S. Moses, S. F., 

Cal. 
Revek<-ible Center Pinions fob W.itche8. — 

Frank E. Smith, San Jose, Cal. 
PKiNTiNd Photogkai'Hs. — Benjamin Swasey, 

S. K.,Cal. 
Clutch. Allnd Swingle, S. F., Cal. 
DounLE Acting Pump. — Louis Bouricr, San 

Jose, Cal. 
Lifting J.ick.— Alexander Duncan, Duncan 

Mills, Cal. 
HAiiNEss FOR FiBE EsaisEs, ETC.— Edward 0. 

tS jllivau. S. F., Cal. 

The patents are not read; for delivery by tbe 

Patent Office until some 14 daye after tbe date of issue. 
Note. — Copies of C. 8. aud Foreign Patents famisbed 
by Dewey & Co., in tbe shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
baaiuesB for Pacific coast Inventors transacted wltk 
perlect security and tu the shortest Dosnible time. 



A COMPLIMNT. 

Plaixsbcbh. Mehckd Co Cal., .June 22, 1874. 

Dkwey k Co. — GerUlcmf.n : I herewith tender my 
graUtiil ackiiowludgements for the energy, promptness 
iinil ctliiieiiry which you hav< displayed in procuring 
uiy patent. 

Alth<ju^(h yon were entire Ptrangers to me when I 
lirst >'oinn)uuieat«il with you, I soon lilt satislied you 
were gentlemen of integrity, aud shall always be happy 
to represent you as such. Very truly yours, 

H. W. ULCKEU, M. D. 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

For l.S7«. 

BETTER AND BETTER. 



Wliile we canoet promise to labor any more faith- 
fully or earnestly for our readers in the future than we 
havo in the past, we shall endeavor to make the Pbess 
MORE COJIPLETE IN ALL ITS DEPARTMENTS. 

Its Editorials, 

Will be written by able and conscientious writers, aud 
with such -judgment and eare as to render the journal 
of the highest usefulness to its readers, and to the per- 
nmi.<iit welfare of the new and progressive community 
its tuliiiiius especially represent. 

New Editorial Talent 

Has been enga<;ed to work in co-operation with the 
senior editor of the Rural and other ansistauts, in 
extending forward some of its important branches. 

The Live Stock 

Departments— Including the horse, homed stock, 
sheep, goat, swine and poultry interests— will receive 
constant attention, and our researches for reliable in. 
f'ormation, wiiieh shall be of practical use to our Oi-ci- 
duntal readers, shall not be limited to any narrow 
sphere. 

The Dairying Trade 

Of this coast is yet In small dimension to what it 
might and should be — to what It is destined soon to 
be. Intelligent experience; careful experiments; the 
ditiseminatlon of demonstrated facts m regard to the 
best breeds of stock; inrormation of the best grasHes 
for pasturai^e for all seasons; the best machines and 
methods fnr manufacturing; hints for marketing, etc., 
will be some of the subjvcts Co be treated in an earnett 
way in our-C'thimns, that the KcaAL Press niay well do 
its share in a'lvancing one of the most i>romi8ing in- 
dustries of tbe c«ast. 

Our Correspondents 

Number some of the ablest domestic w: iters m the 
Union, and we are proud to say we would not exchange 
their eo-opyrutive pens for those of any other corps 
of newspaper correspondents. They aro nnt only 
friends at heart of our paper, but of the true cause of 
progressive manhood aud woruanhood everywhere. Our 
sources of 

Fresh Information 

Are not e<iual|ed by those of any other agricultural 
journal in tlio United States, and making the Iwst use 
possible of our facilities, we are determined that every 
issuH of the Rural Press for 1878 shall teem with 
a choice and well dressed variety of desirable informa- 
tion. Tile pursuit of 

Floriculture and Horticulture 

On the Pacific slope presents a field of delightful study 
more prolific in novelty and fiuirful in preflts than 
awaits the student and laborer in any other portion of 
the jrlobc. Wo tru«t to exchange valuable hints with 
our Horistf, vineyardists and fruit growers throughout 
the Pacific States. 

Our Home Circle department will contain none other 
than 

Chaste Literature 

In pleasing variety, calculated to amuse, instruct and 
elevate both th» young and old boys nnd girls, who 
may turn to its colunius for pastime and self-improve- 
ment. 

Our Illustrations 

Will be numerous and calcnlat-d to please *he eye and 
h>lp the mind to see quickly and correctly many im- 
portant objects that mi -ht otherwise pass their knowl- 
edgf . Some of them will enihlo farmers to see and 
c^uitrast for themselves many kinds of new and impor. 
taut machines and implements. This illustrated fea- 
ture of our pnper, although expensive to its publishers, 
is an important one to rural readers — especially in a 
new and rapidly developing country. 

The Mind and Health 

Of the readers ff tbe Riral will be eared for in our 
noon Health. Uskfi'l Infobm*tuu« niel Domestic 
EroNiiMY r >lnmn». Our Genebal News Items, New 
Inventions, fici'-'Nriri'' irid MErH\Nio\L Misckllany 
articles will be continued througlinut the year. 



Agricultural Notes. 



Under this head will he reported weekly, carefnlly 
selected and condensed items concerning the agrleultu 
rrl improvements and progress of the various counties 
aud districts of the wide field we represent. The 

Information of the Resources 

Of this coast, set forth in the vari(»u8 depirtments of 
our paper, is not only of important benefit to its read- 
ers, but to every property holder on the coast, tbrough 
the infltience it exerts in stimulating enterprise at home 
and healthy immigration from abroad. There are but 
few persons inferrated in agricultural pursuits here 
who ai-e not benefited aimually by our publication 
above the amount of its subscription price. 



Market Reports. 



We might (111 our advertising columns with high- 
priced 



In its conimen-inl department, the Rural Pbksb will 
spare no elVurt to furnish tbe agrlculturiBt an accurate 
and trustworthy schedule <'( the prices which various 
prxtuctions are gainimj in the market. We regard 
this department of our jiaper as worthy of the moat 
careful and discriminating labor. In our review of the 
markets we shall presi»nt all attainable information 
concerning the tendency of production of various sup- 
plies and the features of the trade in them. We sliall 
afford all the evidence which can be secured for form- 
ing true judament of the fea'ures of agricultural trade 
and commerce. Although this is a diffl ult department 
we shall especially strive to Kiv<' the best weekly do- 
mestic produce reports in the city. 

The Best is Cheapest. 

it till our advertising columns 

Quack and Swindling Advertisements, 

And our reading columns with paid putTs, and thereby 
be enabled to furnish a large paper at a remarkably low 
price, but we will not do it. We believe our subscribers 
preler a good paper at a reasonable price to the so- 
called cheap papers that trifle with their confidence. 
Time is precious, and patrons will find that read- 
ing the cheapest which is most suitably prepared for 
their special avocation and locality. 

The Friends of Our Paper 

Have done much since its first issue, in January, 1870 
to make the Rural Pbfss ol the Pacific coast what it is 
to- day. Thanking tbtm for past kindnesses, we invite 
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A Farmer's Paper Throughout. 

We repeat that the Pacii ii; Ri ual Pbess will con- 
tinue to be a faithful advocate of the best and highest 
interests of agiiculturists on this coast— according full 



justice to other kindred industries lo oonjonction 
with which agriculture alone can periuanently thrive. 

A Handy Map 

Of California and the principal portion of Nevada will 
be furnished free to all subscribers who pay one year 
in advance, during the year 1876. The map is plain, 
printed on tinted paper, about 16x20 inches, showing 
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aud principal towns in California aud Nevada. 

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On all papers sent to subscribers in the ITnlted States. 
SuHscBiPTiON Rates, payable in advance: One year, 
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No. 22i Sansome street, S. F. 



r>E^VEY &. CO., 

American & Foreign Patent Agents, 

Ihe best, spe«dieBt, and Barest method for yon 
to obtain patents, file caveats, or transact 
any other important business with the Patent 
Office at Washington, or with foreign coun- 
tries, is through the agency of DEWEY a, 
CO., PUBLISHEKS OP THE MINING 
AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO, an able, responsible, and long-estab- 

, lished firm, and the principal agents on this 
side of the continent. They refer to tbe thous- 
ands of inventors who have patronized them, 
and to all prominent business men of the 
Pacific Coast, who are more or less familiar 
with their reputation as straightforward jour- 
nahsts and patent solicitors and oounseUors. 

We not only more readily apprehend the points 
and secure much more fully and quickly the 
patents for our home inventors, but with the 
influence of our carefnlly read and extensively 
circulated journals, we are enabled to illus- 
trate tbe intrinsic merits of good patents, and 
secure a due reward to the invent<.)r, besides 
serving the public who are more ready to give 
a fair trial, and adopt a good thing, upon 
the recommendation of honest and intelligent 
publishers. 

To Obtain a Patent. 

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It must not exceed 12 inches in length or 
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even more desirable. Paint or engrave the 
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Send the model (by express or other reliable 
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<fe Co., Mining and Scientific Prkss Offiob, 
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.\lso send $15 currency, amount of first fee of 
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the documents made up, and soon sent to the 
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For designs no models are necessary. Dupli- 
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Also a copy of NEW PATENT LAW of 1870' 

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Thanks for Prompt Attention. 

Stocktoh, Jane 26, 1976, 
Metsrs. Dnoey iS- Co., S. F..— 

1 have received the patent for my invention in wa^on 
brakes, which you prosecuted for me; patented May 
U, 1875— No. lK),04(i. Thanks to yon for your prompt 
attention to the case: you will hereafter be my attor- 
neys in such cases. I recommend all inventors on tbe 
Pacific coast to give you a call, which I ihink they will 
never have any cwlhu to regret. Very truly yours, 
GEO. G. BUCKLAND, 

Stwkton, Cal. 



The Bubal Pbess.— This excellent a^^cultarsl Jour- 
nal has entered upon its tenth volume, with every 
mark of increasing prosperity, and with It. increasing 
usefulness. We are glad to note this, and although the 
Pbkss aud Agricidlurul are rivals in a certain sense, we 
have no desire to succeed at the expense of our gener- 
ous rival. Wo are bJth working for the advancement 
of the same Interests, aud we have Ixith achieved great 
success in tba direction. W« wish the Pbkss renewod 
success.— fSac.Valley Agriculturist, July 4th. 



Addeess Wanted.— If those subscribers to the RnuL 
Pbf.ss who anvwer to the following names, will send 
their P. O. address to this office, they will greatly oblige 
the publishers: H. Overaker, Antonio BjTOS, L. Boyer, 
F. Anson and M. Levis. 



January t, 1876.] 



S. p. Pi^l^KET ^EpOI\T. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Fbancisco, December 29, 1875. 

The general tone of trade is quiet, the holiday spirit 
and disposition still exerting its influence. In staple 
products there is nothing of special note to record, and 
In fancy articles there is little but a general lightening 
up of demand as the Christmas crisis is paet. 

Wheat has been quiet throughout the week, there 
has been, however, a little done in the way of export at 
former prices. There are now in port 16 vessels loaded 
or chartered for Wheat. We note an engagement of 
the British ship Rydalmere for 1,312 tons of Wheat at 
£2 10a per ton. 

The cable rate to the Produce Exchange to-day is 10s 
Bd@10s lOd for average California, and 10s 10d@lls 6d 
for Club. As compared with Wednesday of last week 
there is a decline of 2d in the outside quotation for 
average California, while the outside of Club remains 
stationary. The quotation as compared with the same 
date of former years is as follows: 

Average. Club. 

187» 13s6d@13s 8d 13s9d@U3 3d 

1874 9sl0d@10s 4d 10s 4cl@10s 9rt 

1875 10s 6d@103 lOd lOs 10d@ll8 6d 

The course of the Liverpool quotation to the Pro- 
duce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded in the following table: 

Ratigre of Cable Prices. 



Thursday .. 

Friday 

Saturday... 
Monday .... 
Tuesday.... 
Wednesday. 



AvEBAOE. 



10s 6a@lls 

10s 5d(g>10- lOd 
Holiday 
Holiday 

lOs 6d@10s lOd 

lOs 5d@10s lOd 



Club. 



lis — ®lls 6d 
lis — ©lis 6d 

No quotations. 

No quotations. 
10s 10d@lls 6d 
10s 10d@lls 6a 



The foreign advices by cable are not very favorable, 
although an improvement in prices is expected in view 
of reduced imports. On this point the Mark Lane Ex- 
j>ress, as telegraphed December 27th, says: 

"Large imports since the 1st of September have kept 
prices down; but we cannot expect imports to con- 
tinue while rates are so low. The business in Europe 
is Boasonably dull, and prices are barely maintaioed. 
At Paris and its several provincial markets, flour has 
again dropped a franc, and wh at one shilling and six- 
pence. Belgium and Holland are about a nhilling 
lower. Vienna is dropping, and Odessa is dull, hold- 
ers maintaining high prices." 

In the general Produce trade there are few speciaj 
features which will be noted below. The following 
table shows the bay receipts of Domestic Produce for 
the week ending at noon to-(iay, as compared with the 
receipts of the week before: 

Receij^ts of Domestic Produce. 



Abtiolbs. 


Week Ending 
December 22. 


Week Ending 
Decembeb 29. 


Flour, quarter sacks. 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 


B6,BO0 

89 021 

28,383 

6,304 

24,.525 

903 

442 

123 

1,002 


22,537 

201.128 

15,472 

623 

6,172 

1,476 

2.'>1 




39 


Hay, bales 


566 



Baffs— In Bags there is little doing, although in 
general stock there is a slight upward feeling, as deal_ 
ers are disposed to hold stock for the coming trade. 
Flour Bags are moving freely at quotations. Potato 
Onnnies are now sold at 16c. 

Barley— Barley is still low and depressed. Coist 
Chevalier is selling nearly at Feed prices, although 
choice selections of bright quality are still gaining full 
prices. We are advised of Feed Barley selling as low 
as $1.10 per ctl. 

Beans— Beans are plentiful at former prices. Col- 
ored Beans are rather scarce and in good demand. 

Corn — Corn is abundant and depressed at present. 
Our quotations are full values. Sales are reported as 
low as $1 per ctl for common. 

Dairy Produce— Supplies of Butter are ample and 
a slight decline is noted in our quotations. Tho abun- 
dant feed and a general effort to supply the demaud 
has resulted in a full market. Cheese is unchanged. 
Eggs have declined from 5 to 10c per dozen. 

Feed— The trade in Feed is dull and prices are un- 
changed. 

Fish— The Fish markets are poorly supplied. Thfre 
are no Cod or Bockflsh in market, and the tables are 
generally scant. 

Fresh Heats— Beally good Beef and Mutton are 
scarce, although prices for extras have receded a little 
from the Christmas rates. Hogs are firm . 

Smoked Meats— The market is bare of Eastern 
Hams, and quotations are only nominal. There may 
be a supply of Eastern on hand in a fortnight, mean- 
time the trade is going Worsters almost exclusively. 

Fruit— The Fruit trade has fallen off considerably 
since our last. There is nothing especially new in the 
market. The Los Angeles Oranges kave sold at a wide 
range of prices, as noted in our quotations. The qual- 
ity is ordinary, as Is common with the early receipts. 

Hops— Are dull and business is small. Concerning 
the New York trade we have the following from Era- 
mett Wells' Circular: 

" With reduced freight rates to London, shippers 
have been buying more freely, and the market has 
assumed a somewhat firmer tone. Exceptional sales of 
very choice Hops have been made this week at a frac- 
tion above 15c, but most of the transactions have been 
on a basis of 13(g)14c. Fine Hops are uetting very 
scarce, and should a spirited demand for export spring 
up at any time, it would not be surprising to see an 
Important advance in the price of snob. Medium and 
low grades not being wanted at any price for export, 
of course will continue to drag until wanted for home 
us«. The country markets are reported more active, 
and purchases of good shipping Hups have been treely 
made at about 12c. Oaliforuians are quoted at 17@20c." 

Potatoes- Early Rose are a little higher; other 
kinds are unchanged. There have been received during 



the week several lots of Sacramento river Sweet Pota- 
toes of ordinary quality, which are selling at 3c ^ Its. 

Oniona— Are quoted a trifle lower than last week. 

Poultry and Qame- Poultry declines as the holi- 
day demand decreases. Full quotations are given in 
our tables. 

Seeds— There is noticeable a slight increase in our 
quotations for Alfalfa, owing to a better demand and a 
feeling of short supply. 

"Wheat— Wheat is quiet ^t quotations. 

"Wool— Wool Is unchanged and there is little doing. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

IWHOLESALE.] 

Wednesday m., December 29, 1875. 



ttKA.N>i. 

Bayo, ^cil —mm 



Butter 2 2.V< 

Pea — @ 

Pink 1 90S) 

Sm'l wh — <fiii 

«RUOM CORN. 
Oommnn, » lb . . 2 O 
Choice, do ... 4 @ 
COTTOl^. 
Cotton, ^ lb 1." 



TtAARlC ]>RODI 

ETC. 

EOTTEB. 

Oal. Fresh Roll 



30 @ 

- Cat 

M lUJ 
17 @ 

2mi3 



@ 17 

K HO 



per !h 

Point Keyes 

Firkin 

W'st'n Reserve. 
New York 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Oal 15 

Eastern 16 

EGGS. 

Cal. fresh f, doz — 

Ducks' — 

Ka.stBrn 15 

Oregon — 

F£ED. 

Bran, per toi 

norn Meal 29 00 

Hay la 110 

Middlings 30 00 

Oil cake meal... @37 ; 

Straw, ^ bale...— 65 'S- ■ 

FI.ODR. 
Extra Tj« bbl.....^ 75 (&C, 25 

Superfine 4 75 fg(5 DO 

FKE!ilI iUKjL.'J- 



@ 



57> 

.55 
* 30 
S .50 

m.i .50 
(ai:ill 00 
'J19 OU 



fa) 

5 lI 

- M 

5 g| 

9 m 

5 (& 

9 " 



1 10 
1 15 
1 80 
1 50 



Beef l3t qnility lb. 8 

Second do . . .. 

Thirddo 

La.Tib 

Mutton 

Pork, undressed 

do« dressed 

Veal 

Milk Calves 

ORA.1N. RTC. 
Barley.feed ctl 1 20 

do brewing. 1 A\i 
Chevalie)*. .. 
iJorn. A'hite 
do Yellow. 

Oats 

Rye 

Wheal shippiiigl 90 

do millinK.. 1 95 

Uides.dry 15 Ji 

do wet salted 7 ,dl 
IIOXElf, ETC. 

Beeswax. per lb.. 27'^® 
Honey in comb.. 13 (^ 

do strained... 6 S 
MOPS. 

New crop. 123^ '<$ 

M UTN-JobUInie. 
Alm'dsti'rd sh'l lb 8 (<!; 

do, soft shi. . . 16 

Brazil do 14 

Oul. Walnuts.... 7 
Chile Walnuts.. 11 
Peanuts per lb.. S 

Filberts 15 

Pccanuts 17 



1 25 
m 1 35 
@ 1 50 

m 1 15 

@ 1 Wi 
(3 2 00 
lea 1 55 

ai 1 !i5 
;<s 2 00 



OlVIOJiS. 

Union City ctl. - ® I \2% 

Stockt n .50 (ffl 1 00 

I»OTA.TOE!». 

Petal u ma 121) g) 1 40 

Salt Lake 1 05 (St 1 70 

Sac River 1 Ou ico 1 25 

Humboldt 1 25 m 1 50 

iiarly Rose 2 00 'a 2 25 

S'weet f(S 3 00 

POCI.TRY *. eAltf R 
Hens, oerdz. .. 6 .50 ■ail 50 

Boosters 6 .50 ©7 .50 

Brmlers 4 .W to 5 ,50 

Ducks, tame.dz.8 OM (^9 00 

do Mallard 2 .50 f">3 .'lO 

do Canvass 3.50 (yi4 50 

Geefe, per pair 2 50 iuj4 OU 
do Wild Gray. 3 00 m 00 

do White 1 .50 '2;2 OD 

Turkpys, Live. lb 17 (m 18 
do Dressed.... 20 @ 22 
Quail, per doz.^..l .'0 gd 75 
Snipe, EnK., doz.l .50 ^2 00 
Doves, per dozen .^ii fa) 75 

Rahtiits 1 00 @1 25 

Hare, per doz.. .2 00 'o'3 00 
Venison, per lb.. 7 |o 9 

PROVI.SIONS. 

Oal. Bacon, L'Kht 15 a 15'^ 

do Medium... 14 fa) 14/^ 

do Heavy 14 © — 

Lard 14 (q) 17 

Oal.SmokeaSeef 9 (3 10 

Kastern do - (li^ Vs'i 

ilast'rn Shoula's — (a 10 

Hams, Oal 13 @ U'4 

■\o Whittakera 20 id) 23 

do Armour 20 (ai 21 

do Boyd's.... 20 (i 22 
do Worster's. — i^ti 21 

alfalfa. Chile lb. i'-m Wi 

Uo CalUuruia. U <$ 14 

Oanary — '.(^ 20 

OloverRed — I& 2j 

do White 50 (a) .55 

Ootton 6 (S) 10 

Flaxseed — (^ 3,'4 

Hemp \lh'0 — 

ItalianRyeGrass 25 @ 30 

Perennia do .... 20 (a) 30 

Millet 10 IS 12 

Mustard, white. 3 @ 3)^ 

ao. Brown 3 @ B'4 

Rape 9 'g) U 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 33 

do 2d quality.. 

do .Hd Quality. . 
Sweet V Grass.. 

Orchard do 

Red Top do... 

Hungarian do 

Lawn do 

Mesquit do... 

rimotfty II m 

TALLOW. 

Crude ^j^Si 

Rehned 9 'gj 

^VOOJL., ETC. 
FALL- 

Soedy 11 @ 

Choice free 12 (g) 

Burry 9 (a) 

Oregon — (q) 



29 @ — 
- @ - 
75 @1 00 

30 (a) 35 
25 fa) 30 

8 @ 12 

50 C0 — 

15 (a» - 
13 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

I WHOLESALE. I 

Wednesday m., December 29, 1875. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Orantjes Mex. % 

M 15 00*35 00 

Tahiti, do (S 

Oal. do 15 10.040 00 

Limes, Me.Kican, 

■# M 10 00015 00 

Malaixa Lemons, 

«*bx 12 00(u)15 00 

Cal. it* 100 2 SO(U) 3 00 

do Sicily ^ b'x. (a) 

Bananas, $ bncb 3 OO.o) 4 50 
Ooooanuts.'PlOO. 8 00 @I0 00 
Pineapples, %4dz. — (a)0 00 
Apples, i» box... 1 00 (3125 

do Choico 2 OO (0,2 60 

Blackberries.... — @ — 

Figs - la — 

Huckleberries... 
Strawber'sflch.. 

Pomgranates 

Raspberries 

(Currants. ^ ch.. 
Quinces ih bx. . . 
(Jranberries1i*bbl.l3 0((«i,14 On 
Peacnes, %* bx.. — (<9 — 
Pears, ?(bx 75 (a!l 00 

do Choice 2 OO @3 00 

Crab apples, >fei bx — (oi — 
J>RIRJU FRUIT. 

Apples. It* !b 7 (q) 9 

Pears, ^ lb 8 ®13 

Peacbe.i, "B* lb 11 (a)13 

Apricots,?* n> Mli'iulb 

Plums,» lb 8 a 6 



- (o) - 
— ls20 00 



(al — 



Pittea, an S* lb IS (cbw 

Raislnt', iniported.3 25 (2.3 75 
Black Figs, # lb.... 6 (SilO 

White, do 8 @10 

Prunes \2)ia)n 

iJitron 28 t<fl 30 

Zante Currants. 9 @ 10 

Cal.R.aisins 8 @ 12)^ 

V EUETAB ChJ^. 

Asparagus — @ — 

Beets i^ — 

Cabbage, « 100 lbs.. 50 'd,f,lH 

Carrots, per ton 8 00@10 00 

Cauliflower, doz 50@75 

elery, doz 50 @75 

Oarlic. * lb — ■ ^1: 

Green Pe^s — @10 

Green Corn W doz..- @ — 
Sum'rSquash i^ box, — lO) — 
Marro'lat Sq'sb.tn 6 OOaS 00 
Artichokes.^ doz.. — ®— 
String Beans, "S* lb. — @ — 

Lima Beans — ^— 

Parsnips — @— 

Shell Beans 2 ® 3 

Peppers, green, bx. 75 @1 00 

Okra 4 @ 5 

Cucumbers. 1* box.I 25^1 75 
Tomatoes, box....l 00^ 1 50 

EggPlant.bx -a - 

Rhubarb @t- 

Lettuce —® — 

Turnips, pr ton — @ — 

.MusbrOMms, B>.. 8 @ 10 



LUMBER. 



CAROO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, Vt M »18 00 

Rougn refuse, 'P M 14 00 

Rough clear, » M 30 00 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 20 00 

Rustic,^ M 3250 

Rustic, refuse, W M 24 00 

Surfaced,* M 30 00 

Surfaced refuse, 1* M... 20 00 

Flooring, If* M '28 00 

Flooring, refuse, |* M.. 20 00 
Beaded floormg, ^M... 30 00 
Beaded door, reluse, M. 25 00 

Half-inch Siding, M 22 ,50 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 
Half-inch, Surtaood.M. 25 00 
Half-inch Surf, ref., M. 18 00 
Half inch Battens, M... 22 .50 
Pickets, rough, * M. . . . 13 00 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 00 
Piokets. fancy, p'ntd... . 25 00 
Shinglea, »M 3 00 



pueET sociwn pine 

— Retail Price. 

Rough, ^fl M 22 ,50 

Fencing, ^ M 22 .50 

Flooring and Step, ^ M 32 .50 
Flooring, narrow, ^ M.. 35 00 
Flooring, 2d quaUty, M. .25 00 

Laths, fM 3.50 

Furring, ^ lineal ft 

REU IVOUU-Retall. 

Rougb,%* M 22 50 

Rough refuse, 1* M 18 OO 

Rough Pickets,!* M.... 18 00 
Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

Fancy Pickets, # M 30)1 

Siding, 1»M 25 00 

Surfaced and Long 

Beaded 37 50 

Flooring 35 00 

Do do refuse, ft JA 25 00 

Half-inch surfaced, M.. 32 .50 

Rustic, No. 1,» M 40 00 

Battens, «iliaeal foot . . ^ 
8hinele«Tft M 3 25 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Oharlks Sut.-;o A Co.] 

San Francisoo, December 2'.), 3 p. M. 

Legal Tenders in S. F., U a. m., m'4 to 88>i. 

Gold in N. V. 113. 

Gold Bahs, 890. Silver Bars, l!i and 8 per cent dis- 
count. 

Exchange on N.'V., 60-100 per cenLpreraium for gold ; on 
London bankers. 40; Commercial, 49^4 ; Paris, five francs 
per dollar; Mexican dollars, three to five per cent, dis- 
count. 

London — Consols. 93 to 93H : Bonds, 102'^ 

QDI0S81I.T1EB in H. F., by the flask, per lb. 72!^o(g)75o. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

WHOLESALE. 1 

Wednesday m., December 29, 1875. 



Eng. Stand Wht.. 10 (aiO.'4 
Neville & Oo's... 

Hand Sewed.... 10 @W^ 

22x36 f/i@lO 

24x36 U (wMH 

24x40 12 101121^ 

Machine do 24x40. 12 @12!4 

" 23x40. lVA@nh 

" 22x40. 11 (fll'4 

" 22x36. K4 @10 

Flour Sacks )43... fl'^'Bll 



Olive Plagniol..5 .50 05 75 

do Possel 4 75 @5 00 

Palm lb 9 @ — 

L.iii«oed, raw.... 80 IB — 

do boiled — @ 75 

'hinanut in OS.. 70 Si 75 

Sperm, crude..,. — fdjl 40 
do bleached.. 1 90 



® 

25 (0 
27 (8 



60 

21'^ 

22, 
30 
21,'-^ 



" " iis i'/il^ 5 

Hessian 60-in 12M'ail4;-5 

do 4.5-iu S'Mai 9 

do 40-in .... 7>4'S 8 

Wool Saok3,3>^ni3. 45 r<S50 

do 4-. .50 ©.52)5 

Stand, uunniea. .. — ta)16 

single seam do.. — @— ' 

Bean Bags V-im 8 

Baney Bags 24x36. n%l&Vl 

do 23x40. ivmn 

do 24x40. 12 @12;^ 

Oat Bags, 24x40.... 12 miih 

do 28x36,. . — @13^ 

Delrick's"E W.".. 9'4 'a).I( 

dn "E — msii 

CANNED «OODS. 

Asst'dPie Fruits 

in 2>i lb cans. 2 75 @ 3 00 

do Table do... 3 75 @ 4 25 
Jams & Jellies 4 25 @ — 
Pickles >i gl.. — m S .50 
Sardines. qr boxl 65 @ 1 90 

do hf boxes. 3 00 S) 

COAL— Jobblnn. 
Australian, ^ton 8 .5" 'a) S 75 

Coos Bay 8 00 §10 On 

Belllngham Bay. .•§ 8 60 

Seattle.... 9 25 fq)10 .50 

Oumberl'd — 10 f^ 18 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 (aj8 25 

Lehigh ®25 00 

Liverpool 10 00 @11 00 

West Hartley... 11 00 Jul 2 00 

Scotch 9 00 :a)10 Oi. 

Scranton 13 00 (0)14 00 

Vancouver's Isl.lO .50 (iji3 00 
Charcoal, Wsk... 75(a) - 

Coke, 1*bbl — @ 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — ^ 
Costa Rica per lb 22,'^^ 
tiuatemala... 

.lava 

Manilla — .. 
Ground in cs 

Ciilcorv 

FISH.. 
Sac.Dry Cod. new 4 @ 

cases 6 (^ 

do boneless S'-gfq) 

Kastern Cod lii'g! 

Salmon in bbls..8 .50 ©9 00 

do a bbl84 m 

do 2Ib cans. .2 25 

do lib cans .1 2S 

d) cm. R. '^b.5 00 
Pick. Ood, bbls.22 00 

do ,'^ biilsll 00 (di — 

Maok'l,No.l,iiblB9 00 @11 00 

Extra — @12 00 

" in kits....l 90 '0)2 00 

•' Ex moss. .3 i)0 %2 .50 

" Ex mes.s.^bs— .a)12 00 

Pic'd Herr'g, bx.. 3 01, la) 3 ,50 

Bos . Sm'l('dHer'K40 @ .50 

MARDW^ARE. 

Amuskeag iiandled Axes 
$16(ail7 ; do unhandled do S13 
@14 — less .50c in 5 case lots. 

Amoskeag Hatchets, Shin- 
gling, No 1, $7.25; No. 2, i$8 
No. 3, $8.25. Do do, Claw 
No. 1, $7.75; No. 2, 8.,50; No. 3, 
$9.25— less If: per cent. 

Locks, Yale Lock Mt'g Co 
discount 33>^ per cent, from 
list. 

Planes, Ohio Tool Co., dis- 
count 30 percent, from list. 

Am. Tack Go's Cut Tack 
65'^ percent, discount and 5 
per cent, extra. Finisliing 
and Clout Nails net list 
3d fine Nails $7.ii0 per keg. 
Ohio Butt Go's Loose Joints 
Butts 50 per cent, do Fast, 
35 per cent olf list. 

Machine Bolts, 20@35 off. 

Square Nuts, 2(^^30 oif list. 

Hexagon Nais 2{(^3c off list. 

Wrought Iron Wasliers. 
2(m3c oil list. 

Lag Screws, 15 per cent off 
list. 

MISCEI.I.A1VEOXJ.S. 

Puiu — ; (a 9 

NAIJ.S. 

Assorted size. !b. 3 75 @4 00 
UI1.S. 

Pacific Glue Co 

. Neat F't No. 1.1 00 (9 90 

Pure — ® — 

Castor Oil, No.I.. — @1 25 

Baker's A A — (gjl 40 

Uocoanut 55 (^ 60 



Coast Whales. 

Polar, refined 

Lard 

Oleophine 

Devoe'B Bril't... 
Long Island.... 

i^ureka 

Devoe's Petro'm 
l^arrei Korosene 

Olive 

Downer Kerose'e 
<Jaa Light Oil. 



i'A 
6;<i 
10 



(^5 00 
'012 311 
ln.\ :vt 
(dl5 jll 



47>^(a .50 



PAIIVTS. 

Pure White Lead 9K (aiO^ 

Whiting — ig) 2 

Putty 4 fg 5H 

Chalk — (S 2>i 

Paris White 2%0) — 

Ochre 3 a ,5 

Venetian Red... 3'.^@ 5 

Red Lead 10 (§ 1) 

Litharge 10 la II 

JCng. Vermillion — @1 25 
Averill t'hemical 

Paint, per gal. 

White &tints.2 00 @2 40 

Green, Blue & 
Ch "Yellow.. 3 00 f<ii3 ,50 

Light Red. ...3 (lO (o):; .'lO 

Metallic Roof.l 30 @1 60 
RICE. 

China No. 1 6 00 (3)6 25 

Japan (g — 

Slam Cleaned... — @ — 

Patna — ® 

Hawaiian. I* lb.. — @ 8 
Carolina, t* lb... 10 la) 

SAJ„T. 
Oal. Bay,perton 10 00@14 00 

d" Common.. 6 00(2)7 00 
Carmen Island.. 12 00f®15 00 
Liverpool fine. ..22 .50o(25 00 
SOAP. 

Castile f( lb 10 (^ UVt 

Common brands.. 4>i® 6 

Fancy do .. 7 © 10 

SPICKS. 



Cloves... 
Cassia 

Citron 

Nutmeg 

Whole Pepper... 

Pimento 

iJr'nd Allsp pr dz 
do Cassia do .. 
do C'lfives do. . 
do Mustard do 
uo Ginger do., 
do Pepper do.- 
io Mace do. . . 

sceAR, 

Cal. Cube per lb.. 

Partz' Pro. Cube 

Circle A crusned 

Powdered 

Fine crushed. .. 

i>ranulatea 

iJolden O 

'lawailan 

>y"ai. Syrup in kgs 

Hawaiian Molas- 
ses 

TEA. 

OoIong.Canton.Ib 19 
do Amoy... 28 
do Formosa 40 

Imperial, Canton '25 
do Pingsuoy 45 



45 a 

28 m 

05 (? 

UJ^'S) 

£) 



47'^ 

30 
97 K 
I73i 
15', 
(0)1 12-^ 

— m .50 

— il.50 

— («ll -20 

— (oil 00 

— (01 fill 

— fo)2 HO 
RTC. 

12 a - 

— @ 12 

— (& i>'4 

— @ 11,14 

— (dl ll'<-, 

— '0 Wi 



25 



do Moyune, 

Gunpo'der.Cant. 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune. 

V'ng Hy., Canton 

do PiugBUey 

do Moyune.. 

Japan, J^ chests, 

bulk 

Japan, lacquered 

bxs,4'^and5 lbs 

Japan do, 3 lb bxs 



27;^ 

@ 25 
§ ,50 
(0 80 
@ 40 
10 SO 
(g)I 00 
@ 42 H 
® 90 
@I 25 
® 40 
ik 70 



doprnbx,4;i;lb 35 @ 65 
do ii&l B) paper 30 @ .55 
TOJiACCO— Jol.bliiB. 

'" ' 65 

,55 
75 



Bright Navys ,50 

Dark do 60 

Paeos Tin Foil.. - 

Gregoiy 70 

t I'Wl.lt 6.'! 



bight Pressed 
Hard do .. ,w 
Conn. Wrap'r — 40 
Penn. Wraiipcr.. '20 
Ohio do .. 15 
Virgi'aSniok'g.. 45 
Fine ct che'g,gr..8 50 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.* lb.. 75 
Banner fine cut.. — 

Cal .Smoking 37 

TURPENTINE. 
Easteru 61>5'S)'55 



80 



60 
1 60 
I 45 

I 20 

II 00 
|9 .50 



®9 00 
@1 00 



LEATHER. 

r WHOLESALE. 1 

Wednesday m.. December 29, 1875. 

Olty Tanned Leather, » lb 22329 

Santa Cruz Leather, ^ lb 22,'a)28 

Oountry Leather, » lb 22®-29 

Stockton Leather, * S) 'iS^SO 

Jodot,8 Kil., per doz $50 IH)@ .5400 

Jodot,ll to 13 Kil.. per doz 68 OOM 79 00 

Jodot 14 to 19 Kil., per doz 82 00@94 00 

Jodot, second cboice. 11 to 16 Kil. f* doz 67 OlXffl 74 00 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko .57 OOC^ 67 00 

Oornellian Females, 12 to 13 63 00@ 67 00 

Corneihan F-males. 14 to- 16 Kil 71 liO® 76 .511 

Simon Ullmo Females, 12 to 13, Kil .58 OO® (i2 '«) 

Simon Ullmo Females, 14 to 15, Kil 66 mm 70 00 

Simon Ullmo I'omalcs, IK to 17, Kil Ti 00i9 74 00 

Simon, IB Kil.,« doz 61 00(g) (3 "0 

Simon, '20 Kil. » doz 65 00(g) 61 00 

Simon. -24 Kil. * doz 72 00® 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00(g) 40 90 

Orench Kips, II* B) 1 00@ 115 

California Kip, «* doz 40 00(a) 6' 10 

French Sheep, all colors, ^ doz 8 00® 15 00 

Eastern Calf lor Backs, 1i* lb 1 OOrg) I ii 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, i»doz.... 9 00® 13 00 

Shsep Roans for Linings, I* doz 5 .50(9 10 .'iO 

Oalifornia Russett Sbeep Linings 1 7.5(($ 4-50 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 5 009 5 '26 

Good French Calf Boot 1.6gs, * pair 4 00® 4 7.5 

French Calf Boot Legs,^ pair 4 00(,^ — 

Harness Leather, It* !b 24a) :25i 

Fair Bridle Leather. « doz 48 uii® 72 - 

Skirting Leather, It* lb 33® 37H 

Welt L6»ther,Wdoz JO OOf^ 50 00 

Buff Leather, # foot 17® )i 

Wax Side Leather. » foot im 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Butter.Oal.ch'ice 

Cheese, lb 

Lard. Cal.. to 

Flour, ex.fara. bl 6 

Corn Meal. D) 

Sugar, wli.crsh'd 
do It. brown. lb 
Coffee, green. lb.. 
Tea, hue bl a,,*, 6.5, 
'rea,fin8tJap,.5.5,7,5, 
Candles, Adman t'e 
Soap, Oal. , lb.... 

Rioe. lb 

Vault Powdftrdz.l 
Bowen Bro. large 



Wednesday m., December 29, 1875. 



can per doz , . . .5 00 

Small, do 2 ,50 

Oan'dOysters,dz.2 Ofl 
Svrup.S F.Ool'n. 65 

Dried Apples 

Dr'd Ger.Priines 
Dr'd Figs, Oal... 

Dr'd Peaches 

do Peeled 

Oils. Kerosene . . 
Wines, Old Port,3 .50 
do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 
do Cal.,dz.bot.» 00 
Whiaky,0.B,(al.3 .50 
Fr. Brandy 4 00 





S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 



Wednesday, m., December 29, 1875. 



Ohickena 

Hens 

E«g8, Hens 

do DlicIcb' - 

do FaraHoneg, ■ 
Turkeys, %4 Jb. . ; 

Ducks, each 1 ( 

Geese. wild, pair. 

Tame, ^ Dair..3 ( 
Snipe. % doz ... 

do English.. 
Quail, per dozen 
Prairve Ch"k s.pr 
Hares, each ... ' 
Rabbits, each... 

SquirrelsB do 

Beef, tend, ^ tt>. 

Corned, 1^ lb.. 

Smoked. 1ft tt>.. 
PnrterHou^eSt'k 

Siiioin do 

Round do 

Pork, rib, etc.. ft> 

Ohopa, do, ^ lb 
Veal, |i lb 

Outlet, do 

Mutton-chops, tb 
LegMutton.lft lb 

Lamb, ^ lb 

Venison 

do iry 

Antelope 

Tongues, beet, . . 

do, do, smoked 
Tongues, pig, lb 

FICI 

Apple.s, pr lb 

Pears, per lb 

A-pricots, tt) 

Peaches, ft) 

Plums 

Pine Apples, each 
Lady Apples. . .. 

Urapes 

Bananas, if* doz. . 
Muskmelons .... 
Watermelons. . . 
Blackberries'. . .. 
Oal. WainutB. lb. 
Oranber'es, Org,, 

do Eastern qt. 
Huckleberries.. 
Strawberries, lb 
Raspberries. lb.. 
Gooseberries. .. 

Currants. ., 

Cherries, 1ft ^... 
Nectarines, ... 
Pomegrp nates. .. 
Orangesy.B doz.. 

Quinces 

Lemons 

Limes, per doz .. 
Figs. dried Cal. . 

Fifis, fresh 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 
Asparagus, 9>.. 
Artichokes, doz. 

du Jerusalem. . 

Beets, ^ doz 

Potatoes, ^ Dl... 
Potatoes, sweet. . 
Broccoli, eacti,. 
Oauiitlower, . .. 



(ni Ii,') 



Bacon, OaL, ^ lb IG 
Hams. Oai. ^ lb 16 
FISH, MEATS, 

Flounder,^ lb 15 

Salmon. ^ tt> 25 

Smoked — 

Rock Ood, ^ lb.. I.-i 

Ood Fish, lb 12 

Perch, m 1.5 

Lake Big. Trout. — 

Smelts, 1ft lb 10 

Herring. Sm'kd. 75 

do fresh — 

Tomcod, ^ tb — 

Terrapin, If* doz. — 
Mackerel, o'k.ea 12 

Fresh, .lo Eb . . . — 
Sea Bass, '^ lb... — 

lialibut. — 

Sturgeon. 1ft Eb.. .'> 
Oysters, |* 10(1.. T.i 

Ohesp. 1ft doz.. ^ 

Clams 1ft 100 — 

Mussels do - 

Turbot 



Orabs 1ft doz-...l uO 

do Soft Shell. 41) 

Shrimps 8 

Sardines.. — 

Anchovies — 

Soles — 

VoungTrout,bay — 

Skate, each 1.^ 

'^hitebait,lft ft).. 
Crawfish 1ft ft>... 
Green Turtle.. , 
EGKTABr.ES. 
Green Peas 1ft tb. — 
Jabbage, per iid.. 10 
Oyster Plant. bn — 
Carrots, 1ft doz... — 

Celery, 1ft dz T.i 

Cucumbers, IrMoz — 
Tomatoes, 1ft to.. — 
Strins< Beans.... — 
Kgg Plant, ft).... — 
Cress, ^ doz bun 20 

Onions 3 

Turnips, "^ doz 

bunches — 

Brussels Sprouts 6 

Eschalots — 

Dried Herbs, doz :M) 

Garlic^ tb 12i 

Green Oorn, doz. — 
Lettuce, ^doz.. 25 
Mint, ^ bunch, — 
Mushrooms, ^ ftt — 
Horse radish.lftn) 15 
Okra, dried, 1ft ft) 

do fresh, 1ft ii 
Pumpkins. % ji . 
Parsnips, doz - 

Parsley 

Pickles, Irah. 1ft lb 
Radishes, doz.. 

Sage 

Summer Squash 

Marrowfat, do 

Hubbard, do 
IjimaBe :ins,fr'sh 
Man;?oes, f> doz. 
Spinage 1ft bakt. 

Rhubarb 

lireen Ohilies. . . 



3i) 



<<^ 10 
" 1.5 
8 
^0 



- (ai 

- (aJ 
5 fa) 

- m 

8 (^ 



12'^^ 



_ ,3^ - 



10 'Oi 



METALS. 



[WHOLESALE.] 

Wednesdai m., December 29, 187.5. 

American Pig Iron, if* ton :iS 00 'S 3fi 00 

SootcJi Pig lron,# ton .'ii 00 '» 37 00 

White Pig, If* ton M 3H 00 

Oregon Pig, ~f ton @ >10 00 

Refined Bar, Ijad ttaaortment, ^ 11) '0 ~ ^^ 

Rehned Bar, good assortment, ^ lb m — 4 

Boiler, No. I to 4 S— 6S4 

Plate, No. .5 to 9 f5 — Ah 

Sheet. No. Ill to 14 @— i'i 

Sheet. No. 16 to 20 — iis® 

Sheet. No. W to '24 — B W) 

Sheet, No. 20 to 23 — H)^(a 

Horse Shoea, per keg 6-^0 (g» 8 00 

Nail Rod —10 (a) 

Norway Iron — 9 m 

Roiled Iron — 8 10 

Other Irons for IBlaoksmiths. Miners, etc. @ — 4M 

OOPPEK.— 

Braziers' — 3.5 @ 

Copper TinM — 'i1%a 

O'lViersPat - 37>6@— 40 

Sheathing, f, "^ — 24 @ — 40 

Shealhiug, Yellow a — 25 

Sheathing, Old Yellow ffl — 12H 

Ooiii position Nails — 24 m — — 

Composition Bolts — 24 W 

Stkel.— English Oast,* Hi — 20 @ — 25 

Anderson A Woods' American Cast ~ — C<^ — 15 

Drill (eg — 10>i 

FiatBar -18 @ — 22 

Plow Steel - 9 (<« — 10 

Tin Plates.— 

UlxU 1 O Charcoal 10 ,50 @ II 00 

10x14 IX Charcoal 12 ,50 @ 13 00 

Roofing Plate I Charcoal ;.... 10 00 @ 10 .W 

Banca Tin —26 m 

Australian — 18 m — 20 

ZiNO....By the Oosk @ — U 

Zino, Sneet7xll ft. No7 to lO'Stti ® — H 

do do 7.-43 ft, Nc 11 to 14 @ — 11,S 

do do 6x4 It, No3 to 10 & — \V4 

do do 8xlfl,, Noll to 10 @ - 12 

Nails Assorted si^.es ., 3 60 <0 3 75 

liuiOKSiLVEB. DO rib — Ti'i0 — 75 



Designing 
/ and 

Engraving 

ai 
This Office. 

We are prepared to do fine Wood Engr.iving 
for illustrating Landscape Scenery, Buildings, 
Machnery, Works of Art, Manufactured Articles, 
Trade Marks, Seals, Etc. We have a first-class 

Machine for Engraving 

A portion of the work, which can be finished 
thereby more perfectly than by the eye and hand 
alone. Our patrons can depend upon first-class 
work always, and at reasonable prices. Samples 
can be seen at our office. 

DEWEY & CO. 



"Faith and Confidence " 

LivRnivioEE, Oct. l«t. 1875. 

Mkssus. Dewky k. Co., Patent SolicitorH: Gmllcmm— 
YourB of tho 29th ult. containiiiK my patent to Ele- 
vated R. K. duly received, and I hereby return my sin- 
cere thanks to tho MiNiNti and Scientieio Pbess Patent 
Agency for your promptness and honesty in ro(,'ard to 
our bufiine-B connections. I have received a flood of 
circulars from Eastern firms, desiring to deal with me, 
but I have declined any communication with thom and 
prefer, as soon as circumstances will permit, to nego- 
tiato with and patronize a homo institution; one in 
which I have faith and confldence— Dkwey & Co. 

Again thanking you for your promptness in securing 
ray patent, I remain, obediently ."ours 

Wm. H. Habribon, 




rn^enri© awBj.a^ ^mmm 



January i, 1876 



Nurserymen. 



Fine Plants— Ijarge Stock. 



[Establiahed 1853.] 

SEEDLING STOCKS and PLANTS 

FOR NXTRHERYMCEJJV. 

Apple SwcUiDKS, fine $10.00 per 1000 

Vi&r Sc.'dliuKs, fii)« *15.00 per 10(JU 

Plum SeeiUiugs, Mirobolan, Beet French 

block doc» not aiioker $40.00 per 1000 

Cbtrry Ma/.zard Seedlings $12.' per lnOO 

Olierry llalialeb Seedlings $15.00 per lOCO 

Blue Gums in Variety $3.00 to $10.00 per 100 

Magnolia Qrandiflora— all sizes— large stock. 

Golden Arborvitip 

lleatb-leaved Arborvlla!.. .. 

CrataguB Arlwria 

Laurislluus 

Sweedisb and Irish .Juniper 

Medt'torranian Heaih 

Lo(iu:tt or .Japan Plum ) 

Oranges and Lemoufi, large stock, best European, 
Australian, and Chlaese varieties, all grafted, from 
$12.00 to $18.00 per dozen. Larg-e Palms, Large 
Tree Ferna, Lar^e Auricarias, at special prices, 
with the u»ual large stock of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees. BERNARD S FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 

THOS. MEHEKIN, Agent, 616 Battery St., S. F. 

1865^ 1875. 

Hauuay Bros.' Nurseries. 



We the undersiKned have been oneaged in the Nursery 
busii>esH for the hist ten years in San Jose, and our cbiet 
aim has tuen to grow and produce only the vi-ry est vari- 
eties ot Fruit Trees, and those ot u hcalihy Rrowib, and 
such trees a-< will Kive satisfaction to our jiatrons. In 
order tiiat purchasers may know our vai lelies. and also 
our oncea at wholesale or small lots, we give the Jol- 
luwing: 

ONKYROLD. Pr lOQ. fr lUflO. TWO YBS OLD. Pr lOO. Pr lOOO 

$1.V> 



Apple trees $12 



A pplo trees $20 



Pear 
2*H} I Prune 
180 Plum 
Cherry 
Apricut 



Fertille de Palican 5 — 



Pear •• 20 ISU I Pe-r " 26 

Prune " "22 2<»U 1 Prune " 30 

Plum 

(Jhcrry 

Peach 

Nectarine 

Quiuce 

Al.nond 

C'urraut 

We alno offer a lar^^e assortment of the teadioe kinds of 
Ornamental and EverKreen Trees. Purchasert* wliu wish 
ch iue Krown trees are iiivite'l to visit our Nurseries and 
examine our stock. a« we know their character and heal- 
thy growth will plfa-(j them. Persons unknown to us, 
thiitorler irt^es, should send the cash or good reference. 
in order to secure their trees. 

Our Nursery i-» situated upon .Julian street, one mile 
east of the Court House. 

HANNAY BROS. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

Tho attoution of Nurserymen and Plantora is invltp.d 
to my largo atock o( 

FRUIT THEE*"* 

Of the very best varieties lor Market, Shipi>liiK and 
Drying. Also 

OKAPEVINES, CtJIlKANTS, GOOSEBERRIES, BLAOK 

BEBRIEd AND RASPBERRIES. SHADE 

TREES, EVERGREENS, BLUE GUMS 

AND SHRUBS. GREEN HOUSE 

PLANTS, BEDDING 

PLANTS, ETC. 

S«nd for a Catalogue. 

JOHN ROCK, San Joae. 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 



(Established In 18S8.) 



PETALUMA, CAL. 



Qreen Houses and Tree Depot corner Wash- 
ington and Liberty streets. 

4 Green Houses. 8,000 feet of Glass. Fruit Trees a 
Specialty. 

We offer for sale at loweat market rates a general as 
Sortinuiil of Fruit and .Shade trees, small Fruitv, Vinea 
eiu. Evergreen trees and Shrubs in Kri*at variety. Green 
House. Oen-ervatorv and Ketldinkf PlaolA, Roees, etc. 

Eucalyptus in variety. Eucalyptus (tlobulus, per llKK) 
for (ore-t niantinj:, at very low rates. Caialoi^ue and pnee 
list furnislied on ai'plioation. 



Addcesa, 
19v8-tf 



|W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Senoma Co., Oal. 



60,000 FOREST TREES 

FOR SALE — CONSI.STINO OF 

Australian Gum Trees. ( Eucalyptus ) 
Monterey Pines and Cypress, etc. 

The undersigned, having earnestly engaged in the 
above butiness, will strive to merit and receive a fair 
share of the trade. Prices for all kinds very low, rang- 
from $;i per hundred upward. A liberal discount made 
for large orders. For lurtner iu(<>rniation address 

GEO. C. BAXTER, 
Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
NovcmlM-r, 187S. 

SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

^Located seven miles west of Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Depot, Cor. Montecito and Castillo streets. 
JUSU'H SEXTON, - - - Proprlit >r. 

cuLTivATon or 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also 

Orang'e, Iiemon, -Lime and Palm Trees, 

Pot Plants, and Hardy Ever 

frreen Shrubbery. 



SAVE $50! WHY PAY $85? 

HEDUCED PRICE, ^:?i'5. 

HOME and HOME SHUTTLE SEWING MACHINES. 

Reduced to Live and Let Live Prices. 



These Machines are superior to any and all; nice sewers, straight needle, two threads, shuttle, lock-stitch, 
the siuipJcst and cheapest, and the lightest running tirst-class Machines in the market. To see is to 
convince yourselves. 

The Hall Treadle for Sewini? Machines, 
The most important improvement ever made. It saves labor and preserves health. No more diseases and 
deaths, «ide or back aches from using Sewing Machines. No teaehinK requireil. A child can run it. Always 
starts the right way. Never goes backwards and breaki things. Can be stopped Instantly. With it on your 
Machine, you can do double tho work you can without it. Fifty stitches can be made with one pressure of one 
loot. It can be applied to any Sewing Machine. Apjirovi il l.v .Massachusetts State Board of Health (see Official 
Report IhTi), Ma(sachuselt6 Medical .'jociety and MubsachUbeiis Charitable Mechanics' Association. The UALL 
TREADLE is a part of all UOUE >1ACU1NES sold by us. 

The Hall Treadle Grinding' Machine 
Must be seen to be appreciated. For a Farmer or Mechanic to sec it, is to buy one. It is an indispensable articln 
in every Farm-house, Shop or Hotel. 

The Hall Treadle Jig' Sa'w and Boring' Machine 
Is an accomplishment in every WorKshop. The HALL TREADLE is applicable to all machinery requiring 
foot-power — Sewing Machines, Grindstones, Jig Saws, Turning Lathes, Jewelers' and Dentists' Lathes, etc 
Send tor Circulars 

owbp 



HALL TREADLE MANUFACT'G CO., 17 New Montgomery St., S. F. 



W. B. Stikjnu. Seedsman. 
£8CabliHlied ltio7. 



1876. 



RoBT, Williamson, Nurseryman, 
Established 1H63. 



W. R. STRONG «fc CO. 



SEEDS. 



TREES. 



San Francisco Office, 418 & 420 Clay Street. Sacramento Office, 8 & 10 J Street. 
Nursery Grounds, Sacramento County. 

Our Stock is full and fine. Seeds of our own growth or imported by ourselves from the 
most reliable producers 1" Europe or Aiuenca. Fur frtishness, purity and perfect development 
they cannot be excelled. Garden, Flower, Field and Tree Seeds. Ornamental, Evergreen 
ouu Deciduous Sihrubs and Plants Flowerintr Bulbs "f every descriptluu. Trees -Fruit, Or- 
namental and Shade Trees; California, Australian, Eastern and European. We guaran- 
tee Satisfaction. Send us your orders. Cataloi^ues furnished on application. 

House in Sacramento, - - - W. R- Strong & Co. 

House in San Francisco, - - Strong & Williamson- 

p. S. Alfalfa, Chile grown, 7 to lie; California, 11 to 16c, as per quantity and gra<le 
Guaranteed ireab and genuine. 



Ig THOMAS MEHERIN, tg 

AdENT VOK 

B. S. FOX'S NURSERIES, 

516 Battery Street, - - San Francisco. 

(Opposite Post-olBce.) 

I now offer for salo at Lowest Market Rates, a largo- 
and choice aS8ortm< nt of FRUIT, SHADE and ORNA 
MENTAL TREES, POT PLANTS, BLUE GUMS, MON- 
TEREV CYPRESS, and ENGLISH WALNUTS, per lUO 
or 1000 at very low rates. Send for Pi ice-list. 



THOMAS MEHERIN, 
516 Battery Street. 



P. O. Box, 722. 



UIVEll BANK NURSERY, 

6an tTo$ie, Oal. 

Established . . . - 1855. 



FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES in great variety. 
Choice and Rare V.riety of EVERGltEtNS. SHRUBS, 
ROSIS, UEDDINtJ PLANTS, PALMS, M.\QNOLlAS, 
FERNS, TUBEROSES, GLADIOLAH, Etc., with general 
colleclion of Oreeuhuuse Plants, Hanging Bankets, 
Etc. 

Nursery and Greenhouses, corner Berryessa road and 
I'ith street, two blocks from terminus of North Side 
horse railroad. Address 

L. F. SANDERSON, 

Nurseryman and Florist, San Jose. 

LOS GATOS NURSERIES, 



S. Newhall. Prop'r, 



San Jose, Cal. 



A large and general assortment of 
FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Roses, 

Oreoiilnmsc I'laiits, 

GRAPEVINES, SMALL FRUITS, Etc. 

I offer for sate a well assorted, well grown and 
healthy stock. Lt^w-topped stalky fruit trees a spe- 
cialty. Address 

S. NEWHALL, San Jose. 



BLUE GUM TREES. 

400,000 For Sale. Price from $30 to $50 
per 1,000. Also 1,000 Cypress trees. 

BAILEY & CO., 

Depot, 118 East Twelfth street, Oakland, Alameda 
county, Cal. Lock Box HO. 



200,000 Forest Trees 

For Sale. Consisting of MONTEREY CYPRESS, PINES 
and BLUE GUMS: all sizes at low rates. Also, large 
AliRiCLRlES EXCELS.V and a GENEltAL NURHEuY 
STOCK of FRUIT TREES, Fruit Bushes, Vines, Street 
uiid Oruauieutal Evergreen Trees, Shrubbery and Green 
House plants. Send for prices. Address 

W M. SEXTON, Nurseryman, Petaluma, Cal. 



l.OOO.OOO ISlue OuiTi Ti-eea 

At $10 per 1000 in lots ot 10,000, or |1& per 1000 in 
smaller quantities. Address W. A. T. STRATTON, 
PaciUc Fort«t Tree Nursery, Pctatnma, Cal. 



The Aughinbaugh Blackberry 




This new blackberry is a California production, of 
largo size, firm, and excPlh'Ut flavor. It ripens from 
May nntil August. The last of the crop of berries sold 
readily at 4i) cents per pound when tho "Early Wilson" 
brought 'JO cents at the same time. Plants are now 
ready for transplanting and for sale at my residence on 
Central avenue, west of Webster street, Alameda, and 
Geo. F. Silvesteb's, 317 WashinKtOD St., San Francisco. 
PnioKs: 

For one doz., by mall, postpaid $."1 00 

Less than one dez., by mail, jiostpaid, each 50 

For 100, I'nrwardiug expenses paid by purchaser 16 00 
For 1000, forwarding expenses paid by purchaser 100 00 

Send your address and receive circular containing 
particulars free. 

O. ATJGHINBAtrOH. 




Are the best the world produces. They are planted by 
a million people in America, and the result is beautiful 
Flowers and splendid Vegetables. A Priced Catalogue 
sent free to all who enclose the postage — a 2 cent stamp. 

Vick's Floral Guide, Quarterly, 25 cents a year. 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, M 
cents; with cloth covers, 65 cents. Address 

JAMES VICK. Rochester, N. Y. 



CAMELLIAS. 

We offer a large stock of very fine jilauts at from 
$33 to $100 per loo. For cat^ihigucs ot these, as well 
as of Azaleas, Rhododendrons and Evergreen 
Trees in gieat variety, address 

S. B. PARSONS & CO., 
Box iw. Flushing, N. T. 



Grapevine Cuttings. 

B. Malvasia, Zinfindel, Muscat Alexandria, Bcrf;er. 
Largo M'hite Malaga and many others. Price, throe 
to live dollars per thousand. 

H. W. ORABB, 

OakviUe, Napa County, Cal. 



FOR SALE— BLUE GUM TREES. 

The undersigned has the pleasure of announcing to 
those contemplating planting largely this season, the 
nursery ,tock of the well known Gum Tree Farm, at 
$1B per thousand, nursery price. The young stock is 
extensive, ranging in bight from 8 inches to lj<i feet, 
e])eeially grown for Forest ('ulturo. Address, ISAAC 
COLLINS, Haywood, AlamedaCo., Oal. Nursery situ 
ated on Redwo(Kl road, 1 ^j miles from Haywood. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEIDS. 



If you want Seed that you can depend upon as to 
variety and freshness, why not send direct to the 
grower and make a saving of it least thirty per cent, 
on the prices of other seedsmen? As we grow our seeds 
we guarantee them fresh and true to name. Send for 
catalogue, free, post-paid, and compare with prices of 
other dealers. Just received, 

Grasses, Clover, Alfalfa and Field Seeds, 
Trees, Shrubs, Flowering Shrubs, 
and Greenhouse Plants, Cab- 
bage, Onion and Cauli- 
flower Plants. 

Large assortment of BULBS from Holland. Address 
all orders or letters of Inquiry to 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO.". 
607 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



LAW, SOMNER & CO., 

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA k DUNEDIN, 
OTAGO, NEW ZEALAND, 

Offer Collections of Native Seeds, including 

Blue, Red, and all other Varieties of Gums, Etc. 

K?" Illustrated Catalogue free on application. 



MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA, 

Collectors of all Seeds of Trees and Shrubs indigenous 
to the Australian Colonies, including 

Blue, Red and Peppermint Gums, Acacias, Etc. 



FLOWER 

SEEDS. 

VEGETABLE 

SEEDS. 



Spooner's Prize Flower Seeds 

Spooner's Boston Market 
Vegetable Seeds. 

The cheapc t and best seeds Id 
the mark.;t. Send two 3 cent 
stamps for our Illustrated cata- 
logue and see the prices. 

W. H. 8P00NEB, Bogton. Mass 



GOOD SEEDS 

Grown with care and painstaking, from selected stocks, 
ALWAVs FAY. Try uilue. See advertisement, "All Aboa 
Gardening." J. B.ROOT, Seed Grower, Rockford, 111 



Commission Merchants^ 

T. O'CONNOR & CO., 

SEED AND PRODUCE 
Commission House, 

IMPORTEHS OF 

Seeds and Semi-Tropical Trees 
Plants and Fruits. Etc 

600,000 Australian Blue Gum at $25 to $10 per M, Is 
boxes; 260,000 Monterey Cypress at $25 te $40 per M, 
in boxes; also a consignment of Australian Bine Gum 
Seed, warranted 1874, per steamship City of Melbourne, 
at 75 cents per oz., or $10 per lb. 

Navll (or Seedless) Orange Trees, l 
Lisbon Lemon Trees, 

Passion Fruit-Bearing Vino and Seed, [Australian. 
Norfolk Island Pine (Elcnrla) Seed or I 
Plants. J 

Orange Trees. — Wilson's Seedlings, Kona, Malta 

Blood and St. Mikel's. 

Chuchapela, Pemambuco and Sweet Acapnlco; alio 
Vegetable, Grass, Field and Flower Seeds. Australian 
and Sicily Lemon Seed in barrels. Orange and Mexican 
Lime Seed in barrels. For sale by 

T. O'CONNOR « CO., 

426 Bansome street, near Olay, 8. F. 



B, X. oiTiaaBoa. 
1868. 



B. s. BAi.noa. 
1876. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Oommiaslos 

House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast comer of Washing 
ton. Ban Franclseo. 

Our bnsliMss being exclnslvely OAnunisalon, we have 

interests that will conflict with th/ise of the producer. 

4v23.1y 



Davis & Sutton, Commission IHerchants, 

For California Fruits: also for the sale of Butter, Ekki 
t;heeae. Heps Green and Dried FruiU, etc., 75 Warren 
street. New York. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Cashier, 
Tradesmen'! National Bank, N. Y.; Elliranger A Barry, 
Rochester, N. v.; O. W. Reed. Sacramento, Oal.; A 
Losk A Co.. Paoiflo Frnit Market. Han Ktsnclsco.Oal. 



RUPTUIIK. 



Use no More Metallic Trusses. No more suffering 
from Iron hoops or steel springs. DE. KOWE'S PAT- 
ENT ELASTIC TRUSS Is worn with ease and comfort 
night and day, and will asd baa performed radical 
cures when all others have (ailed. Reader, if you are 
ruptured, try one of DR. ROWE'S comfortable elaatle 
appliances; you will never regret it. 

ROWE ELASTIC TRUSS CO., 
tr 600 Sacramento Street, B, T, 



January i, 1876.] 



MYERS EXCELSIOR GANG PLOW. 




Greatest Agricultural Improvement of the Age!! 

FAPlIMEPtS OF CilLlL.IFOK,IVI A : 

WE HAVE FOR THE FALL OF 1875, A NEW AND VERY MUCH IMPROVED GANG PLOW. THE MATERIALS 

ARE ALL OF WROUGHT IRON AND STEEL, EXCEPT THE POLE. THE BOTTOMS ARE MADE 

OF THE VERY BEST OAST STEEL, WITH A HEAVY THICK MOLD BOARD. 

BUT OUR GREAT POINT IS 
MYERS' PATENT DOVETAIL SHARE, 

Which fits in a nice groove, requiring no bolts, and is stronger than any other style 

of Share. It can be taken off when dull, and replaced with a sharp one 

without turning the Plow over, or losing time ! ! 

We guarantee a perfect fit In duplicating each and every part that makes up the Plow, and when Mold 
Board, Land Side, or Share is worn out, or by accident gats broken, we can furnish duplicates and warrant 
every piece to be an exact fit. Warranted to work in all kinds of soil, and to be of lighter draft thau any otlier 
Plow In use. V^ WE ONLY ASK A TRIAL ! 1 1 

LINFORTH, KELLOGG & CO., 

AQ-RICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 
Nos. 3 and 5 Front Street, - - - - SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



THE CELEBRATED 

SCHUTTLER FARM AND FREIGHT 




WAGON. 

Superior in Streng'th, Durability and Lig-ht- 

ness to any wagon manufactured. 

Warranted to run lighter and wear 

longer than any \7ag0n 

in America. 

THE DEERE GANG PLOW. 




The Lightest Draft Gane Plow Ever Hade. 

First Premiums at Illinois, California and Iowa 
State trials, make it to the farmer the moat valuable 
inventioD of the age. Two thousand farmers, during 
Its first and second seasons have used and pronounced 
It "the beet they ever saw." 



Buckeye force Feed Drill 




AND &RASS SEED SOWER. 

It is a positive Force Feed, which can he regulated 
for any desired quantity, without any change of gears 
and without carrying around a lot of extra gears. We 
guarantee it to be nuperior to any Feed Drill made. 

CHALLENGE FEED MILL. 




H 
V 
a 

O 

V 

» « 
c 2 



W« have purchased the sole right [to manufacture 
these Celebrated Feed Mills, for the Pacific Coast. 
They are the only mill yet invented which gives 
perfect satisfaction. They will grind all kinds of grain 
into feed; Barley, Corn, Oats, etc , however green, 
wet or dry, or whatever may be its condition, with 
ease and speed, without heating the feed or doing other 
damage. Will also grind Salt and Soft Kock. 



Marcus C. Hawley & Co., Sole Agents, 

108 & 110 ^ront Street. San Francisco. Cor. J and Second Sts., Sacramento. 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

8A.N" niA.]VCISCO, PA.1^., 

MANUJKACTUREIIS OP 

LINSEED, CASTOR AND COCOA NUT OILS, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL- 

Hlgheat price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans delivered at our Works. 
Ofllce-3 and 5 Front Street. 

F O K. S -A. IL. E . 

NEW ZEALAND GRASS SEED 

By HELLMANN BROS. & CO., 

'Z ~ Oor. Front and Jaokson Streets, San Francisco- 



BUY THE BEST AND LATEST IMPROVED PLOWS. 

PRICES REDUCED. 
THE "IRON KING" GANG PLOW, 

MADE BY SACRAMENTO PLOW IW'F'G CO. 

301 & 303 J STREET, - - - SACRAMENTO. 

This cut represents the 
Iron King" Gang Plow, 
which we claim to be the 
Standard Plow of the Pa 
cific Coast, for the fol- 
lowing lea-;ons: First- 
It runs lighter, wurkint 
easier tor man and team 
than an.v other pli.w 
bccond-lt turns the fur. 
row better and lifts easier 
out ot the ground. 
1 hird— It is stronger and 
--- 'omplicated. Tho 



j materials used arn -ill 

^-= iron and steel, e.xcept tiie 

^^ pole, which ,s of the beSt 

S== "sh. I'ounh-Tlie beams 

are miide of wrou»l t 




our latest improved puttern«, neatly fitted, and are stronRer than any other in use. 



iron, and are very strong, 
and hignerin the throlt 
^^""1"^ other plow, and 
the raold-boanrs thicker 
and better. Fifth-The 
shares are all made from 



to run lichter for the team than any other plow on the Pacific Coast. It was awarded the premium at the Calif 
Slate Fairs of 1874 and 187S. for the Best Stubble Plow. In these iiarticalars, we claim a vast superiority over all off "* 
plows heretofore made. We also guarantee a perfect fit in diplicatiiig each and every part of this plow We ««t f 
f rmers simply a trial of this plow, which we warrant to work well in all kinds of soil. We believe itto be the np«t , 
simplest, strongest and most durable plow in the world. neatest. 



"liittle Giant" Iron Beam Gang Plo^vs, Molina Bottoms— Price Reduced from SQn fr> crn 
Cash. Sing-le Plows from $ 11 to $20. All kinds ot Tule and Breaking Plows made to order 

No. 1 "Iron King" Gang Plow. .$85 00 I Extra Shares— No, 1 $3 00 I LandKidcs for .sini'Ie Plows to en 

N0.2 .90001 " •• N0.2 3S0| " •• GangPlows 110 

All kinds of castinc done on short notice. '" 

San Francisco Agents, PLEISCHMAN, SICHEL & CO., No. 37 & 39 Battery Street 



Farmers, Take Notice. The Most Important Invention of the Age. 
THE ENAMELED STEEL BARBED WIRE FENCE, 

T»a,tent.e<l l>y J. F. GLID OEIV. 




The GLIDDEN PATENT BAKI) WlltE has beou tested by thousands of practical farmers, who universally 
recommend it. We ask you to try it for the following, aiuonK other reasons: 1. If it does not answer the recom- 
mend, you can return it and your money will be refunded. 2. It is the chnapest and most durable fence made. 
S. It takes less posts than any other fence, i. It can be put up for one-qtiarter the labor of any other fence. 
5. Cattle, mules, and hor.ses will not rub ag.ainat and break it down. 6. The wind has no effect upon it, and fires 
will not burn it up. 7. Stock will not jump oyer or crowd through it. 8 Your crops will bo safe as far as fence 
is concerned. 9. You will know where your stock is by nighrt as well as by day. 10. You can draw enough in a 
buggy to fence lilO acres, and two men can put it up in two days. 11. Because it is what every farmer needs. 
12. Because it was invented by a practical farmer and you will say, after a fair trial, it is the BEST FENCE IN 
THE WORLD! 13. The change of seasons has no effect upon it— it being twisted, holds its tension. 14. Tho 
wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative strength of over 30 per cent, greater than that of 
any common iron wire. 1.5. The only steel coppered wire barb. 16. The only barb that cannot be displacod 
with thumb or liuger, or cattle's horns. 17. The only Viarb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire, 
and cannot be bent, broken, or lubbed off, and never need replacing. 18. The only coiled barb with broad huso 
on main wire, which renders it immovable. 19. The only barb wire which, during process of manufacture, 
its strength is tested etpial to that of two-horse power. 20. The only barb put on by machinery — it is not 
pounded on with hammer and indented in main wire to hold its place. 21. The only barb wire tha*". gives 
universal satisfaction, and has greater sale than all others put together. «^Be sure and ask for tho Glidden 
Patent Barb Wikk. Enquire of Hardware and Agrictiltural Dealers. Samples sent free of charge by addressing 

JONE'?!, OIVEN.'S «fe 00., 



General Agrents for the Coast. 



K and 10th Streets, Sacramento. 



IMPORTE^^ BREEDER 




The Gilmore Angora Goat 
BIIEEDIN& ASSOCIATION, 

iMPOBTEnS ANn BllKF.DERS OF 

PURE BLOODS, 

— ALSO OF — 

GUt Ar>E J«. 

stock Raich sltnatcd at EI Dorado, (Mud Springs) 
El Dorado county, four miles Irom llallroad Station. 
For prices ot stock and any other facts connected with 
the business, address 

N. GILMORE, 

El Dorado , El Dorado Co., Ca^ 



CALIFORNIA WINE COOPERAGE AND MILL CO 

30, 32, 34, 36, 38 & 40 
Spear Street, 

M.FULDA&SONS 

Proprietors. 

Manufacturers of 

WATF-R TANKS. SHIP 

TANKS, MINING 

WORK, 

iWINE, BEER AND LTQIIOK 

CASKS, TANKS, ETC. 

O(io;«erage and Tanks, Steamed 

and Dried Befor<j or After 

Mauulacture at Reason' 

able Rates. 

S'awint;, Planing, «tc. 

^ at Short Notice. eowbp 




TEE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS has a 
larger Circulation than any other Pacific 
Coast Weekly, independent of a daily issue. 



A Real Convenience. — Dewky & Co: Please send 
me tho Rural Phesh. It is a real convenience and I 
cannot do without it. Enclosed you will find five 
dollars. Fraternally, B. F. E. K, 

Anaheim, Oal„ October 12, 1871, 



16 



January i, 1876 



1^^^ Scientific Press 



3Er 







PubUshers, Patent Agents and Enifravera. 
No. 224 Sansoiue Street 8»n Franciaco Cal 



To the Readers of the Pacific 
Rural Press ! 

We wish you to spoak to all w)io yon think 
would bo pleased with our pajior, and 
tell them of its merits, and of the ad- 
vantage it has boon to you and your 
acquaintances. 

We need a larger subscription list, which 
will enable us to keep up a good paper 
and to improve it, and become still more 
useful to you and to our wliole coast. 

Hand your paper to otliers when read — if 
you do not file it. Send it to your 
friends by mail. Send to our office for 
back numbers, which will be sent free 
as samples for you to distribute. .. 

The attention of meetings of (Jranges and 
Clubs called to articles of local or spe- 
cial interest, would prove of mutual 
benefit. 

Write for the columns of the Ruraij Press. 
Send us friendly counsel, business hints, 
and all information of interest to us aud 
our readers. 

SuDsCRiPTioy, 84 per annum. Old ^sub- 
scribers sending us a new subscription 
with a renewal of their own, may remit 
$7 for the two. 

Eemit by P. O. Order or registered letter 

DEWEY & CO., 

■ Office, No. 224 Sansome St., S. F. 

Renew Youu SnBscRiin'ioss. — With encour- 
a.ing rains, good crop prospects, a rapidly in- 
creasing popnlution, public improvements and 
new manufacturing and industrial enterprises 
springing up throughont the coast, we believe 
the enduing ye-ar will be one of such progress 
and importance that no subscriber of the Pekks 
can afford to miss the record of events and dis 
coveriea which will be reported in the succes- 
sive issues of this jonrjnal. . 

OuB Fbiends can do much In aid of our paper and tbe 
canae of practical knowledge and science, hy a«Blijtlug 
Agents in their labors of canvasning, by leurJiug their 
Intliunce aud encoura^inK favora. We Intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

■I. I.. Tharp— Sun Francisco. 

B. W. L'lKiwKi.L — California. 

A. (J. Chami'i.on— Tulare. Fresno and Inyo Co\uitio9. 

.loHN Itosriiiix— California. 

A. C. K.\i)\, California. 

(i. W. McUkkw— Santa Clara connly. 

D. J. Jamk.k— AiiMtraiian Colonies. 

CiLKn. 'V. BEi.i^Muutana, Utah, Idaho and Nevada. 

Camvo, SAiTDiEau Co., Cal., July 3d, 187-1 
MKsana. Ukwey & Co.— arntlemen: To-day I received 
the patent and other papers o( my animal nap, that you 
so successfully worked throuKh the paten i < fflce forme 
for which please accept my best wishes. The chances 
are that I will have another application for you to 
make for me before long. I am well satislied with your 
manner of doiiiK buKim-sB, aud I think inventors of 
this coast stand In their own light when thoy do uot 
put their business intu your lianda. 

I remain fours truly, A. M. GASS. 



StniacnniEiui are rcquesie.l to examine the printed 
acldrcKs ou their papers. It mistakes oc.:ur nl anu lime 
please report them to thi-- odice. Tbe last fl«ure3 (at 
tlie ixtreme -iKht) rcprcBcut the year that your sub- 
scription is paid to. Next to these thi; day and month 
19 represented. For instance, your subscription beina 
paid to July -Ith, 187U, it would be represented viz- 
jl 4 70; or 4il7ii. 



TnorRHTLERSNKss.— Persona sometimes return thei 
paper, marked •■snip this piiper." Their name beini; 
pasted on the slieet ih.y think that is all we need to be 
able to cross tln-ir naiiii-s olT. Now tliat is thouKhtloss. 
ness. Your P. O. address is ueedeil as mucli as your 
name. We have thousands of names arranged only 
according to locality. Our mailing clerk does not kuow 
where everybody lives. 



A Card. 

Waisonville, Dec. 6, 1875. 
To C. P. Hoag, Gen. Agent. 118 

Be ale street, S. F., 
Dear Sir. — We have had the 
Eclipse windmills in use several 
months. They have worked to our 
entire satisfaction, running in the 
lightest breeze, and their self -regu- 
lating apparatus working to perfec- 
tion in the severest gales. We take 
pleasure in recommending the Eclipse 
to all desiring windmills. 

Yours truly, 
Olio Stoesser, E. S. Peck, J. M 

Rodgers and E. J. Martin. 



Reasons why the Eclipse Windmills 
should be Preferred. 

1.— It has been tested eight years in almost every 
State in the Union. 

2.— It is the moat simple in principle, strongest in 
construction an<l possesses more ]iower tliau other mills. 

-1.— It is noiseless in operation, beautiful in dosigu, 
and well linishcd. Has no loose Joint to get out of 
order.' 

4-— H.iK hardly any friction aud will run in light 
winds. It IS a perfect self-resulator. 

5.— It is sanctioned and adopted by the leading rail- 
roa<ls lor their water station^, and pronounced by rail- 
road engineers to be built upcm true mechanical jiriu- 
Oiples. 

'•. — The entire mill is guaranteed, and any casting 
or portion of a mill breiking from defect In material 
or wcirbmanship will be re».laced free of charge with- 
ont delay. 

7- — Tiic rims are atrai;:ht. instead of steamed or bent, 
as in other wheels, and the entire mill is diiralde. 

S-— The cost is less th.in others when the actual 
power, durability and safety are considered. 

Writi: me or c;ill. 

CHAS. P. HOACx, 

General Agent for PaciH<- Coast. IIS Beale street, 
between Mlaslon and Howard, ^aU FranciBCO, CiU. 



R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Reta.il 
Dealer in 




^^^m 



FL'OWEHING PL\NT8 AND BULBS, PRtTIT AND 
0KNA5IENT.-VL TREES, ETC. FANCY WtEE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELU8ES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN UARDWARE. 

Comprising the Most Complete Stock 

EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 
Prices Unusually Low. 

ttil^Trade Price-List on application. 

***-My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden" 
will sDou be ready, and will b- sent fiike to all Cus- 
TOMKKs. It will contain insiructions on the culture 
of Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Tree Seeds, Tobacco, 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J- TRUMBULL,, 

419 and 421 Sansome street, S. F. 



THE BEE-KEEFEES' MAGAZINE. 



/O, 



TRAVELING 



AGENTS 



WANTED 



Fiir this paper. Expeiienced canvassers can 
make txcellont wiges. None but intelligent 
persons of good recommendation need app)y. 



REMINGTON SEWING MACHINE. 




--\ l.v Journal of 32 o' 

■^.J!;;^ vo pajres devoted 

Pn"^©C:j rluKively to |;be-C 

I t m 7"^ 'rl-lfW l.\lftii,l l.ir 



^^ 



An iUnslraled inoiitli. 
Iv Journal of 32 octai 
■d ex. 
:-CuL. 
Ti'UK. Edited by Al. 
)ki-;bt J. KtNO, con- 
taining monthly con. 
tiibutions from Mrs. 
E. S. TfppER, and 
(ither eminent Bee- 
Kceper.s in both Eu- 
rope and AMEniCA. A larse space is devoted to 
BBOINNKKS givitig u.selul inlormation /us£ w?ien 
it is nenled tlirouglioul the year. Terms $1.50 
per year. We will .-^end the Magazine 4 months 
tiNTKi.vi, and includf a 64-page pamphlet, (price 
.10 cts. ) coutaiiiK a beautiful life-like Cliromo ol 
IIONF.Y-IT.ANTS and Italian Bees In their natural 
coloiii. Prize Essay by Mrs. TiiM'E It. tiiiecn Kear- 
Ing by M. iH'inisy, Instructions for Beginners, etc. 
ttll for rt» cts. Address 

KI!VG & SI.OCUM. 
01 Iliiclsun SIrett, Ne^v Vork. 



H^j 



EORAKGUIDE 



Coiitiilns over 1,34)0 varic (ies VeK<'tA*>Ie and 
Flower Seeds. COl.ORKn PIRATES. F-legant 
wood-cuts of vecet.il»Ies and flowerfl. Haudltomest 
Cinlde Pnbllsboil ! ere- Htnd for It. 

DETROIT SEED CO., Detroit, Mleh. 




SUPERIOR FRUIT TREES, 

a-RUE I'o ]va.»i:e. 

A tine collection of Evergreen and Deciduous 
trees. Australian Gum trees m variet;-, \>y 
I the hundred or thousand. Monterey Cypress in 
quantities and Sizes to suit all. Orange and 
Lemon trees at reduced prices. A general variety 
of Nursery StocK. Also, Rhubarb and Asparai^us roota- 

T. CORLEY, 
325 Washington street. S. F. 
Fonnirly tit 015 Washington street. 



Superior to all others, because of their slmplirtty n f 
construction: the most durable and are slw».ysri«dy 
for use; will do all klnd< of work. Price of aiachiue 
as represi-uted in cut, with Hemniers. Fellur, Hraidel-, 
Gouge Tuck-r, (^lilu^r, Johnson's Kiilllei-, an<lDiaiuon*l 
set of Henimers, $75. 

SHOWERS, JEWELL & COLE, 

629 Uarket St., under Palace Hotel S. F. 

AGENTS WANTED FOR CITY A\D COrXTRY. 

M. Eyre, Napa, Cal. 

Hig'h Class, 



TnonorciHiiRED 
POULTRY. 

EIHDEN GEESE, 
Pekin Bucks. 
PIGEONS. 




BRONZE 

TURKEYS. 

Pbice-Lmt 
For 1876 
Wow Ready. 
FERRETS. 



CAMELLIAS. 



A laree stock of veiy finepl-inls 
at rates f lom $^3 to $10(1 per 100 
according oi7.e and kind;). Also 

Ehcdodendrons, Azaleas aud Boeos- 

PURPLE BEECH aud other RARE and 
ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

ROSES and the Best FLOWERING SHRUBS. 

CLEMATIS OF MANY NEW AND FINE SORTS. 
Oatalogues Free. Address 

B. B. PARSONS & CO., 



[Box 99,] 



Flushing, New York. 



r%- 




CALVERT'S 

C ARItOLIC 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Oallon. 

T. W. -TAflKSON, San Francisco, 

Sole Agent for California 

and Nevada. 



RABBITS- 

— -M.Sfi - 

THOROUGHBRED SOUTHDOWN SHEEP. 

Address M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 
Please cncloae stamp. 



Mrllliistrnted FlornI Cainloirne for 1S»« 

Wm^.'^.'S-p"^.-. ^'•"=» »»C''n&les"t"SlVairtheS;s" 
William E. Uowditch,(H5 Warren 8t., Boston, Maaa. 



BHlt"*' 'S v.. '•'' 




ALL ABOUT GARDENING 

F'tr Home rs(! and for Market, in Root's Gabden 
Uandal— practical, pointed and thorough— containing 
•me.halr as much matter as $1,150 books on the subject. 
<Jardener8 throughout the country commend its prac- 
ti<'al labor saving metb -ds as invaluable to them. Sent 
for 10 cents, which will be allowed on the first order 
for seeds. J. B. ROOT, .Seed Grower, Rockford, III. 



r*»M«iM write for your -paper. 



NEW CROP OF 



BLUE GUJ M MEteO, 



GItA.S8 AlVr> 
CLOVER 

FLOWER, A-ND 
VEGETA-BLE 

TREE A.lVr> 
E RU I T 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 



OF EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY AND OP THE 

BEST QUALITY; OFFERED Al WHOLE. 

SALE OR RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 
NEEr»s»M:>vrv, 

No. 317 Washington Street, 
▼8-tr B/u? FRAlfCllSOO. 



FOR. HALE 

—BY THE- 

COUNTRY REAL ESTATE 

ASSOCIATES. 



Officers and Sirectors. 

G. W. COLBT Nord .1. REoENsnmaEn 8. F. 

J.VoLLMAB B.F-lA.W. THOMPsoM.Petalum* 

J. D. Bi-ANCHAB Nana' F.A.Kim BALL San Die(!o 

C. MrrCHELL Giunt .T-,I- G. Gabdneb 8. F. 

G P. Kellogu SaliHas. 

30,000 ACREH 

Of the ehoicest tannine land In SAN LUIS OBISPO 
COUNTY, subdivided into small farms of from 4(1 to 
500 acres, for B«le on favorable terms. 

This Is one of the best opportunities yet offered to 
persons who wish to locate in one of 'he most desirable 
portions of California. Choice farms for sale In all 
parts of the State. 

The Company is now fully reedy for tbo transsction 
of business, and all persons who have lauds for Isle, or 
who wish to purchase land are reijuested to call upon 
the Stcrctar)-. 

J. R. REA.D, 6 Leidesdorff Street. S. F. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Constantly on band and for I'ale choice 

specimens of the following va- 

rittles of Fowls: 

Dark and Ligrht Brahmas, Buff 

White and Partridgre Coch 

ins. White and Brown Leg-- 

horns, Dorkingrs, Polish 

Hamburgs, Game and 

Sebrig-ht Bantams, 

Aylesbury and 

Rouen Ducks. 

ALSil. KOB SALE, 

20 of the Largest Bronze Turkeys in America. 

Eg-RS for sale after January 1st- 
NO INFERIOR FOWLS SOLD AT ANY PRICE. 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

For further information send stamp for Illostrsted 
Oirciilar, to 

GEO. B. BATLEY, 

P. 0. Box 639, Ban Francisco. 



^^fl 




SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OP EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYE, 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, ME8QUIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE OALIFOBNIA ALFALFA, WHITE OLOVER, 
RED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOU GIGAN- 
TEA, PINUS IN8IGNIS, Etc. 

For Sale, vboleaale or retail, by . 

B. F. WELUNGTON, 

(SncceSBor to E. £. Moore), 
426 Washington St., San Francisco. SlvT-ly 

The Scandinavian and German Immigra- 
tion and Employment Office, 

610 Merchant ^Street, near City Hall, S. P. 

Since -Tuly, 187.5, consolidated with the old Califor- 
nia Labor Exchange, established in 1808. Located In 
the bnsiness center of San Francisco, with agents In 
the East and the mother countries of Europe, and mas- 
tering all the principal Europuan languages, we have 
unsurpassed facilities for complying with any demand 
on us for male and female help in any capacity and of 
any nationality, at reasonable terms. A lady attends 
to the female department. Scandinavian, German, 
French and American help our specialty. We can fur- 
nish farmers with any number of Scandinavian and 
German help, if timely notice is given. Hotels and 
privato famillss supplied with French and German 
waiters. When female help is wanted In the country, 
the remittance of the passage money in advance Is 
indispensable. Yotir orders will be filled promptly and 
conscientiously if addressed to 

V. de BRETTEVILLE & CO-, 
[P. 0. Box 1436.J San Franoisoo, Cal. 



$250 



A MO\Tn--Afrcnt8 wanted cvery- 

i'liL'ro. ItiiHlncss lionoraNleand flrit 

la^s. IVirtirnlars scut free. A'ldresa 

.1. \\ (turn A (•*»., ^;i. I.uuli.Mo* 




Volume XI.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 8, 1876. 



[Number 2. 



Mountain Lands. 

Mr. Luttrell's bill in Congress and Mr. Fer- 
ral's move in the Legislature of this State 
seem to very fully embody the popular feeling 
on the subject of the projier mode of opening 
up the mountain lands of California to perma- 
nent occupation by borui fide settlers. The 
State Grange, P. of H., also, at their late meet- 
ing, endorsed the proposition so far as to allow 
actual settlers the privilege of locating 640 
acres of such lands for homesteads and for 
grazing purposes. 

It is certain that under the present laws 
these lands can never be brought into market 
so that the title can pass to any large extent. 
They consist chiefly of broken ranges, thinly 
timbered in the foothill lands, sparingly 
watered and wooded everywhere, and produc- 
ing only light crops of native grasses. There 
are but few locations where the settler can 
selects quarter section, the chief part of which 
shall be suitable for cultivation. By far the 
larger portion is suitable only for grazing pur- 
poses. But if these lands were surveyed and 
set off in tracts of 640 acres or more— in no 
case less — and offered to settlers at a reduced 
price, the theory is that every tract would con- 
tain some little valley, with springs or rivulets, 
where the settler might make his home, culti- 
vate a little patch for a garden, raise a few 
roots or perhaps cut a little grass to tide his 
stock over the few weeks that intervene be- 
tween the destruction of feed by the early rains 
and the springing up of the new grass, which 
appears soon after, and thus utilize the great 
bulk of his claim for grazing purposes. 

On the contrary if they are segregated into 
160 acre tracts, the section which contains the 
valley and water privilege will be taken up, 
while the 480 acres will be worthless to any 
other person, and will be left unsold, and con- 
sequently unimproved to any great extent, for 
the reason that no oue will pay the price re- 
quired for a title. The consequences will be — 
loss to the Government, imperfect develop- 
ment of the agdeultural resources of the entire 
district and constant diiferences between neigh- 
bors who will each strive to get the advantage 
of the other in their efforts to use the unsold 
tracts which lie between their respective prop- 
erties. 

Four-fifths of the land at present unsurveyed 
in the foothdls is now enclosed with rough 
fences by parties holding the small watering 
places, without yielding any revenue to the 
Government; while even the best portions of 
such lands are but imperfectly utilized by rea- 
son of the uncertainty of the tenure. 

Mr. Luttrell's plan of throwing them open to 
purchase in tracts of 640 acres (or more if 
necessary) at the minimum price of fifty cents 
an acre, would soon result in the establish- 
ment of numerous well built homesteads and 
well cultivated tracts of land, on which vege- 
tables and to some extent cereals, also vines, 
fruit and timber trees might be successfully 
grown, but the outlay for which cannot be af- 
forded under either the present minimum price 
of f 1.50 per acre, or the uncertain tenure of a 
settler's title when the future contingency of 
legislation is uncertain. 

If the law making power had set itself at 
work to devise some way to prevent a proper 
development of the footbill lands no more per- 
fect plan could be devised for such a purpose 
than that now in existence. Some legislation 
is an imperative necessity in this direction. 
The only questions in that regard should be 
that of securing th^ benefit to actual settlers, 
the proper extent of the tracts into which the 
land should be segregated (from 640 to 1,280 
being the extremes named), and the price per 
acre — fifty cents being the minimum figure 
■which has been suggested. Of course no legis- 
lation should be made which would interfere 
with the rights of miners on the mineral sec- 
tions. 

The adoption by Congress of some plan of 
this kind will no doubt greatly facilitate the 
settlement of these lands, which constitute a 
very extensive area, and the permanent occu- 
pation and improvement of which would create 
a large amount of taxable property to aid in 
supporting the fast increasing expenses of our 
State Government, 



The Mining Debris Question. 

We print in another column this week an 
official report of the mass meeting of farmers 
held recently in Marysville, to consider the 
matter of the damages done to the farms and 
rivers by the deposition of debris from the 
mines. The question is one which by the 
greatness of the interests involved demands 
carefiil study and just action. It is sound, as 
a general principle, that the industries of men 
should be so adjusted that they may ad- 



Grain Yield. 

Messrs. Editors :— It is said that "figures 
will not lie," but mine are a notable exception. 
Referring to my data, I find that in your issue 
of the 2r|>th, under head of "Grain in Potter 
Valley," I should have said — thrixhed grain, 
43,700 bushels, of which 7,000 bushels were 
oats and barley, the balance wheat. 

Of grain "hogged," to use the farmer's term 
for grain harvested by porkers, full 5,000 




GOLDEN-WINGED WOODPEOKER. 



vance evenly and without working hardship 
and detriment to each other. The way to effect 
this adjustment is often difficult to determine. 
No action should be urged hastily or without 
careful weighing of all the considerations in- 
volved. The study and research necessary to 
wise action should not be shrunk from, because 
upon wisdom in matters of this kind depends 
the symmetry and endurance of our industrial 
growth. We bespeak a careful perusal of the 
report of the meeting which we print elsewhere, 
confident that from a fullness of light wise 
action will prevail. 



bushels is the estimate, of which the most was 
wheat— total, 48,700 bushels small grains. I 
notice that the Jtesources of California gives 
86,573 bushels as the total wheat product of 
Mendocino county. Probably Ukiah, wliich 
HOWS a larger area to small grains than Potter, 
with Potter and the small valleys between them, 
annually harvest a larger wheat crop than is 
here credited to the whole jounty; ditto of 
barley and oats. C. I. H. N. 

Pomo, Cal., Dec. 28th. 

Sib Anthont Bothschild is dead. 



Golden-Winged Wood-Pecker. 

Onr illustration this week shows the golden- 
winged wood-pecker. It is an inhabitant of all 
parts of the United States and of Canada. At 
all times animated and happy, these birds are 
peculiarly so at the love-making season of 
early spring, when their voices may be heard in 
the utterance of joyous sounds, and when the 
coy female is pursued by several males until she 
has indicated her preference, which produces 
no strife, as the rejected at once fly ofi" else- 
where to woo. The song of the male, at this 
season, is not unlike a jovial laugh, nor by any 
means unmusical. As soon as mated, each 
pair immediately proceeds to excavate the trunk 
of a tree, and fashion a place for themselves 
and their young. The hole is at first made 
horizontal, and then downward about six or 
eight inches. They caress each other on the 
branches, climb about and around the tree with 
apparent delight, rattle with their bills against 
the tops of the dead branches, chase away the 
red-heads, and feed abundantly upon ants, 
beetles and larvre. Before two weeks have 
passed, from four to six semi-transparent eggs 
are laid. Two broods are thus produced in 
each season. 

This species is scarcely less happy when do- 
mesticated in confinement than when enjoying 
the utmost freedom, feeding well, and finding 
amusement in everything, but especially in the 
destruction of wooden furniture, for which it 
has great capabilities. 

The flight of this bird is strong and pro- 
longed, being performed in a straighter manner 
than that of any other wood-pecljer, though it 
propels itself by numerous beats of the wings, 
with short intervals of sailing in an almost hor- 
izontal direction. The migrations, which are 
but partial, are performed in the night, and 
are only known by the note it utters and the 
whistlings of its wings. The movements of one 
of them upon the side of a tree, or upon the 
ground, are very quick, thoueh it only alights 
upon the earth to pick up a beetle, caterpillar, 
or other insect, or perhaps a grain of corn. 
Apples, cherries, grapes, persimmons, rasp- 
berries, dogwood berries, and even whortle- 
berries and poke-berries afford it food at certain 
seasons; but the farmer's grain is often its feed 
despite of traps and jscarecrows, though the 
farmer often makes his meal of it. 

Mr. Audubon says: "The young of this 
species irequently have the whole upper part 
of the head tinged with red, which, at the ap- 
proach of winter, disappears, when merely a 
circular line of that color is to be observed on 
the hind part, becoming of a rich Vermillion 
tint. The hairy, downy and red-cockaded 
wood-peckers are subject to the same extraor- 
dinary changes, which, as far as I know, never 
reappear at any future period of their lives." 
This happens to both sexes. He further says: 
"This occurrence is the more worthy of notice, 
as it is exhibited on all the species of the genus, 
on the heads of which, when in full plumage, 
a very narrow line exists. 



Map of California — Mr. E. M. Sleator, agen 
for Whitney's geological survey map of Califor- 
nia, informs us that the balance of the edition 
of tiie map is to be closed out at the reduced 
price of $3.50 per copy. The map is mounted 
on cloth and rollers, and is admirable for hang- 
ing for constant reference. The work is com- 
plete with recent line divisions and improve- 
ments, and is certainly offered at reasonable 
rates. 



Akt Keception. — We have received cards of 
invitation to the fourteenth reception of the 
San Francisco art association, to be held at 
No. 313 Pine St., Thursday evening, January 
6th. The receptions of this association fitly rep- 
resent the art progress of the coast, and are 
praiseworthy. 

A LivKEPOOT, company is negotiating with 
the Marquis of Bute for the establishment of 
a steamship line between Cardiff and New 
York. 



.Tames Akthony, late one of the proprietors 
of the Sacramento Union, died of appoplexy 
in this city on Monday last. 



18 



w^mwm wmmMM ^mmBi 



January 8, 1876 



Stock Bi^eedei^s. 



CamelsTn Nevada. 

A correapondent of the Live Stork Jounml 
gives some interesting items oouceruing the 
success of the camnl breeding experiment in 
Nevada. We quote as follows: 

At Ogden we met eight camels, en nmle from 
their birthplace to the Zoological (tardens in 
Philadelphia. They were in charge of Mr. 
Frank J. Thompson, superintendent of the 
gardens. 

The breeding of camels was begun in Texas, 
twenty years ago, by au imporlation of the War 
Department. From Texas the camels were 
taken to Carson valley, Nevada. The first im- 
portation were India camels; the sfcond wore 
the two-humped camels of China. These two 
varieties cross well together. The two -humped 
are preferable, as they are more docile and 
kindly to hnndie than the single-humped. 

The breeding of the camclH has been a sue - 
cess, and, as park animalx, has been profitable. 
They subsist upon the sage brush and less 
desirable herbage of this rugged, barren re- 
gion, and attain such size as is unknown in any 
other country. They were the largest we ever 
saw, and were selected with reference to ship- 
ping in the oars. The largest ones could not 
b» pni into the o'dinary stock cars as used on 
the Pacific railroad. The man who owns and 
breeds them is a Swis>4, and wants to sell out, 
and return to his native land. If he does not, 
he intends to remove to Arizona with them, 
for the reason that camels as pack animals 
frighten the teams of "freighters" and make 
trouble for him continually. Thoy breed once 
in two years; and in this lot there was one cow 
camel with her year old calf at her side, taking 
his dinner like any other great, saucy calf. 
The most of these were two and three years 
old. The five year olds were, as stated, small- 
ieh selections irom thi.s herd, yet their humps 
were very near the roof of the car, and their 
odd-looking heads bad to be kept in a very 
cramped position. 

It IS a matter of wonder and congratulation 
that the breeding of superior camels is added 
to the live stock interests of the eountry. From 
this camel-breeding establishment can be sup- 
plied all the show animals needed for the 
world, as they cost no more to rear than mules, 
and are far better as pack animals. The rigors 
of winter, and the heat of summer, are alike 
favorable to their growth and prosperity. 
Nevada, though, is a fine stock growing region 
for cattle, horses or sheep, as well. 



PoUltIY Y^rd- 



Special Contributor— M. Eybe, Napa. 



^ Cures for Ails. . 

In the KUBA.L Pbus^ oi December 18th L. 
M. Smith asks for cures of crop bound fowls 
and for turkeys troubled with the diarrhea. 
The following are the remedies: 

Crop Bound Fowls. — Pour a small quantity 
of oil or w»rm water down the throat, then 
gently knead the crop until the mass inside is 
softsned, when part of it may be witkdrawn — 
this may take nearly an hour. This proving 
ineffectual, with a sharp knife cut a slit in the 
crop; take out tbe contents with a small spoon; 
wash inside of crop with lukewarm water; sew 
up with silk, tying each stitch separately and 
being careful to stitch the inside skin first, 
th«n the outside. Before sowing up, pare the 
nail and grease the forefinger and ascertain if 
anything be in the opening lending out of the 
crop. 

I have already given the cure for the disease 
afflicting Mr. Smith's bronze turkey, in last 
year's Pbk.ss. As soon as green (or j-ellow) 
droppings are observed, confine the fowl in dry 
quarters, give two or three tablespoonfuls of 
alnm water (% fl>. alum to 3 qts. water) morn- 
ing and evenicg— feed soft and stimulating 
food. If too far gone to eat, beat up a raw egg 
with alum water and feed. I use a funnel and 
a tube, the latter being pushed down into the 
crop— but it may be fed with a spoon. 

Napa, Calj^ M. Etbb, Jb. 

Magnitude of the Poultry Interest in the 
United States. 

Borne idea of the ezMui to which thorough- 
bred, or as it is commonly called, "fancy poul- 
try," occupies the attention of breeders in 
the Eastern States, may be gained from the 
prize list of the exhibition to be held in Chicago 
in this month. Over nine Ihoufinnd dnllarn in 
cash, besides diplomas, will be awarded in pre- 
miums. This amount is but a tithe of the total 
to be awarded by the various State and other 
poultry associations during the winter. In Call 
fornia poultry pays nearly double the umouut 
which can be realized from it in the 
East under the most favorable circum- 
stances, and in this State high class poultry 
should receive far more consideration at 
the hands of the managers of our fairs. All 
of US who raise really flue fowls ate deterred 



from sending them to fairs, not so much be- 
cause the premiums offered would not pay one- 
tenth the cost, but because we cannot submit 
our fowls to be passed upon by incompetent 
judges. In France the amount realized for 
poultry far ex<:eedx the total value of our wheat 
crop in California, and still we have here a cli- 
mate and other advantages for rearing fowls 
surpassing those of France. There is no farmer 
in California who should not realize at least 
$aO() to $400 a year from his poultry. This 
can be done by selecting a good breed, build- 
ing them very cheap houses and giving them 
even one-half the attention bestowed on hogs, 
sheep or cattle. Why not devote as much 
thought, time, care and expense to chickens as 
to sheep, when the former will yield ten tiini's as 
much clear profit? My chicken houses cost 
me from $G to $7 each. (I have already de- 
scribed them in the Press, and the number of 
fowls to be kept in each, where to locate them, 
etc.) Farmers make a very great mistake in 
neglecting poultry ; $300 even is a nice thing 
to handle at the end of the year, when gained 
so easily, and yet nine out of ten absolutely 
throw thia $300 awa'*, or take no means to ob- 
tain it. M. Eyre, Jr. 
Napa, Cal. 



SH^Er Wio Wool. 

The Big Fleece. 

It appears that our Eastern friends have 
been doing their best to "scour" down the 
"big fleece" which was sent East from this 
State nearly two years aao. In the latest issue 
of the Live Stork Jouriinl wo find the following 
interesting account of their operations: 

It has been so long since the big California 
fleece was spoken of in those coluuins, that it 
may have passed from the minds of some of the 
readers of the Journal. This fleece, as previ- 
ously noted, from a French merino ram, the 
property of Mrs. Robert Blacow. of California, 
was about sixteen months' growth, and weighed, 
iinwashed, .51% pounds, as certified by parlies 
present when it was taken from the sheep. So 
unusual was the weight, that the autiounce- 
ment attracted the atteutiou of growers all over 
the country, and grave doubts were freely ex- 
pressed as to the possibility ef a single fleece 
weighing ho much. The pnoprietors of this 
journal secured the fleece, and submitted it to 
the Illinois Wool Growers' Association, at its 
meeting in September, 1874. By the associa- 
tion it was referred to a committee of practical 
breeders, who proceeded to unroll it for the in- 
spection of the convention. It was taken in 
charge by the committee, under instruction to 
have it propeily scoured, and the result re- 
ported to the association. At the annual meet- 
ing for 1875, the following report was sub- 
mitted : 

Your committer appointed to cleanse and report 
npun the Calirornia tleecc, bet; to report: Tbe welgbt 
of tlocce belore scouriug was lifty ponndfi. It wav put 
through two Bieges. Tbe flrst reduced welgbt to 
thirteen and one-balf pownds. It was nut clean. Vc 
ordered the second, and now it is well scoured. The 
present weight i» jnst twelve pounds; yet tbe commii- 
tee believe there are iwo pounds of burs In it now. 
The appearance of the wool is mucti coarser than be- 
fore scouring, and is very uneven— not In any way a 
desirable wool to raise. We do not recommend any 
flock-magter to breed from such stock, let his flook be 
tine or coarse. The wool, when free of burs, not worth 
over tifty-flve cents a pound in a clean state, while good 
Merino wool would be worth eighty-five cents. The 
cost of keep Is w-cording to weii^ht of carcass. The 
ram that cut this flee™ is very Urge for a French ram 
— supposed by those who have seen him to weigh near 
3(10 pounds. HIk fleece, when clean, say ten pounds, nt 
litty-Uvj cents per pound, is worth $.5.50. An American 
Merino lamb's fleece scoured eight pounds, at tbe same 
place — carcass. 186 puun<s. This, at cighty-Sve cents 
per pwmd, is ifi 8(1— givlntr a preference to the latter of 
$1.30 in fleece alone. Vet there Is more diCference in 
the keeping, and that is an object here, but not so 
much in California, 

(Si«ne<l) Daniri, Keu.bt, Chairman. 

Mr. Kelley stated, when submitting the re- 
port, that he had been unable to get together 
the committee appointed by the association, 
and been compelled to call in the assistance of 
Mr. Jonathan Tofft, of Du Page county, Illi- 
nois, who had with himse.f signed the report. 

It is to be regretted that the committee were 
not more careful in guarding against a show of 
tbe partiality that Illinois breeders are known 
to entertain in favor of the American or im- 
proved Spanish Merino over his French cousin. 
While we have no doubt the committee was 
perfectly honest in its conclusions, it will find 
that the wording of the report will prove a bid 
for criticism that some friend of the French 
Merino is sure to accept. 

From a pretty careful examination of the 
fleece befor* scouring, we are of the opinion 
that the committee places the weight of burs 
too high, one pound being probably an extreme 
estimate. 

We have requested samples of the fleece be- 
fore and after scouring— both from the burriest 
and cleanest portions— and when these are re- 
ceived we may refer to the subject again. 

It is proper to state that when the fleece was 
received by us it weighed 51 1-^ pounds, as re- 
ported, and the difference between that weight 
and the weight reported by the committee be- 
fore tcouring (.50 pounds) Is due to the re- 
moval of samples; about eleven ounces of tbe 
very best wool having been taken out by our- 
selves before surrendering the fleece to the 
committee, and other samples were removed 
previously. 

The shrinkage shown by the report of the 
committee is sevdnty -six percent, of the gross 



weight; and in this connection it may not be 
uninteresting to reproduce from the last issue 
of the Journal the following report of the re- 
sults of the nine rams' fleeces scoured under 
the supervision of the Wisconsin State agricul- 
tural society, prefaced by the remark that in 
all probability the Wisconsin scourings may 
not have been so rigorously executed : 

STATEMENT OF SIlKABINil ANU BCOIIRINO. 





Weight 


Waigbt 


Weight 


rercuntaite 


No 


of 


of 


of 


of Loss in 




Carcass. 


Fleooe. 


Olcansod Wool. 


Cleansing. 


1 


133 lbs. 


■H lbs. 


5 lbs. 6 on. 


.778« 


■.! 


107)-.; •■ 


21 \ " 


6 " 1 •• 


.7212 


;)* 


126 " 


17 " 


6 '• 12 •• 


eeiT 


4 


las.vs " 


22 ■• 


6 " 12 " 


.«9:;i 


51 


127 " 


1915" 


6 " 7 " 


.6726 


«1 


M8,^ " 


21 ■< " 


7 " » " 


srm 


7* 


82 " 


12 " 


4 " 13 " 


.6937 


8 


m " 


21 •■ 


4 " 15 •• 


.7fit« 





126 !« " 


19!« •' 


fi •• 6 " 


.6783 


The percentige of loss In each case waa 


expressed in 


common fractlQOB in the copy received, 


and we have 


recalculated It, 


stating it in decimal form. 









A Machine for Darning Stockings. 

The mdentifir American thus describes the 
latest Yankee notion : "Imagine, ye mothers 
of large familias, who ruefully contemplate ili- 
lu|iidaled socks by the dozen, after the work's 
washing, with visions af strained eyes and 
tired backs floating across your minds; imagine 
a little apparatus infinitely more simple than 
the sewing machine, which repairs the bagest 
darn in much less lime than we can det.cribe 
tbe operation, and far more neatly than 
you can do it with all your years of practice. 
This is what it is. Two small plates, one sla- 
liouary and the other movable, are placed one 
above the other. The faces are corr.ugated, 
and between them the "holy" portion of the 
stocking is laid. Twelve long eye pointed 
needles are arranged side by side in a frame, 
which last is earned forward so that the nee- 
dles penetrate opposite edges of the hole, pass- 
ing in the corrugations between the plates. 
Hinged just in tro"nt of the plate is an uptight 
bar, and on this is a crosspiece carrying twelve 
knobs. The yarn is secured to an end knob, 
and then, with a bit of flat wire, pushed through 
the needle eyes. Then the loop between each 
needle is caught by the baud and hooked over 
the opposite knob, so that each needle carrie.'< 
really tw^o threads. Now the needles are car- 
ried back to their first position, and, in so do. 
ing, draw the threads, which slip off the knob^i 
through the edges o^ the fabric. A little push 
forward again brings the sharp roar edges of 
the needle eye against the threads, cutting all 
at once. This is repeated antil the darn is fin- 
ished, and beautifully finished it is. The in- 
ventor is Mr. O. S. Hosmer of Boston, and we 
predict for him the bloasiugs of the entire fem- 
inine community. The cost of the machine is 
but ten dollars." 



Practical Spibitualism.— Dr. E. P. Miller, 
an intelligent physician of New York, has bo- 
come an avowed and ardent advocate of the 
"spirituality" of the Eddy tricksters of Ver- 
mont. Tbe doctor is so certain of the hea- 
venly power of one of the Eddy female per- 
formers that he has publicly offered a challenge 
or test exhibition, under a wager of $5,000, 
that her "manifestations" are genuine, and 
agrees to leave the matter to tbe decision of a 
committee of twelve persons, to be mutually 
chasen by himself and the acceptor of the chal- 
lenge. Mr. W. Irving Bishop has aceepted the 
challenge, undertakes to prove that the woman 
is a fraud, and further, agrees to reproduce Ml 
the "materializations" and "manifestations" 
that she may produce, without any spiritual 
a8si.>tance whatever. He says he has been to 
Vermont and learned the art completely. He 
suggests that $5,00<) shall be deposited by each 
party, the winner to donate that amount to 
some designated obaritublu institution. The 
result of the contest, if it comes off, will bo 
interesting, however it may eventuate. 

A Friend of the " Rubal."— Messrs. Edi- 
tors: — You proposed in your last issue to send 
us sample copies for distribution; I thought 
best to send you a list of names that you 
might send them direct from tbe office. I was 
in Del Norte county last summer, and I will 
send you a lii>t of the most prominent farmers 
and dairymen, some of whom I know will sub- 
scribe if they have not already done so since I 
was there. I have spoken a good word for the 
RaBAL wherever I have traveled and will con- 
tinue to do BO, for 1 am proud of our paper. 
I have a store of information from the 
northern counties and Oregon suitable for its 
pages, useful, also, for tbe immigrant, if it were 
put in shape for print. There are, also, many 
items from our valley (Napa,) that ought to 
find (I place in the columns of the Bubal, and 
which I will forward soon. J. M. 

St. Helena, Cal. 



Sheep Cobeal. — Messks. Editors: — Will 
some of the readers of the Kcbal furnish a de- 
scription of a good movable sheep corral, suit- 
able for a region infe.-ited by coyotes and also 
subject to very heavy winds, and oblige 

A SUBSOBIBEB. 

Seattle, W. T., Dec 21st, 187.5. 

Softening and Touohknino Wood. — If 
blocks of wood intended to be used for cutting 
veneers are first Iwiled or steamed in a solution 
of ammonia and borax, they will not only be- 
come soft and easy to cut, but the veneers 
formed from them will retain their flexibility 
for an indefinite length of time. 



Use^Jl lfipoi\f«i^Tioi<- 



A Novel Device. 

In Northern cities, where the cold is severe, 
serious annoyance and no little danger often 
occurs from the freezing of water pipes. The 
Nrieniijir Ainericaii utters the following word of 
cauliuD, and describes n very ingenious de- 
vice for meeting such emorgeuoies :• 

When a pipe from the street freezes, the 
range tire should be at once extinguished, as 
otherwise the water back will either blow up 
or be barnt out; in the former case serious 
damage m poi-sible. Ijust winter the plumb- 
ers dug up the streets, and built fires over the 
supply pipes, and went through other opera- 
tions, which generally resulted in a bill of from 
eighty to one hundred dollars. At the present 
time, if an invention which we recently ex- 
amined proves as useful as appearances indi- 
cate, the cost of such proceedings will be 
greatly reduced. The apparatus is a small 
steam boiler, heated by a pan of charcoal be- 
neath it. The hot water — not steam, as in this 
machine a constant supply of water against the 
ice is found to thaw the same quicker, para- 
doxical as the fact may uppnar — is farced into 
a small rubber tube, the end of which has a 
metallic tip, and around which stout copper 
wire is spirally wound. This wire is held in a 
ooil in a rotating wfre cage, and freely unwinds 
as it is pushed into the pipe. When the end 
meeiu the ice, the pushing by hand is stopped, 
but is continued by an ingenious spring ar- 
rangement. By the spiral wire the tube is 
literally screwed into the ice, which is softened 
and melted before it by the continual stream of 
hot water issuing from the end of the pipe. 

We might add that there is still an excellent 
field for invention in other devices of the same 
description; and at the same time we might 
snggest, to inventors already in possession of 
similar patented apparatus, that now is the 
the time to bring them to the notice af tbe 
peo]iIo. 

TuE Obioin of Mahooant Ffbnitobe.— The 
facts regarding the first introduction of ma- 
hogany as material for furaiture, though long 
known, are not the less interesting: A physi- 
cian of the name of Gibboas, who resided in 
London, received in 1721 a present of some 
mahogany planbe from his brother, a West In- 
dia captain. Dr. Gibbous was tien building a 
house, and he desired his carpenter to werk up 
the wood. The carpenter had no tool hard 
enough to touch it; so tho planks were laid 
aside. The doctor's wife, after the house was 
fini.^bed, wanted a candle box, and the ma- 
hogany was again thought of. A cabinet 
maker of tbe name of Wollastoa was applied to ; 
and ho also complained thnt his tools were too 
soft. But he persevered, and the candle box 
was at length completed — after a rude fashion, 
no doubt. The candle box was so much ad- 
mired, that the physician resolved to have a 
mahogany bureau; and when the bureau was 
finished, all the people Of fashion came to see 
it. The cabinet maker procured more planks, 
and made a fortune by the numerous custom- 
ers be obtained. From that time the use of 
mahogany furniture went forward among the 
luxuries; and the drawers and bureaus of wal- 
nut tree and pear tree were gradually super- 
seded in the bouses of the rich. 



Ebonite. — The use of ebonite, one of the 
newer preparations of India rubber, is con- 
stantly increasiag, on account of its lietler ap- 
plicability to many purposes in the arts than 
its i>ear aHy, vulcanite. The two substances 
are quite similar, teing composed of india 
rubber and sulphur, with some preparation of 
gutta petcha, shellac, asphalte, graphite, eic, 
although these latter are not esseniial. In 
vulcanite the amount of rubber does not ex- 
ceed twenty to thirty i)er eent, whereas in 
ebonite the percentage ot sulphur may reach as 
high as sixty. An increased temperature is 
also required for its preparation. The ai>- 
proved formula consists in mixing together one 
hundred parts of ruliber, forty-five of sulphur 
and ten of gutta percha, with sufficient heat 
to facilitate tbe combustion. In manufacture, 
a .sufficient quantity of this mixture is placed 
in a mold of a desired shape, and of such ma- 
terial as will not be aS'ected by the sulphur 
eontained in the mass. It is then exposed to 
heat T)f about 315" and a pressure of about 
twelve pounds to the square inch for two 
hours. This is dene most readily by {facing 
the mold in a steam pan, where the requisite 
pressure and temperature can easily be kept 
up. When ooldflhe ebonite is removed from 
the mold and finished and polished in the 
usual manner. 



A NEW method of warming first-olass car- 
riages in express trains has been adopted in 
Bavaria. A special van is atta{;hedto the train, 
and contains a powerful "oalorifere," and the 
heated air is conveyed to all the («rriage8 of 
the train by means of india rubber tubes. The 
experiment with first-class carriugesis reported 
upon so favorably that the authorities have de- 
termined to apply it to all the carriages on tbe 
Bavarian lines, and it is expected that it will 
soon be adopted on all tbe German railways. 

Rosin. — Common rosin, the non-volatile por 
tion of crnde turpentine, was originally termed 
"colophony," from Colophon, in Ionia, 
where rosin was flrst prodnoed by the anoieut 
Greeks. It is sometimes so called in tbe pres> 
ent age. 



January 8, 



Agriculture in the Public Schools. 

[By Profe83or Ibaao Kinley.] 

We can best perform that which we best un- 
derstand. Knowledge and skill should be united 
in the same person. It is as important that 
the mind be familiar with mental processes as 
that the hand be skilled in manual performances. 
In every system of mental culture, the pupil 
should not only be taught the truth; he should 
be able to repeat also the logical processes by 
which the truth has been established. So in 
the work of practical life; it is not enough that 
we know the fact, we should know also the 
reason. ,It is not enough that we be familiar 
with daily phenomena, we should know also 
their causes and consequences. It is as im- 
portant to the agriculturist that he understand 
the philosophy of the various operationri on 
the farm, and the causes of the natural phe- 
nomena there exhibited, as it is to the mathe- 
matician that he be familiar with the principles 
from which have been deduced his theorems and 
formularies. In either caae, ignorance pro- 
duces only routine, not likely to be followed 
with eminent results. 

I agree that much has already been done for 
the education of the whole people. Popular 
education is, indeed, the distinguishing achieve- 
ment of Modern civilization. It is the patriot's 
trust for the permanency of free institutions. 
It is the philanthropist's hope for the f nture 
well-being of the race. Of all the inventions 
of the ages that of universal education is the 
grandest in its conception and promises the 
most varied and beneficent resulls. It marks 
at onoe the era of free governments, the moral 
development and the physical well-being of 
the race. 

With nations, as with individuals, there is 
always a better beyond — a higher and still 
higher for the achievements of the future. In 
seeking this higher — this better beyond — for 
the nation, many of our ideas of government, 
and laws and popular institutions are donbtle^s 
to undergo changes; and I am persuaded that 
on no other subject are these changes to be 
ibore radical than on that of education. 
Industrial Advancement. 

The next great educational stop is to be, in 
my opinion, an industrial one. The public 
scbools, in addition to the general training 
which they are to furnish, will be required to 
give also special instruction on such subjects as 
may relate to and illustrate the prospective 
vocation of the pupil. The time, in my 
opinion, has already come, when the initiatory 
steps in this direction should be taken, when 
the opportunity for this practical education 
should be given. 

All capital is the product of labor; and so- 
ciety itself rests on the broad shoulders of 
laboring man and laboring woman. Any effort, 
therefore, to increase the educational or other 
opportunities of the industrial classes, I shall 
feel to be a movement in the right direction; 
and that, in the advocacy of agriculture as a 
study in the public schools, T am standing on 
firm ground, sustained by sound reason, and, 
as I believe also, so far as honestly tried by 
practical experience. But the policy of the 
movement is not generally accepted; and it 
must succeed, if at all, against the active oppo- 
sition of some, and the silent protests of many 
others. 

The first thing with which a novel movement 
has to contend, is always objection. Perhaps, 
therefore, it will be proper, in the argument, 
first to consider these: After having removed 
the obstacles a forward movement may be less 
difficult. It is urged that as the design of educa- 
tion is mental and moral development; and 
that, as the mind is superior to the body and 
knowledge better than riches, that system of 
culture should be adopted, and that course of 
study pursued which will produce the greatest 
mental and moral growth. This objection 
comes from the educators of youth themselves, 
and is indeed the only one of sufficient conse- 
quence to merit answer. But although it is 
dressed in the guise of an objection, and is in- 
tended as a strong one, I accept every word 
of it as truth, regarding it, when properly in- 
terpreted, as the strongest possible admission of 
the study of the industrial sciences, if I may 
so style them, in the public schools; I do not 
propose, therefore, to spike this cannon, but to 
take possession of it, only reversing the direc- 
tion of its discharge. Doubtless, if we could 
penetrate the designs of the Infiaite, we should 
find that life's labors and duties are intended as 
disciplinarians to prepare us for the labors and 
duties of that higher and better state for which 
this is only probationary; and it should reason- 
ably follow that' the acquisition and application 
of the requisite knowledge and skill should 
form the best possible mental and moral 
gymnasia. He who supposes that the course 
of study thus indicated is too limited, must 
himself have exceedingly limited notions of 
the length, breadth and depth of these obliga- 
tions. 

Culture Combined With Utility. 
If it can be shown that the study of the 
sciences with reference to, and illustrative of, 
the industries, is equally as well adapted for 
mental culture and discipline as the study of 
them in the abstract, or with no such reference, 
then the value of such a course as a disciplin- 
arian is equal to that of the course now adopted 
in the schools. If it can be shown that such a 
course is better adapted for mental training, 
then t ha argument in its favor preponderates; 
and in either case, the fact that the student is 



thereby better fitted for life's duties, power- 
fully reinforces the argument. 

"Use strengthens powers," says the good 
Spurzheim. The faculties of the mind, like 
those of the body, become active, vigorous 
and strong, each by its appropriate exercise. 
Now, which is the most favorable to meptal 
activity, the study of science with, or without 
an object, with or without reference to its 
practical application. In both cases the same 
theorems and formularies must be demon- 
strated, the same scientific principles exem- 
plified l)y experiment, and by facts in nature. 
The difference will be that in the study of 
science with reference to its uses, a greater 
number of experiments will be made, and a 
greater number of familiar phenomena ex- 
plained. Another difference will be in the 
course of study pursued. The industrial 
student, for example, who may not have time 
or means to complete the usual course of study, 
will elect from it such branches as will best 
assist him in his vocation. He will leave out 
perhaps from the curriculum all languages but 
his own, and if his prospected vocation be 
agriculture, willgive the more time to chemistry, 
geology, botany, zoology, etc. It is hardly 
necessary to say that these sciences, in the 
amount of mental discipline which their ac- 
quisition will produce, in the h.ibit and taste 
for study which they inspire, and in the sub- 
jects for future thought and investigation which 
they supply, are greatly superior to auy course 
of merely linguistic study. 

It most not be supposed that the study of 
science with reference to its practical applica- 
tion is not a thorough study of it, or that the 
agricultural student must necessarily be 8up«r- 
ficial. To explain a fact by reference to its 
ciuse, implies a knowledge of the cause itself, 
and the illustration of a principle by its legiti- 
mate phenomenn impresses it the more deeply 
on the mind. It is by the frequent applications 
of science, that the mind learns to use prin- 
ciples, formularies and theorems as the skillful 
mechanic does his tools, and this frequent ap- 
plication the agricultural student must neces- 
garily have. 

That education is best which, in addition to 
the knowledge it imparts, lays the best founda- 
tion for future growth, enabling the student at 
the end of life's pilgrimage to graduate highest 
in the scale of human development. What 
studies, I ask, more enlarge one's conceptions 
of nature, or more extend the circitit of 
thought, or lay a broader and deeper founda- 
tion for reflection, than those which illustrate 
the operations on the farm — chemistry, geology, 
zoology and botany— sciences whose terms are 
to become as the vernacular of the future agri- 
cultural student. They lay a braad and solid 
foundation on which the student is to build his 
future intellectual edifice. The farm is to be- 
come to him a field for scientific experiment, 
a laboratory whose results will constantly sug- 
gest further investigation. The student of 
these sciences soon learns, by his lore for them, 
to investigate on his own account, and the 
mind, growing by what it feeds upon, becomes 
better and greater by its achievements. 

AgriouUnral studies, therefore, as a means of 
development, are valuable in the fact that they 
appeal to and teach the reasoning faculties not 
alone during the school days, but during the 
whole life. The farmer employs practically 
nearly all the physical sciences, and very wide 
therefore, is his the field of research. Accord- 
ingly we find that agricultural science has com- 
manded the attention of the most scientific 
minds. The cultivators of the soil will long 
hold in grateful remembrance the names of 
Davy, Liebig, Johnston, Mapes, Draper, Buell 
and other colaborers in the field of research. 
The results of the labors of these scientists 
show that they wrought in fertile fields, 
their discoveries having added great and valu- 
able accessions to human knowledge. He who 
denounces such studies as superficial is in 
danger of proclaiming his shallowness. 

Objections Answered. 

It is true that the elementary works which 
must be employed for a time, at least, may not 
contain a great amount of theoretical science. 
They will nevertheless contain much of practi- 
cal and useful knowledge. But it is true also 
that their manifest usefulness will be a great 
incentive to study; and many a student who 
would otherwise have been satisfied with only 
moderate attainments will be tempted into 
wider fields of research. 

Teachers of youth will universally bear wit- 
ness that one of the obstacles in the way of in- 
troducing the more advanced sciences in their 
schools, is the belief too prevalent with both 
parents and pupils, that there is no practical 
use in them. But the utility of agriculture, as 
a study, is so apparent that this objection will 
not be urged; or, if made at all, will be easily 
overcome. 

The objection that there are no suitable text 
books is without reasonable support, and can 
be urged only by those who are not familiar 
with agricultural literature or the progress of 
agricultural science. Several very valuable 
works have been written, some of which are 
designed as text books in schools and colleges. 
In this connection, the works of Johnston are 
especially to be commended. Besides, in this, 
as in other things, the demand will bring the 
supply. Only let the want of such text books 
become a fact and a hundred pens will contest 
the honor of meeting the demand, and every 
considerable publishing house will have a new 
book on agriculture designed for the use of 
schools. Tdeir agents will visit the school 
teachers' oonvention'a, the agricultural and hor- 
I ticnltural meetings, and your association will be 



waited upon with distinguished consideration. 
Competition will elevate the standard of these 
works, and the agricultural text book will soon 
equal in learning, thoroughness, adaptation 
for the school room and in every other excel- 
lence, the best works in other departments of 
science. 

Another objection sometimes urged, is the 
want of qualified teachers. But this, not many 
years ago, would have been equally applicable 
to the study of grammar, geography and in- 
deed all branches now taught in the schools 
other than reading, writing and the rudiments 
of arithmetic. Teachers, as a rule, are an intel- 
ligent and enterprising class of citizens. Let 
it be a fact that agriculture is to be taught and 
they will not be slow in adding this to their 
certified qualifications to teach. 

Education with a Purpose. 

Again, it is objected that the pupil does not 
know what his future vocation is to be, and 
that he should educate himself therefore with- 
out special reference to any. This objec!ion 
is not true in fact. Practically, the future 
calling of the child is very early determined 
and whatever educational theories there may be, 
whatever educators or others may advocate 
to the contrary, the prospective professional 
man is always educated with reference to his 
future calling. In regard to the professions, 
the sturdiest opponents to practical educa- 
tion are false to their own theories. If the boy 
is to be a civil engineer, whatever else he may 
be taught, he is certainly trained in mathemat- 
ical science, as well in theory as in its practical 
application. If he is to be a doctor of divinity 
he is certainly to be taught Latin, Greek and 
Hebrew, and carefully instructed in the opin- 
ions of authoritative theological writers. Th* 
States themselves, recognizing this general 
principle long ago, added departments of law 
and medicine to the State universities; and 
we have normal schools for the education of 
teachers. This then being the rule, with not 
an admitted exception, that the child should 
be educated with special reference to his pros 
pective life occupation, provided that occupa- 
tion be one of the learned professions, is it 
just that it should stop here? Is it right and 
proper that the rule should be exclusive in its 
application, and that laboring people alone 
should be deprived of its benefits? 'They who 
bear the brunt and burden of the day, and 
without whom society could not have advanced 
a single step from the barbarous state. 
The Extent of the Field. 

It is again urged that agriculture is so exten- 
sive a subject that it is difficult to know what 
amount of knowledge i? necessary to tit one to 
teach. Properly considered, this objection 
puts away some others that have been per- 
tinaciously urged. If the subject is thus ex- 
tensive the pupil who masters it will have the 
general education so often set up in opposition 
to special education; amd the argument so 
plausibly urged that it is better to make a man 
of (he pupil than a farmer, or mechanic, a 
lawyer, doctor or preacher, -finds itself com- 
pletely refuted in this objection itself. And it 
might not be astonishing if even those who use 
this plausible sophism with so much fluency 
and confidence should be compelled to reoog- 
niza in the student who has mastered the agri- 
cultural sciences a man, or mayhap a woman, 
in the highest sense of the word. 

But is the extent of a science an objection to 
its study in the schools? People do nnt reason 
thus foolishly on other subjects. Who has 
been able to tell where the science of chemistry, 
astronomy or mathematics ends? The sciences 
in general, like their author, are infinite; the 
profoundest philosopher has not the wisdom, 
nor the shallowest pedant the assurance, to 
prescribe bounds to them. But are they on 
this account excluded from the schools? The 
rule on this subject will adjust itself, just as 
with the other sciences. It is not required 
that one should be a Silliman or a Draper in 
order to teach chemistry, or a Lyell or a Dana 
in order to teach geology; neither is it abso- 
lutely necessary that one should be a Liebig in 
order to give instruction In agricultural science, 
though in this, as in other subjects, the more 
knowledge one possesses, other things being 
equal, the better teacher he will be. 

The Way and the Result. 

In the several sciences as taught in the 
schools, certain suitable text books have been 
prepared. Precisely so will it be with agricul- 
ture, and the teacher will be required to pass a 
reasonably good examination on the matters 
therein treated. As on other subjects, so in 
this, whatever exporienc, observation or read- 
ing may add will only increase the qualification 
to teach. Observation, investigation and dis- 
cussion would, from year to year, add to the 
teacher's knowledge, and correspondingly ele- 
vate the standard of qualificatiou. The knowl- 
edge which would have procured a certificate 
to teach English grammar ten years ago, might 
not enable an applicant to pass muster to-day. 
Here, too, would be progression. The stand- 
ard of qualification would be fixed to such an 
adjustable scale as always to meet the public 
demands. 

One other obje'-tion, and I shiU have done 
with this side of the argumint, which I fear I 
have already pursued to tediousness. This is 
the vague, ill defined, seeming-wise, and often 
foolish objection that always opposes itself to 
innovation. It is said to be impracticable. 
But why impracticable? If the introduction 
of agriculture as a study in tlie public schools 
will result in untold good to the State, far sur- 
passing all additional costs and inconveniences, 
this progressive, utilitarian, go-ahead age will 



demand other evidences of impracticability 
than that of merely looking wise and ominously 
shaking the head. 

Before the single word utility, these flimsy 
objections will be swept away; and we shall 
live to see, not only agriculture, but the 
sciences illustrative of the industries generally, 
taught in the public schools. In that "good 
time coming" labor will be honored, and labor- 
ing men and laboring women will take their 
places in public opinion, as they are now in 
fact, as the real aristocracy of the State. 
[To be Continued.] 



)EES. 



How the Bees Fill a Hive. 

No one will reach a very great measure of 
success in bee keeping unless they make a care- 
ful studj' of the nature and methods of the 
cunning agent with which they deal. An in- 
telligent bee keeper is fitted for every emer- 
gency, and understanding the natural bent of 
the insect is prepared to guide and turn it to 
his advantage. We find in a recent article by 
Mr. D. E. Adair an interesting description of 
the way in which the bees work to fill a hive, 
which we trust may lead some of our readers 
who io not practice it to the habit of observing 
for themselves. He writes: 

If we hive a natural swarm of bees in an 
empty hive, of tuch construction that we can 
observe and closely watch their work, we find 
that they suspend themselves from the lop of 
the hive, or chamber, in which they are placed, 
in as compact a form as possible, appearing as 
an inverted cone; but, by a close observation, 
we will find that the outside hoes of the cluster 
are not a part of the active force, but form a 
crust, inclosing the active cluster; in fact, they 
and the suspending bees form a natural hive, 
inside of which the organized forces are work- 
ing. By taking a small stick or wire and pass- 
ing it horizontally and suddenly through the 
middle of the cluster and letting all below it 
drop, we can, by looking quickly, see that the 
solid wall of bees is not exceeding an inch and a 
half in thickness, while inside it is not at all 
crowded, but that there is a hollow about three 
inches in diameter, and no more bees inside of 
it than can work on the new comb structure. 

They commence working at the point where 
the circumference of the hollow sphere touches 
the top of the hive, by forming a narrow neck 
of comb, at first not more than three or four 
Cells wide. This they carry down, slowly 
widening, but rapidly lengthening, until they 
reach a point exactly at the center of the hol- 
low. Here they establish a center from which 
they work. Cells are built in a circle around this 
center, and it soon becomes the wideBt part of 
the comb; but as it widens and thickens it gets 
heavier, and would break down if the stem were 
not strengthened, so that it is gradually widened, 
until the comb in the center is about three 
inches wide, when the neck is equally widened. 
The edges of the comb now touch the inside of 
the crust, and the crust recedes. Just at this 
time two parallel sheets of comb are begun, as 
before, and are run down opposite the center. 

As soon as the central cell is one-eighth of 
an inch deep the queen lays an egg in it. She 
then goes around on the opposite side and lays 
eggs in the three cells that are built from the 
base of the central one. She then returns and 
deposits eggs in the six cells surrounding the 
first one, and continues to keep the cells on 
both sides filled with eggs, as fast as they are 
ready to receive them, thus establishing the 
center of her brood nest, at the center of the 
comb structure, and when the comb on each 
side of the first is brought opposite the center 
she embraces them in her circuit, thus giving 
her brood-nest a globular form. 

The honey storing bees keep the store cells 
above filled with honey down to the brood. As 
the sheets of comb are widened they come 
down lower, and as each additional comb sheet 
is built they occupy more of it, thus storing the 
honey in an arch or dome over the brood. 

The work thus progresses and will continue 
in the same order for twenty-one days, if the 
space be large enough; at which time the brood 
nest attains its full size, for, at the expiration 
of that time, the cells in the center, first filled 
with eggs, are vacated by the maturing bees, 
and the queen returns to the center to refill 
them with eggs; and as they are emptied in the 
same rotation in which they are filled, she con- 
tinues to follow them up, going over the same 
ground every twenty-one days . 
„The completion of the brood nest does not 
stop the comb building. That continues as 
rapidly as ever, but as it is not filled with eggs 
by the queen the honey gatherers keep it filled 
with honey, thus surrounding the brood with 
honey. 

Around the brood on every side and below 
there is found a border of cells that are neither 
filled with brood nor honey, but are partly 
filled with bee bread. 



Screw Thukads,— The thread on a three- 
eighth inch gas pipe will sns ain a weight of 
5,000 pounds; on a half-inch pipe, 7.000 
pounds, and on a three fourth inch pipe, '.1,000 
pounds. These facts are important to per- 
sons engaged in hanging chandeliers, etc. 

AQUAroBTis, aijplied to the surface of steel, 
produces a black spot; on iron, the metal re- 
mains clean. 



20 



January 8, 1876 



ftknm 9t 




THE HEADaUARTEKS of the CalifornU 
State Grange are at No. « Iiie<le«lorff street, in rear of 
the Grangers' Bank of California, No. 415 California 
street Sun FrauclBco. 

The Oran^rirs' ISusinoss ABBOciation of California Ib 
tX No. 3S1 Market St. 



New CoDstitation and By-Laws. 

We have the amended form of the ConBtitution anil 
By-Laws and Enlefl of Order of the State GranRe; the 
Declaration of PurpoBPs, Coustitution and By-Laws of 
the National Granpe, and blank form of Subordinate 
Grange. Constitution and By-Laws now printed in 
one pamphlet. Granges supplied at five cents per 
copy, post paid, from the Rural Pbebs office, San 
I^ancisco. 



Qranoe Dikbctobv.— We have conclmled to postpone 
the printing of our Grange Directory until the first 
week in i'ebruary, in order that it niav embrace the 
records of electioBs in the several Granges which are 
now coming in each week. At that time we shall give 
a full list of the oflicers of the State Grange, Depntles 
names of Councils, Subordinate Granges, Masters and 
Becretarlei. 

Elkction Bkttons.— Secretaries will please send us, 
88 parly as joBsible, thf result of thiir election of ofll- 
cera. Write plainly (on one Mdr ouly) in the following 
form:— "Napa Orange, No. 1. Napa City. Election, 
Dec. 4.— J. B. iSaul, M.; J. W. Ward, Jr., O.: Harrj- 
Haskell, Sec.;" and so on, giving a full list and also 
the names of trustees and business agent. We should 
like to receive further correspondence from Secretaries 



The "Press" and the Granges. 

The Rural Pbes.s takes occasion to tbiink 
the Becretaries of the Grangos for the prompt 
returns which they have sent us of their elec- 
tions. They have enabled us to make our lists 
full and satisfactory. It is of advantage also 
to the cflScers of the Granges, as it places their 
names and addresses before those wbo will bo 
sending out valuable free documents during the 
year. 

We thank our correspondents also for the 
notes of news and progress which they have 
sent us! We hope they will continue to write 
us ooucerning the topics of agricultural and 
Grange interests in their neighborhoods. All 
ofiScers are invited to write to us, and especially 
the Masters, Lecturers and Secretaries. 

We trust the officers will also be able to do 
something for the Kubal Pbkrs in the way of 
extending its circulation. We benefit them not 
only by the information which they receive 
from our columns, but also by the great ftind 
of information which we send broadcast over 
the land concerning their different locations, 
and the coast at large. We glean this valuable 
matter from all sources and put it in most con- 
venient form for doing most good. While we 
are doing this work our friends can uphold our 
hands by constantly increasing the circle of our 
audience, and thus the ends of advancement 
toward which we are all laboring will be brought 
nearer. Let us push forward together. Good 
friends, do not fgrget that the Rckal Pbe-ss 
asks your earnest aid, and spares no effort to 
deserve it. 



From the Granges. 

Funk Slough Grange. 

Messbs. Editobs: — On the 18th our Worthy 
Secretary, R. Jones, and myself paid a visit to 
Funk Slough Grange, as delegates from the 
Colusa Grange. Their meeting on that occa- 
sion was held at Fairview school house. We 
left Colusa at ten o'clock, and had a pleasant 
ride of two hours through as fine a farming 
country as there is in the county. I was siir- 
prised to find the summer fallow and volunteer 
crops so far advanced. They look more prom- 
ising than I have ever seen them at this season 
of the year. The farmers are as busy as bees 
plowing and putting in grain. If the season 
holds out favorable Colusa county will produce 
more grain the coming season by one-third 
than in any previous season. 

We arrived about twelve o'clock, and were 
welcomed by Worthy Master McDow, There 
was a very good attendance, considering the 
muddy roads and the farm work necessary to 
be done at this season. After the regular busi- 
ness of the Grange was over, the annual elec- 
tion was held, which resulted in the choice of 
the Worthy Overseer, George Able, for 
Worthy Masttr during the ensuing year, and I 
jadge from appearances he will make an excel- 
lent presiding officer, which goes a long way in 
keeping up the life and interest of a Grange; 
and another good choice was the election of 
Miss Ida Fulton as Worthy Secretary. I hke 
to see lady Secretaries of Granges, for I think, 
as a general thin^', they are more punctual and 
zealous in the good work than the men. Then 
came the dinner, and such a feast, toast tur- 
keys, chickens, cakes, pies and pretty girls — 
who would not be a Granger? 

The people of Fairview ought to be proud of 
their school building. Although they have 



only twenty-five or thirty scholars, they have 
the finest school house I have seen in the 
county outside of Colnsa, large and spacious, 
beautifully located in the midst of a rich farm- 
ing country, and surrounded by well-to-do 
farmers. The interior is nicely finished, well 
ventilated, and fitted up with maps, charts, 
globes, etc., for a first-class school. They have 
a very excellent teacher at present, at a salary 
of S^HO per month. 1 think the country schools 
of California will compare favorably with those 
of any State in the Union. We rettirned to 
Colusa well pleased with our trip. 

J. R. TOTMAN. 

Colusa, December 20tb, 187."). 
Pescadero Grange. 

Messrs. Editobs: — I have not seen anything 
in the Pbess from this place for a long time ; 
therefore a few items from hero may be of in- 
terest to some of your many readers. I'esca- 
dero Grange still lives. .Vt the last mooting, 
held Dec. 18th, our annual election took place. 
There was quite a large attendance, and a gen- 
eral good fooling prevailed during the meeting 
among our members. The result of the days' 
work was the election of a full corps of officers 
who will have charge of our Grange farm dur- 
ing the Centennial year. Installation to take 
place the I3d Saturday in January. 

The weather during December has been de- 
lightful. The sun shone bright and clear every 
day until Christmas, when the sky clouded 
over, and rain commenced to fall again. There 
have been no winds, and only three or four frosty 
nights to check the growth of vegetation, so 
that now ft el for stock is very good in many 
places. The farmers in this vicinity are all 
very busy pushing forward their work. They 
have been improving their time dnring the last 
few weeks plowing and preparing the soil to 
receive the seed, hoping in due time to reap an 
abundant harvest. There will be as largo an 
acreage sown this winter, if not larger, than has 
been sown any former year, TLo farmers have 
been laboring under a great disadvantage, ow- 
ing to the epizootic which has prevailed here 
among the horses, nearly all being aiHicted, 
though in rather a mild form, there being no 
serious cases reported. The weather being 
warm, has been greatly in favor of those af- 
fected with the disease. The season so far 
could not have been more favorable for either 
farming or dairying than it has been. 

Pescadero, Dec. lOth. Patkon. 

Mountain Grange. 

Mesbbs. Editobs:— Slnggigh streams which 
have no obstacles in their course are always 
mnddy, but the mountain rivulet, that dashes 
against rocks and over precipices, forming cas- 
cades and cataracts, is always crystal clear. 

The latter has been comparable to our Grange 
during the year. Oor difficulties grew out of 
the fact that we had incorporated a joint- 
stock company, with a capital stock of $40,000, 
|and commenced a building 2iix4C, two stories 
high ; lower story for a store and upper story 
for Grange ball; but unforeseen circumstances, 
failure of crops, etc , formed the impeding rocks 
and precipices which prevented the smooth 
progress of our efi'orts. Yet being united and 
determined, and organized under the name of 
Mountain Grange, No. 173, P. of H., our 
Grange has wound its way around the mountain 
and over the rocks, and left us a crystal 
stream. 

Socially, the Grange is a farmer's home. 
What tends more to enlighten the mind and 
fill it with principles that shed their luster 
down through the whole cotirse of life than 
farmers, with their wives, sons and daughters, 
gathered together, after the work of the week 
is completed, engaged in healthy, mind invigor- 
ating social intercourse, in their Grange? 

Some who are inchned to see a humbug in 
every new move assert that this is a woman 's 
rights' movement. I know nothing of woman's 
rights other than women ought to have the 
same rights as man. But the condition of a 
people, its customs, its manners, its morals, its 
social standing, its educational status, depend 
more upon its women than upon men. Is there 
not as wide a field for improvement in women's 
sphere as in men's? Resides, when men are 
assembled for mental culture or social chat, 
what more stimulates them to high-minded ac- 
tion than the presence of women? Some com- 
pare us to the mushroom, that springs into ex- 
istence in a single night, with all its perfection, 
but disappears from view quite as suddenly, at 
the slightest touch of adverse fortune. Others 
say know-nothingism swept like wildfire through 
the country ; but it was scarcely known before 
it was unknown. But in know-nothingism there 
was nothing in it worth knowing. J. B. 

San Benito, Dec. 20th. 

Etna Grange. 
MEbSBS. Editors:— Etna Grange, considering 
its isolation among the mountains, is in a 
healthy condition. At our next regular meet- 
ing, which is on the third Saturday of this 
mouth, we shall meet and install officers elect 
in our new hall, at Crystal Creek, Soott valley. 
It is a fine building, of wood, built in conjunc- 
tion with the trustees of Washington school 
district. The lower story is the school house, 
and the upper story Grange hall. The hall is 
28x40 feet. The location is in the heart of the 
agricultural portion of Scott valley, eight miles 
from Ft. Jones, and four miles from Etna mills. 
Fort Jones Grange consolidated with us last 
January, and surrendered their charter. The 
great want here is a market for produce; our 
town markets are limited, and we have to com- 



pete with Rogue river valley, Oregon. The 
rich gold quartz mines of Salmon river, the 
"Black Bear and Klamath" mines furnish em- 
ployment for a great many raen, and one of our 
best markets for produce. The rich quicksil- 
ver mines in Trinity valley will be a great help 
to U8, still our felt want is railroad communica- 
tion. The completion of the California &. Ore- 
gon railroad will make dairying our principal 
bu.sinoss. Siskiyou can bo made the Orangn 
county of the Pacific. There is no better place 
for making butter and cheese. We have the 
cool mountain water, cool nights, and the best 
of grasses. With the railroad completed, we 
could have a three months' run of fresh butter 
to ship to San Francisco when the season is 
over in the lower counties. 
Etna Mills, Siskiyou Co., Cal. L. S.W. 

Colusa Grange. 

Messb-s. Editobs:— At a regular meeting of 
Colnsa Grange, No. 48, held on Saturday, 
December 25lh, officers were elected for the 
ensuing year. We had a very interesting meet- 
ing. All seemed to nurture the hope that the 
coming year would be a prosperous and bounti- 
ful one, and that our beloved Order would be- 
come more perfect and more prosperous in all 
its branches. One peculiar feature of our 
election was the choice of Mrs. Mary Kilgore 
for Overseer. I think it is a stop in the right 
direction. Give the ladies a chance; they have 
proved themselves true and trusty as far as 
they have gone. Mrs. Kilgore is a very estima- 
ble woman, and will make an excellent officer. 
Installation of officers will take place on Satar- 
day, January 15th, and all good Patrons are 
invited to meet with us, and to you, Messrs. 
Editors, wo would give a special invitation. 
We would like very much to see yon in Colusa. 
The long spoil of foggy weather was finally 
brought to a climax last night by a heavy rain, 
which has brought the Sacramento river over 
its banks again. It has cleared off, and we may 
expect some cold, frosty nights soon. There 
has been no frost thus far this season. The 
farmers are all busy putting in their crops, and 
the grain is looking extra fine. 

J. R. Totman. 

Colusa, Dec. 29th, 1875. 

San Jose Grange. 

Messrs. Editors: — According to previons 
notice, on Saturday, December 18th, Professor 
Kinley, of the San Jose Institute, by invita- 
tion from the Patrons of Husbandry, delivered 
a lecture in their hall on the subject of " Agri- 
culture in the Public Schools." The lecture 
was free to all; and not withstanding the un- 
pleasantness of the weather, there was in 
attendance a large and appreciative audience. 
At the close of the lecture, which was listened 
to with the most profound interest, a vote of 
thanks was tendered the Professor for his able 
and interesting address. Also, on motion, a 
resolution was adopted by the meeting, asking 
Professor Kinley for a copy of his lecture for 
publication in the Pacific Rcbal Peess. 

O. W. M. 

San Jose, Dec. 18th, 1875. 

[Professor Kinley's lecture appears in part 
elsewhere this week. — Eds. Pebss. | 

Feast at Cache Creek Grange. 

Messrs. Editobs:— As I have not seen any- 
thing in the Pbess from Cache Creek Grange 
for some time, I thought I would drop you a 
few lines to let you know that we are still alive, 
and not only alive, but wc pride ourselves on 
having the largest and best Grange in the coun- 
try—and that IS not all, we have the best cooks 
and prettiest girls. If you had been present on 
New Year's day at our installation and feast 
you would have been bound to acknowledge it. 
We had a good attendance considering the con- 
dition of the roads, and the damp, oool 
weather. We have outlived the troubles of 
'74, and I think our Grange is on a firmer 
foundation than ever. The crop prospect 
could not be better. R. B. Batteb, Seo'y 

Cache Creek Grange, Yolo Co., Jan. 2, 1876. 
Mussel Slough Grange, 

Messrs. Editors:— Times are very hard here 
at present, although we have had plenty of rain, 
but it has not eased the times any in this beau- 
tiful Mussel Slough country. People do not de- 
pend wholly on the rain, they have irrigating 
ditches, and some of them are now full to the 
brim, and the farmers are making preparation 
to sow considerably more Mnall grain this year 
than ever before. They feel confident of rais- 
ing a large amount of grain by irrigation on an 
acre. Mussel Slough Grange hold their regular 
meetings the first and third Saturdays of each 
month. W. U. 

Lemore, Tulare Co., Dec, 20th. 
Vallejo Grange. 

Messrs Editobs :— The stormy weather and 
muddy roads, although unfavorable, did not 
prevent a goodly number attending the instal- 
lation of ofticers of our Grange to-day, and of 
partaking of the collation provided by the sis- 
ters, such a one as characterizes the oft'erings 
from sister Patrons in excellence and ■ abund- 
ance. The flow of good feelings, kind wishes, 
and hearty welcome was the best of all relishes. 
There was enough to prove that the Patrons of 
Husbandry are not "wilhout form or void," 
and that they have not failed in their mission, 
but are accomplishing great good, and confer- 
ring lasting benefits l>y the doctrines taught and 
practiced. Q. Peabson, S.c'y. 

Vallejo, Jan. Ist. 



Porno Grange. 
C. I. H. Nichols sends ns the following note 
of good tidings: Porno Grange, No. 216, held 
its annual election Deo. 18th, and elected offi- 
cers, most of those filling important offices 
being re-elected for a "third term." But for 
the interference of business and ill health, few 
changes would have obtained. Our members, 
about 87 in number, are a unit in sympathy 
and objects. Measures are in progress for a 
Grange store, which will probably bo opened 
in the spring. 

Lodi Grange. 

Messrs. Editoils:— Wp held our annual elec- 
tion last Friday; had a pleasant meeting; was 
largely attended, in fact, the room was quite 
full, and all seemed interested in elecVlug a 
good board of officers. Inclosed please find a 
copy. Adjourned to meet in four weeks for in- 
stallation, to which we cordially invite the 
public to that impressive ceremony. 

A. T. Ayers, Sec'y. 

Lodi, San Joaquin Co., Dec. 29th. 
Rising Star Grange. 

Messrs. Editors : — After an election on 
Christmas day, we had a harvest feast, and in the 
evening we joined with the friends of the dis- 
trict school, and had a grand good exhibition. 
About fifty pieces were spoken by the little 
folks, and they did their parts well. We broke 
up at about eleven o'clock, in time to get home 
without breaking the Sabbath. 

Panoche, Dec. 28ih. <f. E. Hinklev, Sec'y. 
Morth Butte Grange. 

J. G. Dow, secretary of North Bntte Grange, 
writes as follows: "I would state to you that 
oiir Grange is in a very prosperous condition, 
and has been since its organization. We num- 
ber fifty members, and still they come. The 
officers are very efficient, and the laborers 
therein plow deep and keep their furrows 
straight. I would like to speak of the efficiency 
of our worthy Master, the Hon. B. B. Spilmau, 
but he takes the Pbess." 



Strawberries. 



MKS.SBS. Editors:-! am picking strawber- 
ries for the Santa Clara Grange harvest feast 
to-morrow, and send some to the Rubal, as I 
suppose you will not be with us. Though 
gathered in '7.'>, they may be eaten in '76 if you 
choose. With a "Happy New Year" to you 
and yours, I remain, yours fraternally, 

Santa Clara, Dec. 31st. J. W. Wilcox. 

[Bro. Wilcox's strawberries reached us in 
fine condition and filled onr office with the rich 
fragrance which must have lingered about the 
Santa Clara harvest feast. Thanks.- Eds. 
Press.] 



Re-elections. — It was our original purpose 
to notice none of the "re-elections" in the lists 
of officers in the Oranges, because it would be 
impossible to get them all. We find that some 
of the listR have been printed with "re-elected" 
annexed to some of the names. Oar readers 
must not infer from this that other officers in 
other Granges, not thus marked, have . not 
gained the distinction of re-election, because 
they have in many instances. 



Lady OrFicEBs.-Bro. W. E. Elliott writes 
from Merced Grange as follows: "You will 
notice by our list that we have elected a num- 
ber of sisters to important offices, hoping 
thereby to increase the interest and zeal in oar 
Grange." We hope the ladies will redeem the 
trust thus imparted to them, and we doubt not 
they will. 

Election of Officers. 



CENTEBvrLLB Gbanoe, No. 120, Centervillb 
Alameda Cocnty. — Election, December 18th 
J. M. Horner, M.; Henry Dusterbv, O.; Jas." 
Shinn, L ; W. A. Moore, S.; W. A. Blacow. A. 
S.;Mrs. H. Overocker, C; M. R. Sturges, 
Seo'y; H. Overocker, T.; J. A. Troefry, G. K.; 
Miss M. A. Horner, Ceres; Miss Maria Babb, 
Pomona; Miss Josephine Horner, Flora; Mrs. 
L. P. Osgood, L. A. S.: J.T. Walker, Trustee. 

CnEIST.MAR OeANOE, No. 141, JONRBO, TCLABE 

Co.— Election, Deo. 2.5th: S. H. Blood, M.; 
M. P. Troxler, O.; A. B. Carey. L.; George 
Slight, S.; B. A. Colburn, A. S.; 0. O. Butler, 
C; G. W. Cotton, T.; J. Perrin, Sec'y; J. W. 
Brown, G. K.; Mrs. J. W. Brown, Ceres; Miss 
Viola Blun, Pomona; Mrs. E. Talbut, Flora; 
Miss Marion Boyd, L. A. 8. 

Colusa Granob, No. 48, Colosa, Colusa Co. 
Election, Deo. 25th: J. R. Totman, M.: Mrs. 
Mary Kilgore, O.; W. T. Green, L.; L. Kil- 
gore, S.; A. A. Rutland, A. S.; W. K. Estell, 
C; S. Harris, T.; R. Jones, Sec'y; S. B. 
Stormer, G. K.; Mrs. M. E. Estell, Ceres; 
Mrs. A. Marr, Pomona; Leviua Estell, Flora; 
Katie Jones, L. A. S. 

CoMPTON Grange, No. 37, Compton.— Elec 
tion, December 28th: C. W Collins, M.; A. A. 
Proctor, O.; J. P. West, L.; A. M. Peck, C; 
J. J. West, 8.; J. J. Morton, T.; T. V. Kimble, 
Sec'y; T. H. Rogers, A. 8.; Mrs. Hazen, L. 
A. is.; Mrs. Eddy, Ceres; Mrs. Twombly, 
Pomona; Mrs. Proctor, Flora; Mrs. C. £. 
Frasier. G. K. 



January 8, 1876.] 



21 






Elk Kivbb Gbange, Eukeka, Humboldt 
Co., Cal.— Election, Dec. 4th: Theo. Meyer, 
M.; R. A. Haw, O.; Mrs. F. L. Meyer, L.; F. 
S. Shaw. 8.; J. Gardner, A. S.; A. C. Spear, 
C. ; A. Swain, T.; Miss E. M. Williams, Sec'y; 
W. Tierney, G. K. ; Mrs. A. Knapp, Ceres; 
Mrs. L. Gardner, Pomona; Mrs. B. A. Haw, 
Flora; A. J. Knapp, Trustee. 

Etna Geange, No. 219, Etna, Sipkiyou Co.— 
Election, December 18th: H. S. Mathews, M.; 
J. T. Moxley, O ; Hon. J. W. McBride, L.; O. 
V. Green, S. ; Cbas. Hoornden, A. S. ; Jas. A. 
Davidson, C; Jas. H. Walker, T. ; L. S. Wil- 
son, S. ; S. D. Varnum, G. K. ; Mrs. J. T. 
MoxUy, Ceres; Mrs. O. V. Green, Pomona; 
Mrs. L. S. Wilson, Flora; Mrs. Jas. H. Walton, 
L. A. S.; Trustees, Chas. Hoornden, J. W. 
Tuttle and Thos. Quigley. 

El Monte Grange, No. 43, El Montk, Los 
Angeles Co. —Election, Dec. 11th: J. T. Gordon, 
M.; p. Penfold, O. ; G. C. Gibbs, L ; M. P. 
Qiiinn, S.; 8. Penfold, A. S.; J. H. Gray, C; 
Wm. Haddox, T.; A. H. Hoyt, Sec'y.; G. H. 
Peck, Jr., G. K. ; Sister Gordon, Ceres; Sister 
Peck, Pomona: Sister Floyd, Flora; Sister S. 
Penfold, L. A. S. 

Independence Gbangb, No. 210, Indepen- 
dence, Inyo Co.— Election, Dec. 4th: J. W. 
Symmos, M.; J. Shepherd, O.; J. W. Martin, 
L.; John Baxter, S.; Wm. Boyd, A. S.;A. 
Wayland, C; Jacob Vagt. T.; W. H. Cassidy, 
Sec'y; F. Sohabble, G. K.; Mrs. Vagt, Ceres; 
Mrs. Graves, Pomona; Mrs. Symmes, Flora; 
Mrs. Martin, L. A. S. 

LivEBMORE Grange, No. 91, Livebmore, 
Alameda Co. — Election, Dec. 25th: D. Inmau, 
M.; J. A. Neil, O.; Almond Weinrouth, S.; 
E. B. French, C; T. Veal, A. S.; O. R. Owens, 
Sec'y; Mrs. R. Emmert, Ceres; Mrs. Anna 
Bangs, Pomona; Mrs. Inman, Flora; Mrs. Joie 
Braekett, L. A. S.; Trustees, E. S. Allen and 
J. Edmonds. 

LoDi Grange, No. 92, Lodi, San Joaquin 
County. — Election, December 24th : J. M. 
Fowler, M.; J. W. Kearney, O.; W. H. Post, 
L.; O. O. Norton, S.;C. C. Stoddard, A.S.; A. 
S. Guernsey, C; Mrs. A. W. Gove, Soc'y; A. 
W. Gove. T.; C. P. Allison, G. 1^.; Mrs. J. M. 
Fowler, Ceres; Mrs. E. Lawrence, Pomona; 
Mrs. J. Gerrard, Flora; Mra. S. P. Sabin, L. 
A. S. 

Magnolia Grange, No. 2C1, Gbass Valley. 
Election, Dec. 28th: E. M. Denton, M.; Dan. 
Bilderback, ().; J. N. Ritchie. L.; C. C. Rags- 
die, S ; Wm. Cunningham, A. S. ; D. Dead- 
man, C; James Cantier, T.; P. A. Womack, 
Sec'y; John Ragsdle, G. K.; Mrs. L. Ragsdie, 
Ceres; Miss Bell Crain, Flora; Mrs. M. .J. 
Higgins, Pomona; Mrs. M. L. Bilderback, L. 

A. S.; James Cautier, Trustee, three years. 

Mattols Grange. No. 201, Pktrolia, Hum- 
boldt Co., Cal. — Election, Dec. 18th: Stejihen 
Goff, M., M. J. Conklin, O.; L. Wright, L.; J. 
H. Goff, S.; Frank Gouthier, A. S.; J. R. Fox, 
C; Chas. S. Cook, T.; Dave Simmons, Sec'y; 
Wm. Roberts, G. K.; H. S. Doe. Ceres; Mary 
Goflf, Pomona; Clara Conklin, Flora. A. A. 
Benton, L. A. S.; Chas. A. Doe, Truhtee. 

Meeced Grange, No. 7, Merced, Cal. — 
Election, Dec. 18th: R. S. Clay, M.; William 
Whalin, O.; Jennie Rogers, L.; H. J. Ostrand- 
ler, S.; A. Smith, A. S.; B. Clay, T.; M. 
Herrin, Sec'y; S. 11. Spears, C; Eli Grimes, 
O.K.; Minnie Spear, L.'A. S. ; Mrs. M. Herrin, 
Ceres; Mrs. Smith, Pomona; Mrs. M. Goodall, 
Flora. 

MoBo Gbange, No. 27, Moro, Cal. -A. J. 
Mothersead, M.; F. Riley, O.; H. Y. Stanley, 
Sec'y; A. B. Spooner, L. ; T. J. Stephens, S.; 
Jas. Cocke, A. S.; Susan Langlois, C.;F. W. 
Parker, T.;D. H. Whitney, G. K.; Mrs. H. Q. 
Riley, Ceres; Mrs. Parker, Flora; Mrs. Draper, 
Pomona; Miss Lizzie Riley, L. A. S.;F. 'W. 
Parker, Jas. Cocke, Trustees. 

Mountain Gbange, No. 173, San Benito, San 
Benito County. — Election, December 4th. G. 
Brown, M.; D. M. Selleck, O.; J.H. Matthews, 
L.; S. Kennedy, S.; J. F. Taylor, A. S.; L. A. 
Mosop, C.;W. K. Gaflf, Sec'y; John Mantes, 
T.; J. D. Justice, G. K ; Miss J. Carmioheel, 
Ceres; Miss M. Kennedy, Pomona; Miss M. 
Holt, Flora; Miss Ella Justice, L. A. S. 

Mussel Slough Grange, No. 243, Lemore, 
TuLABE Co.— Election, Dec. 4th, 1875: Wesley 
Underwood, M.; Thomas Startin, O.; John 
Battenfeld, S.; Geo. Ai Battenfeld, A. S.; 
Thompson Standart, L. ; John T. Duncan. C. ; 
Thomas H. McName, T.; Wm. H. Battenfeld, 
Sec'y; John Mills, G. K.; Miss F. Hare, Ceres; 
Mi88 F. Startin, Pomona; Miss M. Duncan, 
Flora; Mrs. M. J. Standart, L. A. S. 

North Butte Gbange, No. 225, Nobth 
Butte, Sutteb Co.— Election, December 27th: 

B. R. Spilman, M.; Otic Clark, O ; Dr. Wm. 
McMurtry, L.; H. S. Graves, S.; W. T. Lamb, 
A. S.; C. Williams, T.; E. T. Bigelow, C; J. 
G. Dow, Sso'y; P. F. Clyma, G. K.; Miss S. 

C. McMurtry, Ceres; Miss M. Pugh, Pomona; 
Miss Mary Albert, Flora; Mrs. Otie Clark, L. 

A, S. ; Trustees, Dr. McMurtry, H. S. Graves 
and F. M. Clyma. 

PoMO Grange, No, 216, Pomo, Mendocino 
Co.— Election, Dec. 18th: JoTinMewhinney, M.; 

B. Pemberton, 0.;T.Da3hiel, L. (all re-elected); 
Wm.Kilbourn, S. ; W. Grover, A. S.;G. W. 
Pickle, C; L. P. Grover, T.; Eli V.Jones, 
Sec'y; J. Woolever, G. K.;Mr8. D.Mewhinney, 
Ceres; Mrs. Lavinia Grover, Pomona; JVI^s 
Maty Wattenberger, Flora. 



Rising Stab Gkanob. No. 177, Panoche, 
Fresno Co.— Elpction, Dec. 25th: I. N. Can- 
field, M.; A. C. Lawrence, O.; H. R. Shaw, L.; 
W. N. Thornburg, S.; D. Vanclief, A. S.; R. 
Gardner, C; Fayette Bennett, T.; G. E. Hin- 
kley, Sec'y; N. B. Vanclief. G. K.: Mrs. O. S. 
Thornburg, Ceres; Mrs. D. Canfield, Flora; 
Rosa Lawrence, Pomona; Mrs. Fannie Smith, 
L. A. S.; W. W. Hager, Trustee; H. R. Shaw, 
Local Agent. 

Sonoma Grange, No. 55, Sofoma, Cal.— 
Election, Dec. 7th: Wm. McPherson Hill, M.; 
Leonard Goss, O.; J. Harding. L.; J. M. 
Sheney, S.; A. S. Edwards, A. S.; O. Chart. L.; 

C. C. Champlain, T.; J. A. Poppe, Sec'y; G.E. 
Wattriss, G. K.iMra. Goss, Ceres; Mrs. Craig, 
Pomona; MSIk. Wattriss, Flora; Mrs. Chart, 
L. A. S. 

Tulare Strangk, No. 198, Tulabe City. — 
Election, Dec. 30th: P. S. Tracy. M.; G. W. 
Wray, O.; John Fowler, L.; John H. Hart, S.; 

D. E. Wilson, A. S.; E.M. Wilson, C; W. W. 
Wright, T. (re-electfd); J. A. Goodwin, Sec'y; 
Isaac Fowler, G. K.; Mrs. E. Wray, Ceres; 
Mrs. I. Williams, Pomona; Miss Lizzie Fowler, 
Flora; Mrs. J. A. Goodwin, L. A. S. 

Watsonville Grange, i No. 124, Watson- 
viLLE, Santa Cbuz] Co., Cal. — Election, Dec. 
4th, 1875: J.M. Ripley, M.; N. A. Dorn. O,; 
Mrs. Owen Tuttle, L.; A. Roach, S.; G. Halst, 
A. S.;D. Tuttle, C; Owen Tuttle, T.; Owen 
S. Tuttle, Sec'y; Peter Murphy, G. K.; Miss 
Ettie Dorn, Ceres; Sara Redman, Pomona; 
Miss V. Fergueson, Flora; Mrs. Drew, L. A. S. 

Westminister Grange, No. 127, Anaheim, 
Los Angeles Co. — Election, Dec. 4th: Geo. C. 
Macif, M.; J. Y. Anderson, O.; W. G. Mc- 
PherHon, L.; Joseph Bingham, S.; George G. 
Tompkins, A. S.; George Dauskin, C; J. D. 
Bowley, T.; W. P. Poor, Sec'y; James A. Mc- 
Fadden, G. K ; Mrs. Susan A. Mack, Ceres; 
Mrs. Jennie C. Anderson, Pomona; Mra. Flora 
Bowley, Flora; Mrs. Neta Marquis, L. A. S.; 
M. B. Craig, Trustee. 




BUTTE. 

Ranch Sale. ^Record, Jan. 1: The re-sale 
of the Durham, or old Neal ranch, under or- 
der of the Probate Court, took place on the 
30th inst. At its former sale a year or two 
since, by the Executors, it brought something 
over $44,000. The sale was contested by Mr. 
G. W. Gtidley, who offered 10 per cent, more 
than the ranch was bid in for, and a re-aale was 
ordered. It will be seen that it brought nearly 
20 per cent, more than at the former sale, the 
total sum being $02,000. Much of this land has 
recently proven to be good wheat land, and it 
was warmly contested for. It was sold in lots 
and was bid in as follows: Lot 1, Thomas 
Callow. $4,400; lot 2, Hendricks & Co., $5,500; 
lot 3, George Durham, $7,000; lot 4, G. W. 
Gridley, $9,000; lot 5, G. W. Gridley, $20,000; 
lote, G. AV. Gridley, 10,000; lot 7, G. W. 
Gridley, $<:,700. Total amount of sale, $62,000. 
The sale was for coin, and notwithstanding 
the general complaint of close times in finan- 
cial matters, parties were in town a day or two 
proviotis to the sale with large sackw of coin 
that meant business. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

The Grange Wharf and Warehouse. — Oa- 
zelle, Jan. 1 : A most eligible site, embracing 
three acres of land and a right of way one hun- 
dred feet wide to ship channel, has been se- 
cured by the Directory of the Grangers' Busi- 
ness and Warehouse Association, and surveys 
for the wharf and roadway are now being com- 
pleted. 
FRESNO. 

Faeminq. — Expositor, Dec. 20: During the 
past week we have had an opportunity of 
seeing the amount of farming enterprise going 
on in the vicinity of Borden and Centerville. 
In the neighborhood of Borden the amount of 
grain put in is largely in excess of former sea- 
sons. Winter irrigation is being practiced to 
a large extent. The ground is flooded, and as 
soon as the water soaks in sufficiently to per- 
mit of its being ploughed it is prepared and 
planted. It is thought that land prepared in 
this manner is sure to produce an excellent 
crop. Nearly three hundred men are engaged 
in ditch building, irrigating and ploughing and 
planting about Borden. In the vicinity of 
Centerville we were pleased to notice that 
many new farm houses have been erected and 
that in addition to the old farms a large area of 
new land has been ploughed and planted. 
Grain in all portions of the county is looking 
fine and is more forward than it was in Febru- 
ary last season. The farmers are hopeful and 
in excellent'spirits. 
KERN. 

Cbanberbies. — Californian : Our citizen, 
Isaac B. Rumford, has obtained 100 cranberry 
plants from Massachusetts, with which he 
proposes to try their adaptability to our soil 
and climate. 
LOS AVOEIiES. 

Bee-Kebpebs' Meeting. — Express, Dec. 2!): 
At the bee-keepers' meeting on the 18th ult. 
the following officers were elected for the en- 
suing year: President, J. P. Bruck; Vice-Pre^- 
dents, J. T. Gordon and W. T. Clapp; Secre- 
tary, W. Muth-Rasmussen; Treasurer, Mrs. B. 
Richnrasou. Mr. Bruck was appointed to write 
a paper for the next meeting on a new remedy 
for foul brood. Also Mr. Kelly o» fertile 
workers. 



What Was Needed. — Express, Jan. 1 : The 
very acceptable rain which fell last night will 
serve to carry our farmers over several weeks. 
With the ordinary chances in our favor, we are 
now secure in a season of great productiveness. 
There is hardly any contingency, short of a 
phenomenal calamity, that can prevent our 
county from developing a crop of unprece- 
dented fullness. 
MENDOCINO. 

Good Seeding. — Democrat, Dec. 24: A trip 
along the main road up and down the valley 
shows that our farmers are up and alive to the 
beneficent gift of the present good weather 
and grain is being put in the ground more rap- 
idly than ever we have seen here before. Along 
down the valley we notice Mr. Weller is nearly 
done, White, Hewston Burk, A. Burk, Doolan's 
place, Moiris place. Hooper, and others are 
well along. Ed. Cox does not'plow until late 
for fear of an overflow, his ground being sandy 
river loam •producing well sown late. 

Hay. — It is fortunate for consumers that no 
one undertook to make a "corner" in hay in 
this valley last fall. At the present time hay is 
worth $20 per ton and scarce at that. This 
week R. M. Hildreth was hauling hay from 
Schlessenger ranch to town. The cost laid 
down here must have been over the above fig- 
ures considerably. Prom present indications 
hay will be abundant and cheap next seai^ou. 
MONTEREY. 

Large Acreage. — T>emoc.rat, Jan. 1 : At the 
date of writing this, December 29th, the rain 
gauge kept by Dr. Abbot, in this place, marked 
7.35 inches as the amount of rain-fall for the 
season, being within a fraction of the total of 
the season preceding. So far, the general ex- 
pression is, there never was a finer season for 
crops and for grass, than the present. Taking 
advantage of the mellow condition of the 
ground, new lands, in large quantities, have 
been and are being opened by the plow, so that 
from fifteen to twenty thousand acres addi- 
tional will in our valley this year be brought 
within the area under cultivation. Not less 
than 120,000 acres, there is every human pro- 
bability, will this year, in the Salinas valley, 
be turned by the plowshare and be seeded in 
wheat and barley. 

NAPA. 

Favoring Skies. — Reporter, Jan. 1 : A ma- 
jority of our farmers, taking advantage of the 
pood weather, had finished seeding before 
Christmas, and with their fields in fine condi- 
tion waited for the holidays and the next rains. 
Both came together. Christmas eve night we 
had a fino, warm, gentle rain, Christmas night 
the same was repeated, and during the week 
we have enough rain to again saturate the 
ground very deeply and raise the streams a lit- 
tle. It has all come to us, however, without 
storm or bluster ; come as gently as dew. Ver- 
ily thus far our farmers have nothing to com- 
plain of. 

Vinicultural Society. — Star, Dec. 30: Pur- 
suant to adjournment the grape growers, wine 
manufacturers and distillers of grape brandy 
of St. Helena and vicinity, met last Friday 
and organized a society under the name and 
title of the Vinicultural club of St Helena. 
The following officers were elected : President, 
Charles Krug ; Vice Presidents, Conly Conn, 
W. B. Crabb and Seneca Ewer ; Secretary, H. 
A . Pellet ; Treasurer, J. C. Weinberger. Reg- 
ular meetings second Saturday in each month 
at 1 P. M. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

Just in Time. — Aryus, Dec. 30: The rain 
on Tuesday night has fallen at a most ojipor- 
tune moment, just as we were beginning to 
suft'er a little for moisture. The grass had 
stopped growing, and the young grain wanted 
a fresh starter. All seems now well. The 
prospect for a bountiful harvest was never 
better at this season of the year than it is at 
present in San Bernardino county. 

Factoby Needed. — If there is one thing more 
needed than anything at the present time," to 
insure the lasting prosperity of San Bernar- 
diao, and as a necessary sequence the prosper- 
ity of the county also, it is the building up 
here of a woolen factory, such as we can and 
should have. The main object for us to at- 
tain at present, is to induce some prominent 
factory man'to visit our town and valley, and let 
him see for himself what a vast water power we 
have, and offer to give any company a site for 
their factory, and insure them of a full head of 
water to run the machinery at all times. Or, 
perhaps, a better proposition would be for 
some of our men of capital to erect the build- 
ing, and factory men to put a full set of the 
best machinery against so much stock in build- 
ings and raw material to manufacture into fab- 
rics. 

SAN DIEOO. 

Lemons— IPo>-W, Deo. 25: Mr. Weegar had 
a lot «f lemons in his store the past few days, 
raised by Mr. Switzer of this place, which for 
size beat the beaters on that line, so far as we 
know. Sc^e of them, of a rough, oblong shape, 
weighed one and a quarter pounds . In the 
crop were also some round or Sicily lemons, 
not Bear so large, but said to be good, and one 
between thatjsize and the other, of the rough, 
oblong kind, said to be very excellent lor taste . 

SANTA CRUZ. 

Two-and-a-Half Feet of Carbot. — I'tijaio- 
nian, Dec. 23 : We were shown a carrot one 
day last week, by Henry Goodwin, that grew 
on his place about a mile from town, that was 
the largest one we ever saw; it was thirty 
inches long, twenty-one inches in oircnmfei- 



ence, and weighed sixteen pounds. Who can 

beat that ? 

SANTA BARBARA. 

Almond Field.- Fres.s, Deo. 26: The three- 
year-old trees at Santa Barbara have this year 
borne about thirty-one and a half pounds of 
almonds, on the average, while the two-year 
olds yielded about a quarter of a pound. The 
crop of Col. HoUister's place amounted to 
seventeen thousand pounds. 
STANISLAUS. 

Obanges. — News, Dec. 31: In Stanislaus 
some twenty orange trees are now bearing pro- 
liflcly, and in five years more there will, in all 
probability, be as many hundred. If the fu- 
rore for their cultivation 'continues but a few 
years longer they will eventually be as aommon 
in this State as apples. 
VENTURA. 

Honey.— /Si(/naJ, Dec. 25: The production of 
honey has in the past, in this county, proved 
quite remunerative, and we are pleased to ob- 
serve that our bee men are taking great pains 
to place their honey in the market in the best 
possible shape, and will thus make still more 
from it. It is a source of revenue which in- 
creases in importance each year. It is impos- 
sible to flood the market with such honey as is 
produced where the white sage abounds. 

Montana- 

Wool. — Hasbavdnian, Deo. 23: It is a little 
surprising how fast the business of wool-grow- 
ing is gaining in favor with our people. Only . 
a few years ago it was comparatively unknown; 
but a few experiments have proved so success- 
ful, that now it is the most pojJular branch of 
business in Montana. Our wool product will 
soon be an important item in the summing up 
of our resources. The wool-growers of the 
Pacific slope are just beginning to learn of the 
free and unequaled pasturage to be found in 
our Territory, and another season will find im- 
mense flocks of sheep being driven in. We 
will be glad to see them come. The wool- 
growers of the Paoific coast will find a good 
home here, and will find pasturers that, if 
properly cvred for, will improve every year. 
Here their flocks, when once healed of the dis- 
eases peculiar to the section from whence they 
came, will remain healthy. We are person- 
ally acquainted with a number of persons who 
have large flocks in California, who intend 
driving here next season. 

Oregon. 

The Season. — Sentinel, Dec. 31 : So far this 
has been one of the rainiest and warmest win- 
ters that has ever been known in this latitude. 
We have had a little snow, but scarcely any 
frost. The snow did not lay on the ground 
only a few hours ; it melted nearly as fast as 
it fell. The grass is green all over the country, 
and it is growing very fast. There are plenty 
of apples still hanging on the trees. Even the 
people in town have not gathered in all their 
apples. E. D. Poudray, Peter Britt and Father 
Blanchet have apples still green and in good or- 
der hanging in their gardens. The rose bushes 
are also in full bloom. The whole country 
looks more like May than the last of December. 



Stencil Plates by Electro-Magnetism. 

One of the most ingenious and novel appli- 
cations made of electro-magnetism, is that in- 
vented by Mr. Edison, and exhibited at the 
fair of the American Institute in New York to 
perforate stencil plates by means of an electro- 
magnetic writing pen, which has in its blunt 
end a sharp point which is continually pro- 
jected and retracted with a velocity of more 
than 1,000 times a minute, so that in writing 
wiib this pen on paper the lines written con- 
sist of a series of holes very close together, 
and the words written or figures drawn may be 
seen when holding the paper to the light. The 
sheet thus written upon forms a kind of sten- 
cil plate, and being placed on paper, an im- 
pression may be taken from it by simply pass- 
ing a proper ink over it by means of a printer's 
roller, when the ink will pass through the 
holes and make their marks on the paper under 
it. In this way 1,000 or more impressions 
may be made from a single stencil-plate thus 
written by the electro-magnetic pen. 

The construction of this pen is the main 
feature of the invention. It carries in its top 
a small electro-magnet with a revolving bar, 
making some 1,000 or more revolutions per 
minute; the electro-magnet is connected by 
means of flexible copper wires to two small 
cups of a carbon chromic acid battery, while a 
current breaker on the axis of the revolving 
bar, interrupts the current twice at every revo- 
tion, in the same way as all such machines 
are constructed. This axis also carries an ec- 
centric, which gives an upward and downward 
motion to a bar passing through the body of 
the pen and projecting below with the small 
point mentioned, while this point makes the 
perforations by the power of ttie electro-magnet 
in the top of the pen. We have no doubt but 
that this small mochine will find many other 
applications besides that of writing circulars, 
for which at present it seoms to be solely in- 
tended. 



The largest flouring mill in America, it is 
paid, is owned by Hon. C. C. Washburn, of 
Minneapolis, Minn. It is seven stories high, 
and crowded with machinery from top to bot- 
tom. Its cost was $300,000, has forty run of 
burrs, and tiirns out 1,000 barrels of flour per 
day. 



22 



[January 8, 1876 




The Departing Year. 

A yo»r hatli paBseil— e'en as the dial's Bliade, 

That moves ku Bwiftly, silulitly away, 
Wbat fearful cliiin«es hatU it8 pasKSKe madol 

How much of Borrow saw each fleeting day! 
How oft ba» diKuppoiiitiueiit harrid thu way 

To hope's iMoKt .agcr footntepH— turning back 
The v/fAry heart- to pi au'ain astray. 

Oh! man, thou wanderest on a cheerless track, [slake! 

Compelled at bitter streams thy burning thirst to 

Within tliy narrow scope, departing year, 
How oft hath opened the remorseless gravel 

While death sat smiling at the sable bier. 
In Hilpnt miickory of the pangs he gave. 

How hath the monster on the ocean wave 
Flapped bis dark wings amid the awful storm; 

Where strove in vain the hardy and the brave! 
In joy's brieht halls how many a beauteous form 
Hath the ntcm spectre pierced to feed the grovelling 
worm I 

These tell thy history— but tell not all— 
A fairer page thy brighter hours may claim; 

Thou hadst thy scenes the heart would fain recall, 
Sweet, joyous moiueuts, worthy of the name. 

O'er which, with sadd'niug spell no sorrow came. 
When from his deep debasement rose again, 

The husband and the fatlier, won from shame, 
KesolvHd no more the madd'ning cup to drain. 
How great, how sweet the joy, though bought with 
years of pain I 

And such are thine, old year— nor those alone. 
Each month, each changing season gave its store 

Of rich and varied blessings, freely strewn, 
To teach man's thankless spirit to adore. 

The early spring t'le buds of promiae bore — 
Advancing summer her kind influence shed— 

And her fair gifts did bounteous autumn pour 
In needy winter's lap. But thou art fled 
For aye, to thy dark home with the returnless dead. 

A Common Sense View of Food. 

Something like a "battle of foods" has been 
going on for some time. Many medical men, 
neglecting the evidence of their experience, 
have declared against the common use of non- 
nitrogenous food as innutritioua, although its 
uses are as paramount in supporting human 
life as the most highly nitrogenous etlible sub- 
stances. Starch, for instance, has a value as a 
nutriment like sugar and fat. Of course we 
know neither muscle nor bono can be made of 
starch alone, but neither can muscle or bone be 
accumulated if man or animal be fed entirely 
upon nitrogenous foods, even though they con- 
tain phosphates, lime, etc., in combination. 
Fed on nitrogenous food alone, death is as 
certain as on a prolonged continuous diet of 
starch, sugar or fat. Farinaceous foods are of 
equal importance in the economy of life, as 
any other. Such are the teachings of Mr. W. 
J. Cooper's paper, recently read before the 
chemical section of the British Association at 
Brighton, and we must admit his arguments 
are at all points conclusive. Man does not live 
by bread or beef, butter or eggs alone. A 
mixed diet is essential to him. His health, 
however, depends greatly on the proper ad- 
mixture and administration of food in child- 
hood or manhood, sickness or old age. Far- 
inaceous substances, such as arrowroot, corn 
flour, and similar substances, are as valuable 
foods in their way as any other kind. 

In Ireland it is well known that starch fur- 
nishes about no per cent, of the actual weight 
of nutriment taken by the peasantry, potatoes 
only containing some 1% to 2 per cent, of 
albuminous matter, and 22 or 23 per cent, of 
.'Starch, the rest being water. In India, Chiaa, 
Mexico, and some of the South Sea islands, 
besides other places, nine-tenths of the food 
consumed by the inhabitants is mainly starch. 
In England our dietaries are apt to be too 
nitrogenous, and hence the great value and 
necessity for assimilative farinaceous food. 
That some foods are nitrogenous and others 
farinaceous is advantageous, so long as no per- 
fect food is known to exist, with the exception 
always of milk. But Mr. Cooper rightly main- 
tains that it would be as idle to complain of the 
butcher for not selling vegetables as a proper 
part of the joint, or the baker for not selling 
butter with his bread, as to raise objections to 
these starchy foods, which are the most con- 
venient media for conveying by admixture a 
wholesome amount of nitrogenous substance, 
modilied according to the requirements of 
children and invalids, who would otherwise be 
incapable of assimilating ordinary food. — Lon- 
don Farmer. 



A True Bill. — Before folks we put on our 
silken coats in morals and manners as well as 
in dress; at home we are not afraid of the 
roughest frieze, and we allow eiirselves jags 
and tHgs that would disgrace us forever if seen 
by our more formal ac<iualntance. Before 
folks we are c.ireful to pleaso, anxious to 
charm; where folks are not we throw fascina- 
tion to the winds, and so long as we are obeyed 
snap our lingers at esteem. This is a true bill 
against most of us; the proportion of those 
who carry into ihe home the same grace and 
care as that which they display abroad being 
so small as scarcely to count at all. 

A TOUNG mother says that you may always 
know a bachelor by the fact of his always 
speaking of the baby as "it." 



Woman's Aspiratfons. 

In a series of lectures arranged last spring by 
the alumni of Rutgers college, New York, 
Miss Phtube Couzins, a Bachelor of Laws, was 
invited to act as the orator on the evening of 
March !Jth, which she did, taking for her sub- 
ject "The Higher Education of Women." Fol- 
lowing is a brief report of her lecture pub- 
lished at the lime by the New York Sure; 

" Gentlemen and ladies," said she, "is it 
best for the race that uncultured and ignorant 
women should be its mothers? Women can no 
longer retain the lily's passive position in the 
world's great field of action. One hundred and 
fifty years ago a Massachusetts schoolmaster 
was publicly reprimanded and dismissed for 
teaching women arithmetic; and to-day, when 
she knocks at the door of Columbia and Har- 
vard, the answer comes back in virile baritone, 
no. It is but a little while since th^ prevailing 
idea of a literary woman was that she wore 
bine stockings, with shoes down at the heel, 
iier husband shirt-buttonless, and her neglected 
household running wild. Yet the literary wo- 
man kept unswervingly onward, and is be- 
ginning to occupy her share of the seats 
in the intellectual kingdom. These same col- 
leges receive all male candidates, ba 
they bright or barely able to wedge in; -so 
their sex is right, the door to learning stands 
open. It really is not strange that women do 
not rise faster, when we consider what disad- 
vantages they have to straggle against in dress 
which entangles their feet and burdens their 
brditis with rats, mice and hairpins. The State 
of New York has spent sixteen millions of dol- 
lars for the education of men and not one for 
that of women. \b in New York State, so 
in all the States and in all the world. A girl 
steps forth from a boarding school to wait for a 
husband, like an oyster waiting for the tide, 
'mt not like an oyster, sure of what she waits 
for." 

An old gentleman met Miss Couicins on a rail- 
road near St. Louis and said; "I wish you 
would give up this foolish notion of running 
about to lecture, and settle down, have a hus- 
band, and bo a good housekeeper." Miss 
Couzins replied, "Barkis is willing; but where's 
your man?" Woman must marry. Her sphere 
is the kitchen and cradle, the cook book and 
Baxter's Saint's Host. That is the traditional 
and still accepted notion of woman's duty and 
woman's place. Miss Couzins longed for the 
divine word to be .spoken that shall reach this 
dead and buried woman and bring h"r out. It 
is not all of life to get married, nor all of death 
to remain single. The lives of most women are 
like subterranean rivers, chafing their channels 
of stone with unheard murmurs. 



Thk Old Man and His Son.— It sounds like 
the title of one of the spelling-book stories 
which we used to read 35 or -10 years ago, but it 
is nothing but a simple, true tale. Father and 
son live close by each other in one of the towns 
in this vicinity. The old man had a big barn, 
>ind last spring the young one bought all the 
fancy fowl he could lay hands on and quar- 
tered them in his father's barn. He sold not 
an egg of the multitude laid, but had them all 
hatched except what were addled, and the num 
ber of chickens was like grasshoppers west of 
the Mississippi. They ate up the beans, until 
nothing but the stocks were left; they ate up 
the curnnts and every green thing about the 
two houses except the grass and the onions. 
The old gentleman had trees of nice pears, 
but the chickens got up in the morning earlier 
than he, so that he has hardly a taste of tbem. 
Even his apples have suffered severely, and the 
neighbors have wondered if it rained chickens 
in that part of the town. The old man had put 
in a half-dozen new cellar windows a week or 
two since, and those insatiate fowls have eaten 
off every particle of putty. He is in doubt 
whether to take his sou into partnership, or in 
the words of H. G , to say, "Go West, young 
man" — Nticburyport Herald. 



Vice in Reading.— A recent English writer 
very properly classes the habit of useless and 
pernicious reading in which many persons 
now-a-days indulge, with dram drinking, to- 
bacco smoking; all being very injurious and 
destructive to true manhood. As he well says, 
reading is not a good thing in itself. If one 
reads for no object, neither to bo made wiser 
nor nobler, nor to be innocently recreated, he 
derives no benefit from reading. If he wastes 
his time in reading, it is as bad as if he wasted 
it in any other way. How many persons read 
from mere habit, appearing to derive neither 
instruction nor pleasure from the exercise ! 
How many spend an hour or more in reading, 
and then lay the book down with a yawn, and 
then remark that there is nothing in it, when 
the fault is as likely to be in their lack ot motive 
in reading, as in the book itself ! Novels are 
often road from a more habit of idleness. We 
would enjoin, therefore, upon our young read- 
ers always to read with an object for reading, 
or to do something else. 



Home. — That house is no home which has a 
grumbling father, a scolding mother, a dissi- 
pated son, a lazy daughter and a bad tempered 
child. It may be built of marble, surrounded 
by garden, park and fountain; carpets of ex- 
travagant costliness may spread its floors; pic- 
tures of the rarest merit may adorn the walls; 
its tables may abound with dainties the most 
luxurious; its every ordering may be complete; 
but it won't be a borne. 



Effect of Color on the Sensations. 

Having recently achieved the luxury of a 
new carpet in our sitting room, we are all quite 
surprised at the effect the accidental but judi- 
cious distribution of colors in it has over feel- 
ings and sensations. 

Tho quality is the ordinary ingrain, and the 
pattern a very old-fashioned one, of large, wavy 
green and bright crimson fern-8hnped loaves on 
a white background, there being but three 
colors, white, red and green. The effect is one 
of indescribable warmth and comfort, such as 
never was experienced before, but is noticed 
by every one who comes into the room. 

This hint is worth attention in the selection 
of carpets. What the result will be iu hot 
weather remains to be seen. A little judicious 
selection and discrimination in .such oases 
makes more difference than an ordinary unob- 
servant person would suppose. 

The same is true of wall papers, neutral 
tints, such as buff and violet being much cooler 
thiin more positive colors, such as bright crim- 
son, green, etc. 

Light colored or white boots make the feet 
appear larger than black. Longitudinally 
striped clothing causes the person to seem 
much taller, while lateral stripes have the 
contrary effect. — Ex. 



The Thumb as an Index op Contempt. — 
Scott says to bite the glove or the thumb was 
a border pledge of mortal revenge. In Eng- 
land thumb biting was practiced to goad an 
adversary into fighting. Dekker tells us that 
St. Paul's walk was notable for sbouldering-i, 
jeerings. and biting of thumbs to beget quar- 
rels, and Shakespeare imports the fashion into 
Verona. When Gregory and Sampson espy 
two Montague men, out fly their swords; but 
prudent Sampson, to compel the others to take 
the initiative, bites his thumb at them, "which 
is a disgrace if they bear it." Challenged with 
the question, "Did vou bite your thumb at me, 
sir?" he replies, ''No sir, I do not bite mv 
thumb at you, sir; but — I bito my thumb!" 
and in a few minutes the fray begins. It was 
not absolutoly necessary to put the thumb to 
tho mouth. In \.'l\)\ a rude fellow was sent to 
prison for casting vile contempt upon the clerk 
of the sheriff of London, by raising his thumb 
and saying, "Iphurt, Iphurt!" "in manifest 
contempt of our Lord." If one Neapolitan 
wishes to anger another, he places the palm of 
bis right hand on the back of the left, and 
shakes the crossed thumbs, symbolical of don- 
key's ears, at him; a pleasant bit of panto- 
mime answering to the "taking a sight" popu- 
lar elsewhere — a sign of contemptuous defiance, 
said to bo at least as old as ancient Assyria. 
— All the Year Round. 



A Company's Liability for Kissing by an 
Employee. 

In the case of Craker against the Chicago and 
Northwestern company, the Wisconsin Su- 
preme Court has given its decision. The plaintiff, 
a lady, took passage on a train on the Madison 
division, and, the conductor of the train, while 
on the journey, forcibly kissed her. Sho 
l>roaght snit against the company in the Circuit 
Conn, and got a verdict of $1,OUO damages. 
The case was appealed, and now the Supreme 
Court decides as follows, the decision involving 
S'jrae important points: 

A master is liable for a wrong done by his 
servant, whether through the negligence or the 
malice of the Litter, in the coarse of an employ- 
ment in which the servant is engaged to per- 
form a duty which the master owes to the per- 
son injured. 

It seems that the master shouKi be liable in 
all cases for the servant's wrongful act done in 
the course of his employment, whether through 
negligence or malice. 

A railroad company is bound to protect fe- 
male passengers on its trains from all indecent 
approach or assaults; and where a conductor on 
a company's train makes such an assault on u 
female passenger, the company is liable for 
compensatory damages. 

Exemplary damages cannot be recovered 
against the principal for a wrongful and malic- 
cious act of the agent, neither authorized or rat- 
ified by the principal. 

A verdict of $1,00U damages for the insult i {- 
fered by defendant's conductor to the plaintiff 
in this case, held not so excessive as to author- 
ize the court to set it aside. 



Laughing Children. — Give me (says a well- 
known writer) the boy or girl who smiles as 
soon as the first rays of the morning sun glance 
in through the window, gay, happy and kind. 
Such a boy will be fit to " make up" into a man 
— at least when contrasted with a sullen, 
morose fellow, who snaps and snarls like a 
surly cur, or growls aud grunts like an untamed 
hyena from tho moment ne opens his angry eyes 
till he is "confronted" by his breakfast. Such a 
girl, other things beiug favorable, will be good 
material to aid in gladdening some comfortable 
home, or to refine, civilize, tame and human- 
ize a rude brother, making him gentle, affec- 
tionate and loveable. It is a feast to even look 
at such a joy-inspiring girl, such a woman 
girl, and see the smiles flowing, so to speak, 
from the parted lips, displaying a set of clean, 
well-brushed teeth, looking almost the person- 
ification of beauty and goodness, singing and as 
merry as the birds — the wide-awake birds that 
commenced their morning concert long before 
the lazy boys dreamed that the sun was ap- 
proaching and about to pour a whole flood of 
warmth and light upon the earth. Such a ' 
girl is like a gentlo shower to the parched 
earth, bestowing kind words, sweet smiles and 
acts of mercy to all around her— the joy and 
light of the household. 

GnowiNG Old. — It is a very solemn thought 
connected with middle life, that life's last busi- 
ness has begun in earnest; and it is then mil- 
way between the cradle and the grave that a 
man begins to marvel that he let tho days of 
youth go by so half enjoyed. It is the pensive 
autumn feeling; it is the sensation of half sad- 
ness that wo experience whon the longest d>iy 
of the year is passed, and every day that fol- 
lows is shorter and the light fainter, aud the 
feebler shadows tell that.nature is hastening 
with gigantic footsteps to her winter grave. So 
does man look back upon his youth. When the 
first grey hairs become visible, when the un- 
welcome truth fastens itself upon the mind, 
that a man is no longer going up hill, but 
down, aud that the sun is always westering, 
he looks back on things behind. Wh'-n we 
were children we thought as children. But now 
there lies before us manhood, with its earnest 
work, and then old ago, and then the grave, 
and thou homo. There is a second youth for 
man, hotter and holier than his first, if ho will 
look on and not look back. 

Scene, an astronomical class: Student (lo- 
quit(ir)^"l'rofe88or, when you speak to us of 
the limbs of the sun ani the moon, which are 
we to understand, that they are arms or legs ?" 
Professor — "We have scriptural warrant for 
supposing them to be legs. Job speaks of 'the 
moon walking in brightness.'" 

Lazinecs begins in cobwebs and ends in iron 
chains. 



Answkeino Letters.— a great many persons 
in this country are shamefully negligent about 
answering letters. Nothing is more annoying. 
In European countries it is regarded as the 
hight of ill-breeding to allow a letter, which 
needs a reply, to go unanswered, and so it 
ought to be considered here. This is a point 
on which parents should lay great stress to 
their children. They should bo taught to con- 
sider it as rude not to reply to a letter which 
needs attention, as to hand a fork with the 
prong end. The busiest people are generally 
those who are, the most exact in this respent. 
The late Duke of Wellington, who, it will be 
admitted, had a good deal on bis hands at differ- 
ent t mes of h s life, replied to every let- 
ter, no matter from how humble a source. 
Once a clergyman, who lived in a distant piirt 
of the kingdom, wrote his Grace, on whom 
neither he nor bis parish had a shadow of 
claim, to beg for a subscription to rebuild a 
church. By return of mail came back a letter 
from the Duke to the effect that he should not 
have been applied to for such an object; but 
the parson sold the letter as an autograph for 
C5, and put the Duke down for that amount 
among the subscribers. 

Newspaper and School Educator. — The 
newspaper is, without doubt, a powerful in- 
strument for good or ill, according to the kind 
of newspaper meant, but it is no part of its 
mission to supplant the school. It is the busi 
ness of the daily journal to print the news, to 
comment upon the occurrences of the day, and 
to advocate that which its cotiductors believe 
to be the right iu all matters of public and gen- 
eral couoern. The business of the school lies 
in a totally different plane. It is its province 
to train the faculties of boys and girls into 
ready and accurate modes of action, and, so 
ftr as mere information is concerned, to furnish 
them with a certain technical, elemental, ba'tilar 
species of knowledge upon which their disci- 
pliu d faculties may build as upon a foundation 
wall. The information which the school fur- 
nishes, the newspaper does not; that which 
the newspaper gives, the school cannot and 
ought not; and hence, even in this matter of 
giving information, the only one in which there 
is the least resemblance between the respective 
functions of the school and the journal, it is 
re:!embldnce only, and not identity. — Exxning 
Post. 

The lecturer called upon the theologians 
among her hearers to deny that it had been 
women's duty to obey their husbands ever 
since the plucky and jjerverse wife, the wom- 
anly and noble Vashti, refused to appear before 
King AbasneruB and his court after thf^y hud 
been on a drunken spree for seven days. The 
first cause of woman's snbjugation was her 
physical weakness. The persons that could 
fight the longest and the fiercest were tho na- 
tion's rulers. The theory that in woman ig- 
norance was the badge of virtue wrought tho 
dowufall of Greece, aud will that of America, 
unless woman is placed side by side in intel- 
lectual culture with man. Women have to 
struggle their way into every department of 
intellectual and artistic work. Man has had 
all the advantages to help him, aud woman 
all tho disadvantages to hinder her. Miss 
Couzins advised her young hearers of the Rut- 
gers college if the right man came to accept his 
hand with dignity, but if not to man tbe bark 
of life with conrace, and sail with God tho seas. 

Live is a book, iu which wo every day read a 
pai^e. Wo ought to note down every instructive 
incident that passes. A crowd of useful thoughts 
cannot but flow from self-converse. HoM everj- 
day a solitary conversation with yourself. This 
is the way iu which lo attain the highest relish 
of existence; and, if I may so say, to cast 
anchor in the river of Jifo. 

Boston has a woman newspaper carrier who 
is B7 years old. 



January 8, 1876.J 



2a 



Sunshine for the Little Ones. 

Don't believe that children fly directly out o 
Heaven into your cradle, although there are 
mother^who are so certain of it that they are 
nearly as blighting te the lives of their offsprings 
as the doleful one who is quite as certaiit that 
hers originated in that other less attractive 
place. There is a medium between these two 
women where children have a reasonable 
chance of becoming agreeable and useful mem- 
bers of society. We prefer the hopeful mother, 
because there are now and then children who 
are born into the world especially organized to 
thrive in undisturbed development. There are 
not many, however. But the other sort, Oh! 
theirs is a dreary road! The hopeless fretter 
over possible ills, and the moaning creature 
who believes that Heaven has forgotten to be 
good and hopeful, makes her home a place to 
escape from as soon as her children are strong 
enough to take flight. They are the cheerless 
tones of life that wind their discords into the 
very existence of a little child. If any mother 
doubts that, she has but to talk to her wee baby 
in a fretful tone of voice, and she will soon 
sadden it so deeply' that very likely its lips 
will quiver with grief, and it will burnt into 
hysterical weeping. 

If this influence is felt by aa unreasoning 
infant, what must be its prolonged effect upon 
a child after it comprehends the significance of 
words that are uttered in tones of perpetual 
hopelessness? We besetch the mother, who 
has a tendency to melancholy, to either cure it 
by sound sense, or hide it from her children. 
The night side of nature, when manifested in a 
woman, is as detrimental to her child's mental 
development, as if the small innocent were set 
to grow in the cellar. It cannot mature thriftily 
and healthily in any direction, because nature 
refuses to conduct herself except upon tho 
strict principles of expansion in sunshine, and 
contraction and sickness in the dusk; and this 
same nature d«es not grant special dispensa- 
tions to anybody. Domestie sunshine is as 
absolutely requisite for the little animal in the 
nursery as for the vegetable in the garden. — 
Metropolilan, 

The Tea Hodb.— That interesting hour of 
the twenty-four is the one looked forward to 
with most longing and delight, as then every 
member of the household gathers around the 
table after the various cares, worries and works 
of the day are done and the rest of the evening 
can be devoted to family and social intercourse. 
Dinner in this country can only be called the 
business meal; it requites more labor and ex- 
pense to prepare it, and is apt to be partaken 
of when the mind is overloaded with business 
perplexities. At breakfast there are more or 
less hurry. The mind is bright, clear and re- 
freshed with sleep; the body elastic, strong and 
eager to encounter the labor and duties that 
each new day brings forth, and there seems 
little inclination to think or talk about other 
matters than such as are immediately con- 
nected with business of the outside world; but 
the tea hour is essentially the family meal, 
where topics of conversation should be intro- 
duced which require a forgetful ness of every- 
thing that is disagreeable, personal or selfish. 
Parents should introduce such subjects for 
table conversation as will interest, improve and 
benefit the minds of the younger members of 
the family. This department, in every num- 
ber of our paper, will contain matters of in- 
terest for all — old and young, and such as will 
furnish appropriate subjects for conversation 
and mind culture. There will be but few 
families that will not be wiser, happier and 
better bv perusing ^ its pages from week to 
week. — JSx. 



Yoiif^Q F®*-*^s' Gonlifiii. 



story of a Bear. 

Bears are not generally regarded as very 
cunning or smart; but that they do sometimes 
rise to something like smartness is shown by 
the following story which is told by the Sonoma 
Democrat : 

Parties engaged in trapping bears had sus- 
pended a bait at such a hight from the ground 
as to be within easy reach of a bear. Immedi- 
ately under the bait a slight excavation was 
made in the ground, in which was placed k 
steel trap covered with leaves; a passing bear 
discovers the bait; goes for it; and walks into 
the trap. 

On the occasion in question a solitary bear, 
sorely pressed by hunger, sallied forth on a 
nocturnal foraging expedition. Happening 
along where the trappers had hung the tempt- 
ing bait, Bruin at once proceeded-to appropri- 
ate it. In attempting to get th« bait he unfor- 
tunately sprung the trap, the consequence of 
which was the loss of two or three toes. He 
limped back to his den a sadder, and as the 
sequel will show, a wiser bear. Returning on 
the following night, his late mishap atill fresh 
in his memory, his bearship instituted a search- 
ing investigation into things in general, which 
revealed the fact that the trap was again set, 
whereupon, goaded by hunger and remembei- 
ing the little unpleasantness of the previous 
night, he seized the trap and dragged it to one 
side. Having now nothing to fear from the 
trap, be gobbled up the bait and marched off 
triumphantly. This little trick was repeated a 
number of times. The bear is still at large. 



A Sermon in a Paeagraph.— President Porter, 
in Yale, gave the following advice to the stu- 
dents of that institution the other day: "Young 
men, yon are the architects of your own for- 
tunes. Rely on your own strength of body and 
soul. Take for yo«r star self-reliance. Inscribe 
on your banner, " Luck is a fool, Pluck is a 
hero." Don't take too much advice — keep at 
the helm and steer your own ship, and remem- 
ber that the art of commanding is to take a fair 
abara of the work. Think well of yourself. 
Strike out. Assume your own position. Put 
potatoes in a cart, go over a rough road, and 
the small ones go to the bottom. Fire above 
the mark you intend to hit. Energy, invincible 
determination with a right motive, are the 
levers that move the world. Don't swear. 
Don't deceive. Don't read novels. Dan't 
marry until you can support a wife. Be in 
earnest. Be self-reliant. Be generous. Be 
civil. Read the papers. Advertise your busi- 
ness. Make money and do good with it. Love 
your God and fellow Men. Love truth aad 
virtue. Love yomr country and obey its laws." 

Why Hk Didn't Gkt Mareied.— An old 
bachelor in Maine has been deterred from com- 
mitting matrimony in a novel way. Thinking 
over the subject seriously, and particularly the 
expense of maintainins; a family, he set the table 
in his lonely abode with plates for himself and 
an imaginary wife and five children. He then 
sat down to dine, and as eften as he helped 
himself to food he put the same quantity on 
each of the other plates and surveyed the pros- 
pect, at the same time computing the cost. The 
result of his examination was go discouraging 
that he resolved not to marry. 

A New York man having christened his 
daughter Glycerine, he says it will be easy to 
prefix nitro if her temper resembles her moth- 
er's ! 



QOOD HEi^^TH" 



Look Ahead. 

Now that the end of another year has been 
reached, would it not be well for our youthful 
readers to look ahead? Men and women gener- 
ally look back over the past, and if careful and 
discreet, they note their mistakes and try to 
avoid them in the future. Boys and girls have 
only their childish pranks to look back to, and 
it is generally a pleasure to do so, but the fu- 
ture to you is a grave reality, and in it you are 
to make yourself useful and make your mark in 
life or leave the evidence of a life spent in vain. 

It is astonishing how soon boys and girls of 
twelve to fourteen years of age ripen into men 
and women and enter actively on the stage of 
life. At that age they are generally at school, 
or should be, and are beginning to appreciate 
an education, but in after years they will ap- 
preciate it still more. We beg of you, reader, 
to apply yourself every moment to the best ad- 
vantage. Soou you will manage the farm or 
house for yourself; notice carefully all that 
pertains to your future occupation. No life is 
so free from all that is wicked and so free from 
risk of means as the farmer's life, and no life 
affords so much solid comfort and assurance of 
a reasonable competency. With the girls no 
home offers a better field for providing little 
comforts, Hiid developing into innocent, health- 
ful womanhood than yours. Be content, then, 
boys and girls, and strive to improve your- 
selves and make your home happy with a view 
of enjoying it in a long life of usefulness.— .Ex. 

Origin of Tobacco Chewing. 

We regret to see that some, even very young 
hoys indulge in the habit of tobacco chewing. 
It is a very filthy and pernicious habit, one 
against which we would warn all boys. And 
just here we will tell a story about the ori- 
gin of tobacco chewing that is not generally 
known. 

The weed was found, as most of you are 
aware, in use among the Indians on the dis- 
covery of America. Centuries ago, according 
to the tradition, Indians on this continent wor- 
shipped devils. Indian priests got drunk on 
tobaec* smoke, and in this state they held eom- 
manion with their deities, and when the fit of 
intoxication passed, they would make known 
to the savages around them the responses of 
their deities. So Columbus took a specimen 
of it with other curiosities of the country to 
Spain, and afterwards more was shipped, and 
in three centuries it had spread all over the 
civilized world. Alas for the world ! they were 
better off without it— for it has brought sick- 
ness, ruin and death to hundreds of thousands. 
Remember its meam origin and shun it. 

A Smart Girl. — A country lass was driving 
a donkey to a fair in Renfrewshire one sum- 
mer morning. The donkey was a laggard, and 
was more intent on cropping the roadside herb- 
age than "going to the fair;" but the girl did 
not put herself out. Pleasant thoughts of her 
sweetheart were passing through her mind, and 
she sang gaily to herself. An Irish laborer 
overtook her, and, as he passed ho said, "My 
darlint, you're as lively this morning as if you 
had been newly kissed." The happy girl at 
one answered, "If ye think, Pat, that a kiss 
makes one lively, I wish ye would kiss my 
donkey, for he's unco' stiff this morning!" 

A SuNDAT school teacher, wishing his pupils 
to have a clear idea of faith, illustrated it thus: 
" Here is an apple — you see it and therefore 
know it is there; but when I place it under this 
teacup you have faith that it is there, though 
you no longer see it." The lads seemed to un- 
derstand perfectly, and the next time the 
teacher asked them, "What is faith?" they 
answered with one accord, " An apple under a 
teacup." 



Esjic Eco 



Prevention and Cure. 

It is astonishing, to say the least, that every- 
where "cure" is recognized before prevention. 
The old adage "an ounce of prevention is worth 
a pound of cure," seems to have been forgotten, 
or at least disregarded by the mass of humanity. 
Men will search throughout the range of the 
whole pharmacopore, and cast about them all 
their lifetimes for some chemical or vegetable 
compound which shall be an effectual cure for 
some of the "ills which flesh is heir to," while 
if they should spend half the tiiiie in looking 
for the cause and prevention of this disease, 
the sufferings of humanity would be mitigated 
to an incomparably greater degree. And when 
such a medicine is found, it very seldom affects 
a cure. Even when the cause and prevention 
are known, men seem to overlook the fact that 
the suffering consequent upon the exertion and 
self-denial necessary for prevention of di.sease 
is leas than that which follows the neglect to 
apply the preventive. This substitution of 
cure for prevention seems to hold precedence 
where civilization is highest to a greater degree 
than among less enlightened nations. And 
why is this? Among barbarous nations more 
attention is paid to prevention, and the few 
remedial agents used are simple, and seldom 
effectual in themselves; wherea^i, in civilized 
countries the greater knowledge of science in- 
duces men to search more extensively for new 
and better curatives, and as more and more 
scientific discoveries are made, the medical 
field becomes wider and wider. And thus, in 
this rush after new medical discoveries, the 
laws of prevention of disease have been over- 
looked, and left far behind. 

Now, viewing this matter as one of the greatest 
importance to the human family, the next 
step is to consider how it may be brought to 
the attention of the mass of the people. The 
medical men, as a class, do not do it, although 
it is their legitimate business, because it would 
not be for their pecuniary intei'est. But there 
is one other re>'ource, and one which is ade- 
quate to the task. Let the press take hold of 
the work, and after clearing its pages of all 
medical advertisements, in their place let it 
elucidate the common rules and principles of 
health, and point out the causes of sickness and 
disease and the methods of prevention, and by 
so doing it would lose nothing, pecuniarily or 
otherwise. Let this be done, and the day is 
not very distant when the swindling practice of 
the multitude of quacks \vith which the country 
is swarming will be at an end, and the people, 
stronger, both physically and mentally, will 
adopt for their motto, "moderation in all 
things." — Cor. Phrenological Journnl. 

BoB^x IN Colds. — A writer in the Medical 
Record cites a number of cases iu which borax 
has proved a most effective remedy in certain 
forms of colds. He states for a sudden hoarse- 
ness or less of voice in public speakers or sing- 
ers, from colds, relief for an hour or so, as by 
magic, may be often obtained by slowly dis- 
solving and partially swallowing a lump of 
borax, the size of a garden pea, or about three 
or four grains held in the mouth for ten minutes 
before speaking or singing. This prc^j^ce^i a 
profuse secretion of saliva, or "watering of the 
mouth and throat — probably restoring the voice 
or tone to the dried vocal cords, just the same 
as "wetting" brings back the missing notes to 
the flute, when it is too dry. 



To Obscure Scabs. — ^To obscure, boil in 
three quarts of water one pint horseradish, 
four ounces pulverized alum, and four ounces 
rock salt. When cold, wpt pieces of thick lint 
therewith, and apply frequently. This will 
harden and thicken the skin. Perse\'ere for 
some time, and the effect is certain. On going 
among friends, dull the shiny appearance by 
bathing it with a httle spirits of hartshorn in 
water. The first named preparation is best 
when made newly; it gradually loses pungency 
and effectiveness, and so when weak must be 
renewed. With time and care, as above, the 
redness and peculiar appearance of soars will 
largely diminish. The jjgieon should carefully 
avoid ail irritation of the parts. 

BuiLDiNO Ground. — We want more of a dry 
earth system. Perfect under- drainage is the 
first great need of most cities and large towns. 
Regulations of cellars, and of all other holes 
below the surface, is the next great study. The 
proper airing of all sub-structure, because of 
its proximity to the ground, comes in next for 
consideration. What can we do to sweeten or 
purify surface-soil already formed, is another 
point. The great question of what to do with 
all refuse so as to keep it out of city soil is the 
large and momentous subject which must 
ever present itself to our attention. — Public 
Health Associatmi. 

A Fatal Kiss — The Alba^ Argus says that 
Miss K«te Noyes, of Lansingburg, is in a criti- 
cal condition from poison, arising from kissing 
her deceased niece, who died of diphtheria. 
The young lady had a slight sore on her lip at 
the time. A swelling commenced in her lip, 
which soon extended to the nose, and it is 
feared the difficulty will reach the brain. 

Mr. Georue R. Labau, 111 years old, as 
distinctly shown by the records of his ohristen- 
iuc, attended the State fuir at Easton, Pa., last 
week. The old man is talkative and intelligent, 
has a fine chest, shows little emaciation, and 
can do considerable work without fatigue. 



The Art of Frying Fish. 

Several kinds of fish are fried when small, 
such as small trout or troutlets, carps, tench, 
sun-fish, pike, pickerel, flounders, white-fish, 
black and blue fish, perch, porgy, weak-fish, 
herring, bass, and the like, and smelts, which 
never grow above the frying size. 

When fish or anything else is cooked in a 
frying-pan with just fat enough to orevent it 
from burning, it is not fried batsautad, there be- 
ing two very distinct ways of frying. To fry 
means to cook fish or something else immersed in 
boiling fat. To saute means to cook fish or 
something else with just fat enough to merely 
cover the bottom of the pan; for instance, 
small fishes are fried, but omelets are sauted; 
potatoe-i are fried, but parsnips are sauted. 

Many inexperienced cooks make mistakes on 
that account; they read in some cook-book 
that such an article of food is good fried, and set 
to frying it when it should ke sauted, and vice 
versa. 

The fat skimmed from the surface of broth, 
which is beef-suet, the trimmings of steaks or 
roasting pieces of beef melted as directed be- 
low, "^re better for frying purposes than lard, 
no* tlying all over as lard does. 

The fat skimmed from trimmings or from 
around the kidneys of beef is cut in small pieces , 
put in an iron pot, and set on a rather slow 
fire. As soon as it begins to melt, ladle off the 
melted part and turn it into a stone or crockery 
jar, which you cover when cold. Put it away 
in a cool, dry, and dark place. A careful cook 
never needs lard for frying purposes, but has 
aways more fat than is necessary out of boil- 
ing or roasting pieces, and that skimmed on 
the top of broth, sauce, and gravies. Some 
cooks will not take the trouble to melt it when 
the mistress allows as much lard and butter as is 
asked for. 

It is an error to believe that by using much 
fat to fry, the articles fried will taste greasy; if 
there is not fat enough in the pan to completely 
immerse the objects fried, they will certainly 
taste greasy. It will be the same if the fat is 
not heated enough. It is heated enough when 
jets of smoke ooze out of it, or when, on throw- 
ing drops of water on it, it makes a crackling 
noise. 

When the fat is llot enough, the article that 
is to be fried is dropped into it, and stirred 
gently now and then with a skimmer. When 
done, it is t iken off the pan with a skimmer 
and turned into a colander, which should rest 
on a dish or bowl to receive the fat that may 
drop from it. 

If the article to be fried is not completely 
immersed iu the fat, theapart not immersed will 
absorb fat, and, as stated above, will be greasy; 
but if there is fat enough to cover it entirely, 
the intensity of the heat closes the pores, car- 
bonizing the exterior of the article, as it were, 
and preventing it from absorbing any fat. 

If the articles to be fried be tender and some- 
what brittle, they are put in a wire basket or 
perforated <Iouble bottom made for that pur- 
nose, and the basket is plunged into the fat. 
The basket is raised when the articles are fried, 
and held over the pan to let the fat drop; they 
are then taken carefully out of it, placed on a 
dish, spriHkled with salt, and served hot. 

When the frying is done, the pan is put away 
for a few minutes, to allow the particles of 
solid matter that may be in to fall to the bot- 
tom of the frying-pan; then it is turned into 
the jar, gently and slowly, so as to retain those 
particles in the bottom and it is put away for 
another time. — Prof. Blot. 

To Preserve Bread fob Long Periods. — 
Cut the bread into thin slices and bake it in an 
oven, so as to render it perfectly dry. In this 
condition it will keep good for any length of 
time required, and without turning moldy or 
sour, like ordinary bread. The bread thus pre- 
pared must, however, be carefully preserved 
from pressure, otherwise, owing to its brittle- 
ness, it will soon fall to pieces. When required 
for use it will only be necessary to dip the bread 
for an instant into warm water, and then hold 
it before the fire till dry, after which butter it, 
when it will taste like toast. This is a useful 
way of preserving bread for sea voyages, and 
also any bread that may be made too stale to 
be eaten in the usual way. 

French Pancakes.— Half a pint ©t milk, two 
ounces of butter, two ounces of loaf sugar, two 
ounces of flour, two eggs. Put milk, butter and 
sugar into a saucepan to dissolve (not boil), 
beat eggi and flour together till quite smooth, 
then add the other' ingredients and mix well. 
Divide this quantity and put it in four saucers 
to bake for twenty minutes; lay two pancakes 
on a dish, spread preserves over, and cover with 
the other two pan cakes. Serve hot . 

Oxford Dumplings. —Mix well together the 
following ingredients: Two ounces of grated 
bread, four ounces of currants, four ounces of 
shred suet, a tablespoorrful of sifted sugar, a 
little allspice, and plenty of grated lemon peel. 
Beat up well two eggs; add a little milk and 
divide the mixture into five dumplings. Fry 
them in butter a light brown color and serve 
them with sauce. ^ 

Crisp Muffins.— One pint of sifted Indian 
meal, one pint of milk or cream, two eggs, a 
teaspoonful of salt, a spoonful of butter or lard. 
Drop the batter in a hot, greased pan or oven, 
by spoonfuls, taking care that your muffins do 
not touch. Let them bake till crisp and brown. 




[January 8, 1876 



PUBLlaUKD BY 

DEWE-Sr at CO- 

A. T. DKWKT. W. B. EWZB. Q. B. BTBOHO. 1. L. BOOHI 

PRIMOIPAL EDITOB |TrT....W. B. EWER, A. M 

OrnoK, No. 224 Sansome street, Southeast corner of 
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In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
Inserted at special rates. 



Prompt Subscriptions. 

We wish to thank those subscribers who send In 
their renewals to the Pkkbs promptly as regularly as 
the year comes round. It saves ns much cxpenwe in 
commissions for collections and renewals. May we not 
request more of our good patrons to do so I 

Sample Copies.— Occasionally we send copies of this 
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by subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extend- 
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our prospectus and terms of subscription. 



The Obioinai. Abticles in this paper are mostly set 
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reading than is contained in ordinary leaded matter. 

Wo tjuack A.rtv»i-tls©niciitH Inwertod 
in these colui»»s. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Saturday, January 8, 1876. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

OENERAL EDITORIAIiS— Mountain Lands; 
Thf Mining Debris Question; Grain Yield; Goldeu- 
WiDfied Wood-Pecker, 17. The Year and the State: 
What the English Grain Growars Expect; Carp Cul- 
ture; The Dairy in California; Eucalyptus from Cut- 
tings, 24. Patents and Inventions, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS Golden-Winged Woodpecker, 

17. Chistnut Gral'tiug, 25. 

STOCK BREEDERS.— Camels in Nuvada, 18. 

POULTRY Y ARD.— Curf 8 for Ails; Magnitude of 
the Poultrv Iiitercst in the United States, 18. 

SHEEP AND WOOL— The Big Fleece, 18. 

USEFUL INFORMATION —A Novel Device; 
The Oriirin of Maliiajauv Furniture; Ebonite; 
Rusin, 18. " 

BEES.— How the Dees Fill a Hive, 19- 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— The Press and 
the Granges; From the Granges; Strawberries; Re- 
elections; Lady Ollicere; Klcction of Officers, 20-21. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various oouu- 
tie» in California, Oregon ami Montana. 21. 

HOME CIRCLE.— The Departing Year (Poetry); 
A Common Men^e View of Food; A True Bdl; 
Woman's Aspirations; The Old Man and His Son; 
Vice in Reading: Home; Effect of Color on the Sen- 
sations: The Thumb as an Index of Contempt; 
Laughing Children; Growing Old; A Company's 
Liability for Kissing by an Epiployee; Answering 
Letters; Newspaper and School Fducator, 22- Sun- 
shine for the Little Ones: The Tea Hour; A Sermon 
in a Paragraph; Why He Didn't Get Married, 23. 

YOUNa FOLKS' COLUMN —Story of a Bear; 
Look Ahead; Origin of Tobacco Chewing; A Smart 
Girl. 23. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Prevention and Cure; Borax in 
Colds: To Obscure Scars; Building Ground; A Fatal 
Kiss. 23. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-The Art of Frying Fish; 
To Preserve Bread for Long Periods; French Pan. 
cakes; Oxford Dunipliugs; Crisp Mntfina, 23. 

ARBORICULTURE.— Almond, Chestnut, Walnut 
and Kilb. rt, 25. j 

HORTICULTURE. — Fruit Growing; Bananas, 
25 28. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — A Maclilne for Darning 
Stnckings; Practical Spiritualism; Softening and 
Tougheniug Wood, 18. Agriculture in the Public 
Schools, 19. Prizes in Industry; \n Improved Bar- 
rel; Sharpening Edge Tools; Breaking Weights, 26. 
Mass Meeting in Relation to Mining Debris, 28. 



Nut Geowing.— We call attention to the ex- 
cellent article on nut growing to which we give 
prominent place an'l illustration this week. It 
is a careful review of the subject, very iotereat- 
ing to the general reader, and so minute in its 
detail that it amounts to a practical treatise 
upon the subject. The readers of the Rueal 
Pkess will thank Mr. Gillet for his entertain- 
ing and instructive paper. We have received 
the filberts to which allusion is made in the 
article. They are fine specimens, and we would 
be happy to show tbem to any one who is in- 
terested. 



Bke Tbees.— In an article on the "Kontal 
Question," there was a typographical error 
which obscured the sense. The query should 
have read as follows: ''What is tue law in this 
State in regard to cutting bee-<rees on land owned 
by others?" 

ICiLNFALL. — Dr. Thos. M. Logan, Secretary 
of the Calilurnia State Board of Health, informs 
as that the total rainfall for the month of 
December in Sacramento was 5 525 inches. 

Choice Varietiks.— We would call the at- 
tention of our readers to the new advertise- 
ment of Felix Gillett's, in to-day's issue. 

On Filb.—" Grapes and Winr," T. L. G., 
Vountville; "Opium Poppy," W. A., San 
Jose; "Poland Chinus," F. W, G., El Monte. 



The Year and the State. 

To one who hopes, believes and works for 
the progress of this State in prosperity and 
general advancement, it will be a satisfaction 
to review the record of the year just closed. It 
will be thus because the year has brought the 
State a good step onward. Its accomplish- 
ments, when they shall be fully gathered into 
the tables of the statistician, will show that 
1875 is entitled to the place which we wish for 
it in the swift and enduring progression by 
which our commonwealth is advancing. It is 
true that in market values for some staple pro- 
ducts the summary of the year did not prove 
all that the agriculturist had hoped, nor were 
the returns from the soil quite all that was ex- 
pected, but now, as we stand almost in the 
foreshadowing glow of a coming peerless har- 
vest, we can afford to think rather of the good 
fortune and comfort which have generally pre- 
vailed and note with pride the wide growth 
which has been secured by our noble industries. 
Let us look for a few moments at the signs of 
get eral prosperity and advancement. 

Tbe State has survived a most trying financial 
crisis and its monetary institutions have re- 
gained the confidence of the world ; confidence 
all tbe more salutary because of the events 
which would rather lead to withholding it 
But now the treasure of the State, its financial 
name, shines the brighter because of the fire 
which has tried it. General soundness is ac- 
knowledged because it has been proved that 
nothing but soundness existed. 

In the development of the mineral wealth of 
the Pacific slope the year has done nobiy. Tbe 
aggregate yield of precious metals is shown to 
b6$80,889,0:J7, a gain of §6,187,982 over 1874. 
and 1874 produced a record better than any 
year before it. 

In agriculture, the grand industry which now 
lies at tbe basis of the prosperity of our State, 
the year 1875 shows an achievement in the sev- 
eral staples of production of which wo may 
well be proud. The receipts of these products 
in the markets of this city serve as a trust- 
worthy guide by which to estimate the general 
results. 

During 1875 there were received at this port 
7,07G,007 centals of wheat and 467,71!) barrels 
of flour. The export tiade of our State during 
the year in wheat and Hour reached a value of 
$16,567,295. In barley the receipts at this 
port were 987,793 centals, and the exports 125,- 
158 centals. In oats the receipts were 248,207 
centals ard the exports 5,373 centals. These 
are very creditable figures considering that the 
season was not fully favorable to the California 
grain grower . But they are good to remember 
and be proud of until the unequalled promise 
of ls76 redeems itself in startling figures. 

To the wool interest of our Slate there has 
come a most gratifying growth during recent 
years. It is being discovered that new sec- 
tions are admirably adapted to sheep hus- 
bandry, and the practice of it is golden in 
profits. Notwithstanding the drouth of the sea- 
son, which led to a reduction and removal of 
the flocks, there was produced 43,352,223 
pounds of wool, which is a gain of more than 
4,000,006 pounds over the previous year. When 
we consider the favorable prospects in the 
sheep ranges of the State, and the apparent 
disposition to increase the flocks to meet it, 
there is in wool, as intgrain, the promise of un- 
usual figures for the Centennial year. 

Aside from these staples, which appear upon 
tbe commercial records of all nations, there has 
advanced here during the year a hundred spe- 
cialties of production which statistics do not 
mention. AVe refer to the whole embodiment 
of the progressive spirit in agriculturu, which 
is turning every sunny valley of the State into 
a garden, an orchard or a grove; which is 
peopling our pastures with the valuable nobility 
of the productive animals; which is restocking 
our living waters with more abundant life; 
which is searching far and near over all the 
climates of the earth for useful growths which 
can be nourished by our deep breasted sun, and 
made to assume new forms and excellencies; 
which is condensing the glories of a world 
within the boundaries ot a State, until every 
good thing shall find a home in California. 

The year has brought us new neighbors no 
a few. Some have come to join us without the 
strength and spirit to engage with us in the 
active inspiring work of developing this grand 
region, and have returned again to the close 
embrace of the Eastern frosls— whence they 
never should have departed. The statistics of 
passenger arrivitls, by laud and sea, during the 
year, show that of the 107,599 persons who 
came to us, 66,172 remain with us to-day. For 
them wo have no word but of cheer and en- 
couragement. If they labor with us inteUi- 
gently and zealously they will have their re- 
ward in comfort, prosperity and competency, 
as their several deeds shall command. 

No paragraph with reference to the indus- 
trial interests of our Slate would be complete 
with mere mention of material embodiments. 
With our growth in production and in trade 
there has steadily advanced the spirit of en- 
lightenment which inspires them. .Our indus- 
trial classes, especially those of them noblest 
and best, the agiiculturists, have had active 
brains as well as busy hands during the twelve- 



month which has passed. They are perceiving 
their power for the right and are exercising it. 
They are becoming more and more conscious 
that, in knowledge, knowledge of each other 
and of the subjects pertaining to their welfare, 
is the secret of righteous power. It is this, 
as well as copious rHins, which promises pros- 
perity. It is this which makes us confident of 
the future. 



Carp Culture, 

\ little more than three years ago J. A. 
Poppe arrived in this State from Bhinefeldt, 
Ilolstein. A part of his baggage was a lot of 
small carp, five in number and six inches long. 
He began at once a systenj of carp culture, tol- 
lowing the experience of the German carp 
farmers. He put his five small carp in the 
water at Sonoma, in August, 1872; one dying 
and four surviving in the new habitat. In the 
following May the fish had grown to sixteen 
inches in length and had given life to three 
thousand young fish. Since that time these 
fish have grown rapidly, and Mr. Poppe as- 
sures us that be finds sale for all his market- 
able fish at one dollar a pound. Mr. Poppe is 
at present desirous of extending the business 
of carp culture among those who have facili- 
ties for it, and is prepared to furnish the stock 
for beginning. He sends us the following 
items concerning the practice: 

In Germany thousands of pounds of this 
favorite fish are raised and sold every year. 
The farmers there who are engaged in piscicul- 
ture have from five to seven ponds. The 
smallest is the breeding pond, from which the 
others are stocked. The contents of one poud 
are sold every year. Numbers of fish are 
floated down the rivers anJ canals in large 
boxes pierced with holes, through which the 
water passes in and out, thus delivering the 
carp to the consumer aUve and fresh. They 
are a fish that need but little attention, are 
hardy, prolific, antl do excellently on this con- 
tinent. Their food may consist of wheat, bar- 
ley, corn, iieas, bran, blood, sour milk, or in 
fact almost anything. When well fed they 
will grow one inch per week for the first two 
or three months, after which they will grow 
slower in length but increase rapidly in weight. 
It will not do to breed them in ponds where any 
game fish are kept, as they will eat the young 
carp. 

Farmers who have natural facilities on their 
places for making ponds, and who have access 
to canals or rivers communicating with large 
cities, can greatly increase their income with 
but small trouble and expense. There ought 
to be one person in every county who would 
raise choice carp as stock fish to sell to others 
to fatten for their own tables. It would be a 
cheap but sumptuous food, and at the same 
time very convenient, as they are ready to be 
eaten at all times of the year. 



What the English Grain Growers Expect. 

It will doubtless be interesting to California 
wheat growers to know the disposition with 
which their English brothers look upon the 
price which is offered them for their grain, and 
their opinions concerning the prospects of the 
next few mouths. There is general dissatisfac- 
tion among the English farmers concerning the 
result of the year in wheat. One farmer said 
to the London Ai/rlcullural iJazMe, from which 
able paper we shall draw freely to give our 
English view of afi'airs. Said he: " My forty 
acre field owes me £'200 mote in wheat than it 
gave me, for my tillage, rent and manure," and 
the Gazette believes many more such debits must 
be written against the land. In many districts 
the yield has not been equal to the local wants, 
and the country millers whose wind and water- 
mills have been supplied with grain from the 
near-by fields, and who have rarely used im- 
ported wheat, were buying at all the port mar- 
kets during the first half of last month. It is 
such a condition of affairs which, with appar- 
ent logic, makes the holders of English wheat 
firm and expectant of value advancing during 
spring and summer. On the other hand it is 
said that the buyers of wheat, although they 
need much, find over much offered them from 
the granaries at the ports, or from supplies on 
passage or ready for shipment. It was difficult 
to tell at the time our contemporary wrote, 
which of the opposing influences would prev.iil 
during the closing weeks of the year; but the 
English producers were generally confijent 
thai, owing to the early close of navi>>ation in 
some of the water courses whence foreign sup- 
plies are drawn, the advance which they ex- 
pect to realize would not be delayed so long as 
usual. Of course, the belief of our English 
brother producers may bo fallible, but it is 
strengthening to know that their best judgment 
leads them to such an opinion. 



The mortgage tax question has not yet been 
decided by the Supreme Court. The case is to 
be argued on the 12th inst. 



Delmonico, of New York, is to have the main 
restaurant at the Centennial. It will be a mag- 
nificently fitted up. 



The Dairy in Califarnla. 

There is a need now, in the advance of agri- 
culture on this coast, that more attention 
should be paid to some of what may be called 
the lesser arts of production. One of these is 
dairy manufacture. So long as butter and 
cheese can be profitably freighted across the 
continent to fill the demand for these articles 
in our markets, it cannot be doubted that a 
greater quantity of them may be produced here 
profitably. While we maintain our State as 
best fitted for the sustenance of dairy stock, we 
are at tbe same time going three thousand miles 
to buy cheese and butter. This ought not so 
to be. 

It is not that we do not make good dairy 
products, but we do not produce enough to 
supply the demand. The result is that money 
goes to the East to support dairymen there 
which should go into the hands of home pro- 
ducers and assist in the development of our 
Stale and the enriching of our own citizens. 
The lesson is for producers, because to them 
is the reward outheld. 

It is true that dairying in this State is a 
growing industry-. The figures for 1874, as 
issued by the Surveyor (reneral, showing a 
prodnction of 5,822,091 pounds of butter and 
1,722,398 pounds of cheese, indicate large 
quantities, but so long as the market uses these 
and calls for more, it is the duty of the wise 
producer to furnish it. The market is the pro- 
ducer's guide and compasi. He should mark 
well its teachings. 

We expect an advancement in dairy hus- 
bandry in this Stale, which will put the present 
condition of the industry far in the shade. We 
expect the industry will grow and prosper here 
as it has at the East, making rich those who 
have devoted their energies to its practice, and 
restoring soils which rigorous cropping has 
reduced. We do not expect that this growth 
will follow the same lines by which advance- 
ment has been gained at the East, nor do we 
believe that Ruoceas can be gained in all cases 
by copying Eastern methods. Tbe dairy fu- 
ture of California must be developed by our 
own dairymen. They must devise their own 
methods, because conditions here call for 
special treatment in some respects. But there 
is one secret of success and advancement which 
is applicable everywhere. It is that dairymen 
make their practices the subject of constant 
study, and search for means of improvement 
always. Consider no success complete, but 
make it the basis for fuller understanding and 
better work. This method of advancement 
has prevailed at the East. It has been fostered 
by able dairy writers and experimenters, and 
by associations, where experiences can be re- 
lated and practices criticized. Tbe result has 
been a general progress in dairy knowledge, 
and the reward has been fuller returns for the 
work required. 

Not otherwise must dairy success be here on 
this coast. Tbe new conditions in soil, in air, 
in water and in tie markets, must all be studied 
by our dairymen, and united effort will result 
in a great advancement of special knowledge 
and improvement in practice. To this end it 
is the aim of tbe Kubal Pkkss to labor without 
ceasing in its Dairy Department. We rhall 
present each week topics of fresh interest, em- 
bracing all the steps of dairying, from the 
growth of feed in the pastures upward, through 
the improvement of dairy stock, the treatment 
of milk to gtin the best product, and finally 
tbe lessons which the maikets reflect upon the 
production. To the fullest success in this en- 
deavor we ask the aid and co-operation of all 
oar readers. We ask them to write ns freely 
concerning what tbey are doing and how they 
do it, and always to feel at liberty to give us 
their comments upon all points advanced. 
Thus, a spirit of interest will be awakened 
among all our dairymen, and thus will strength 
be gained to supply the increased production 
which the market demands. 

Eucalyptus from Cuttings. 

Messes. Editoks :— I frequently read articles 
in your valuable paper relating to the propaga- 
tion of the favorite eucalyptus, but have never 
chanced to see a statement of the tree having 
been grown from the cutting. We had the 
curiosity about a year ago, while setting out 
some trees which we had raised from the seed, 
to put a cutting in the ground near the tree 
from which it was taken. The result is satis- 
factory. We have a tree six feet in hight, and 
growing rapidly at the present time. This 
may not be new to some of your readers, but 
as we have spoken of it to many who are in- 
terested in the tree business, and have found 
no one who has tried the exjieriment or heard 
of it, we venture this note, H. 

Napa, Deo. 28th. 

[The matter which our correspondent men- 
tions is very interesting and worthy of note. 
The advantage of growing the tree from tbe 
cutting does not, however, clearly appear, as 
the seed is very abundant, and as great 
growth can be gained in the same time 
from tbe seed as Mr. H. mentions as the result 
from his cutting. We shall be glad to have 
his further observation on the subject, as to how 
the future growth compared with trees from tbe 
seed, and whether the tree is as shapely.— Eus, 

FlIESS. ] 



January 8, 1876,] 



25 



^RB©P[ICyLf Jf^E. 



Almond, Chestnut, Walnut and Filbert. 

Messrs. Editobs: — Among the numerous 
productions of our wonderful St&ie, which are 
80 varied that they keep the whole country and 
outside world in perfect amazement, stands 
foremost that of fruit. Bui; if a great deal of 
attention has been given to grapes, apples, 
oranges and the like, I must say that the nut 
business has been neglected; either that people 
did not expect nut raising to pay, or else they 
would not have the patience of waiting so long 
for a crop to repay them for their labor. The 
Rural Press, let it be said to your credit, has 
from time to time called people's attention to 
the raising of nuts of all kinds as a profitable 
business, and lately many almond and chestnut 
trees have been planted throughout the State; 
and when we take into consideration the fact 
that the nuts consumed on this vast continent, 
chiefly almonds, EnA-^^ ""Xuut-;, French chest- 
nuts and Italian filberts, are ali imported, and 
that this State is so admirably adapted to their 
production in inexhaustible quantities, we need 
not be afraid of lackiog a market for all the nuts 
of this description that our bountiful soil and 
beautiful climate enable us to raise. I hope, 
therefore, that the information I can give your 
readers on the nuts' culture will be welcomed 
by them. I will first speak of 
The Almond. 
The almond tree, Amy;/dalus communis, is a 
native of Asia, and a tree of ordinary size, witu 
a tap root. The soil must be deep, light and 
warm for its growth. The fruit of the hard- 
shell variety is only used in propagating the 
almond, soft or hard shell. In the nuraevy the 
almonds are planted two feet apari. ana rut 
trees budded when big enough; cleft grafting, 
as with the peach tree, not succeeding at all. 
When the soil is too rich and moist, it is better 
to bud the almond on the plum. 

There are three distinct varieties of almonds, 
the hard-shell,ordinary soft-shell or Languedoc, 
and Princess, or paper-shell. The Languedoc 
is soft enough to be cracked with the teeth, 
provided that the latter be not too shaky; but 
the Princess variety has a very thin sutl' so 
soft that from it, it derives its name of Pnncess, 
for her delicate fingers will not be hurt by 
cracking the nuts with them. If taken to 
market and sold in their shells by the pound, 
the Languedoc variety would pay the best. 

It will not be out of place here to say that 
peaches and nectarines ought to be budded on 
the hard-shell almond, instead of the peach or 
plum. 

The Chestnut, 
Or Castanea vcsca, a native of Eurooe, is a reg- 
ular forest tree of immense size, w..li a tap 
root like the conifers. This magnificent trc 
will thrive best in a deep sandy, granitic or 
light soil. It is propagated through the sow- 
ing of its nuts and grafted when big enough. 
The chestnut tree requires a great deal of space, 
not only because of its gigantic dimensions, 
but because branches that do not have much of 
air and space will bear no fruit. Let every one 
planting chestnut trees bear that in mind. 

The chestnut tree must be cultivated as a 
standard tree with a head sis feet from the 
ground. Every sucker branch must be taken 
off at the very time the tree is shaping its 
head, so as to give the main branches a chance 
to throw out quicker. Weak branches have to 
be cut off too, when the tree is young; it will 
give the others more strength. It is very im- 
portant, in fact, for young trees .o "o mold 
their future shape when it can be so easily ne. 
The nuts kept for planting have to be put in 
sand in a cellar till March; they a'e then 
planted three inches deep (I mean thos . large 
French or Italian chestnuts), and two .eet 
apart both ways. Where, however, the grouna 
is free of gophers and field mice, and frosts not 
to be feared, chestnuts might with advantage 
be planted in the fall of the year. When the 
chestnuts are put in sand during the winter, 
people have to be careful when planting them 
the ensuing spring not to pinch off that little 
sprout already out on some of them, and which 
will constitute the future tap root. If planted 
in a place well exposed to winds, they have to 
be "earthed up" by throwing dirt all around 
the foot of the tree, their heads having to be 
high, and the trunks of the trees being yet too 
slender. Chestnut trees must be set out from 
fifty to sixty feet apart; if one is desirous to get 
a good crop of nuts and of good quality, it is 
most essential to give the chestnut tree air and 
space. 

There are two distinct races of chestnut, 
subdivided in varieties; the common chestnut, 
named in French chata'njne, obtained from the 
seed proper, and the marron, obtained from the 
graft. 'The latter is twice as large as the for- 
mer, round, and fills up all alone, or with an- 
other nut only, the burr; while the chatnujac or 
seedling chestnut is a good deal smaller, the 
burr containing at least three of them, which 
makes them flat on each side. Another ad- 
vantage with the marron is that the inner skin 
comes off very easy, but it does not with the 
ckataiijns. The varifties of marron most in use 



are the world-renowned marron de Lyon and 
m/irron Combale. The former is the largest of 
all, but the Combale, though large, too, is 
rnore productive. Those two splendid varie- 
ties I have imported from France five years 
ago, and the trees are growing up splendidly 
here. 

I have succeeded very well in grafting the 
chestnut, and for the benefit of your readers I 
will describe the best method of doing it. In 
large fields where the trees are planted so as to 
cover hundreds and thousands of acres, 

Circular Budding 
or Jefferson grafting as it is called, is most 
generally used. To succeed in this graft, the 
sap must be well up; a circular ring of bark is 
taken off from the stock, as shown by Fig. 1, 
which operation is done by the aid of a budding 
knife, by running two circular cuts around the 
stock, a few inches above the surface, and a 
longitudinal one between the two circular 
cuts, the ring of bark taken off having the 
appearance of that in Fig. 2. This ring must 
be at least one inch wide by two inches at the 
most. A like ring of bark is taken off in the 
same manner from a scion of the variety to be 
grafted, and from a branch of the year, or pre- 
ceding one, well in sap, and having exactly the 
same diameter aa the stock. This ring should 
have on it one or twi buds. It must fit exactly 
the space (a)seen on Fig. 1 and more particularly 
at the lower circular cut (&), so that both barks 
will exactly unite at that point. When the ring 
is too long, a little bit of it might be cut off with 
a very sharp knife till it tits well; if the ring is 
too wide, a longitudinal strip would be cut out, 
and if too narrow, such a strip, with a bud on, 
so much the better, would have to be used to 
fill up the empty space. One must be very care- 
ful while drawing the knife around the stock 
not to go too deep into the wood, so that the 
bark '■ ily will come off and the camhriam or 
ii_v"ei bark be left intact. Then, as experience 
hisshoivu me already, if the knife is drawn too 
deep .uio the stock, (and the case is still worse 
with walnuts which have considerable of pith 
and a very thick bark), they are liable to be 
broken in two right below the lower circular 
cut by either wind or the weight of the stock's 
head. I have to use little stakes for walnuts, 



stock. The nurserymen, in France, generally 
graft the chestnut and the cherry, too, with cleft 
grafting, right at the head of the tree and not 
at the foot. My marron de Lyon and marron 
Combale are so grafted. 

A fine chestnut tree, in full bearing, yields 
from 100 to 140 pounds of chestnuts a year, 
which, at twenty-five cents a pound, wholesale, 
would make from $25 to $35 per tree. Not so 
very bad a yield. 

To gather chestnuts people have to wait till 
the burr falls to the ground, and then men or 
boys, armed with a little wooden mace or club, 
break open the burrs and gather the chestnuts 
into bags. The chestnuts are nlaced under a 
shed, where they may be kept for a month or 
two. The wood of the chestnut tree keeps 
pretty well in water. 

The Walnut, 
Or Juglans regia, is a native of Asia, but culti- 
vated in Europe from time immemorial. It is 
a fine and very large tree, kept both for its fruit, 
that makes a rich oil, and its wood, much used 
by cabinet-makers. The walnut tree will grow 
in any kind of soil, though it will thrive better 
and grow faster in a clayish, sandy, deep-bot- 
tom soil than in one too rocky. If it can be 
done, it is better to sow the nuts where the 
trees have to stay, for the sake of the top root; 
in that case two nuts have to be planted three 
inches apart, so as to be sure to have one tree. 
In the nursery nuts have to be planted exaetly 
like chestnuts, at a same depth and distance. 
The walnut is generally propagated from the 
seed, and is grafted only for keeping certain 
varieties. The general and beat way of grafting 
the walnut is by circular or "whistle budding," 
as described above. But it has to be done 
more carefully on the walnut than any other 
tree, because of its being so pithy and its bark 
so thick. It might bo budded as it is com- 
monly done for other trees, and even cleft 
grafting resorted to. Some nurserymen, before 
transplanting a tree, cut off the roots in sum- 
mer all round with a spade at sixteen to twenty- 
four inches from the tree, according to its size. 
By that operation the tree will grow lots of lit- 
tle roots, and its transplanting will succeed 
better. When cleft grafting is used, it mu:it be 
done exactly as with the grapevine (See back 




i i 




Fiff^ 





fig^. 



ng.3. 



CHESTNUT GRAFTING. 



so as not to meet with such accidents. After 
the circular bud is in place, it is well to wax it 
all round, lettirg only the bud out; the best 
thing I know, by the way, for waxing up grafts 
IS t -oft mastic used in the nurseries of Europe, 
whicti is applied with a spatula and hardens 
nicely and smoothly very quick. I will call the 
attention of people that have much to graft to 
this handy, clean composition, which does not 
need to be warmed up or applied with the fingers. 
Some, instead of mastic or wax, use pipe clay 
mixed with cow manure, and it is not so very 
bad, considering how hot are our summers 
In the department of Ardeche. (France), where 
are immense plantations of marron de Lynn and 
Combale, this kind of grafting is resorted to in 
this way ; circular rings of bark with one to two 
buds on are taken off from the scions at night 
by either men, women or children, and put 
back in their place, the scions being then placed 
in a cool cellar till next day; the men that do 
the grafting take along those scions and save 
time. 

Ibis circular budding or Jefferson grafting 
has been named so in honor of Thomas Jeffer- 
son, one of our beat Presidents, and who, after 
handling like a sage the helm of State, handled 
liiie a man the plow. This circular budding is 
done through the summer and fall — the top of 
the tree being cut off the ensuing spring two 
or three inches above the budding. It is the 
strongest of all grafts, and may be very well used 
for other trees than chestnuts and walnuts. 
There is another way of grafting by a circular 
ring of bark; it is called, in French, 

Whistle Budding. 
It is done in the spring, when the sap is well 
up. The head of the stock is first cut off, 
several inches above the ground, and a circular 
ring of bark, from one to two inches long, is 
taken off, as represented in Fig. 3, and a like 
ring as represented in Fig. 4, is taken from a 
scion and inserted on the stock, with the 
same precautions as with the preceding graft, 
and waxed all around. It is very extensively 
used, too, for grafting hard wood varieties, as 
chestnut, fig and the like. The Jefferson graft- 
ing has the advantage over this " whistle graft- 
ing," because, if it does not succeed, the 
tree might be grafted some other way in the 
spring. 

The chestnut tree can very well be grafted in 
the spring, as I did, with cleft grafting. But I 
will say that it is much better to have the scion 
of the same size as the stock or branch which 
is grafted, though I succeed well enough in 
grafting soions of a smaller diameter than the 



numbers of Rural Press on grapevine graft- 
ing.) The grafting by common budding does 
not succeed very well on the walnut tree. This 
tree grows to enormous dimensions, and they 
must be planted at a great distance from each 
other, or all by themselves, as the roots 
run very far into the ground which it exhausts. 
And it is said that its shade is injurious to 
other plants and so is the rain that runs down 
from its leaves. It is better, therefore, not to 
plant it in a cultivated field. I should think 
that the foothills of the Sierra Nevada were 
admirably adapted to that giant of our forests 
and also to the chestnut tree. 

When the green shell that encloses the nut 
dries up and bursts open, it is time to pick the 
nuts. This is done with a long and light stick, 
by striking gently with it the nuts in their 
shells. They are set just as gathered under a 
a shed and stirred up every day with a wooden 
shovel till the green shells all come off. They 
are then stored in a dry room at a rather low 
temperature. 

The Juglans proaparlariens, or early walnut, 
is a great favorite now-a-days; first, because it 
is the earliest bearer, secondly, it can well be 
propagated from the seed. This is the variety 
I imported from France five years ago. A great 
drawback with walnut planting is that it will 
commence to bear but very late, about its 
tenth year; however, it does not yield any 
very important crop before it is thirty years 
old. 

The Filbert, 

Or Coryhis iubulosa, is a tree of smaUsize, and 
is found in both Europe or America; 'hat is, 
the common hazel, the filbert being the culti- 
vated branch of the family. The best variety 
of filbert is certainly the corylus avellawt., or red 
aveline of the French, and extensively cultivated 
in Spain for exportation. The inner skin is rod, 
whence it derives its name. It is a large, ob- 
long nut, the aloaond being very fat and sweet. 
They are found in the bushes in clusters of two 
to eight together. The shell is soft enough. 
The white Avoline is another very nice variety, 
the nut being very broad and very fat. There 
is, too, the Grosse, of Piedmont, th(! one found 
in fruit stores in this country, and imported 
from Italy. I believe that the red avoline is a 
much superior nut. As I have the pleasure of 
sending you a small lot of red and white ave- 
lines, you can for see yourselvos. Besides those 
two varieties I have the Grosse of Piedmont 
and Du Chilly. 

The filbert grows in all kinds of soil, but a 
northern exposure and a light, moial sOil is 



preferable for the growth of the fruit, which 
gets larger and acquires a finer flavor. The 
Filbert needs no care whatever but the taking 
off of all the dead wood. However, it must be 
given plenty of fresh air, and never be planted 
in the shade or by other trees. The filbert 
propagates well enough from the seed, though 
to have exactly the same varieties it is prefer- 
able to plant suckers, which grow out abund- 
antly from the foot of the tree. It might also 
be grafted on the common hazel. The filbert 
needs no pruning whatever, unless it is desired 
to raise it as a tree instead of a bush. The 
nuts ripen and falls to the ground about 
August and September; they are then gathered 
and kept as described for walnuts. The oil ex- 
tracted from that nut is very rich and com- 
mands a big price. 

Advantage of Nut Raising. 

The great advantage to cultivate all these 
kinds of nuts is that when once the trees are 
set out they require no labor whatever, and 
though we have to wait years for a crop of any 
account, still, when the trees commence to 
bear they keep on increasing every year, and 
all to be done is to gather the nuts and bring 
them to market. But their great advantage over 
all other fruit is that they keep so well, being 
eaten dried, while with apples, peaches, plums, 
grapes, etc., they must be sold fresh or else 
dried up. Even then, if we try to export that 
dried fruit from the State, we will meet a great 
competition from Eastern growers. Not so 
with walnuts, chestnuts, almonds and filberts, 
for which California has an unlimited market — 
this whole continent, without speaking of her 
facilities to export them to other countries. 
Any of your readers that will give the subject 
the closest attention must come to a like con- 
clusion, that in nut raising there is not only 
" money to be made," but a " better and safer 
investment " in the end than in the raising of 
any other fruit. Felix Gillet. 

Nevada City, December 30th, 1875. 



@E\TlcJLTd[\E. 



Fruit Growing. 

We find in the Sonoma Democrat an article 
on fruit culture, by W. H. Nash, which has 
the ring of practice and actual observation. 
We make the following selections from Mr. 
Nash's writing in order that our readers may 
have the benefit of his experience and be 
stimulated to furnish us with the results of 
their own: 

After twenty-five years of experience in fruit 
growing in California, we think it will be ex- 
cusable in us if we presume to offer to the 
farmer a few suggestions relative to the soil 
and climate best adapted to the growing of 
fruit, as well as some suggestions as to the 
proper season and manner of planting the 
trees : 

In our California climate our winters are so 
mild that it will do to plant at any time from 
the commencement of the first rains to the 1st 
of Marjh. 

It has now become a well known fact that 
many varieties of fruit when planted near 
enough to the coast to be exposed to the winds 
from the ocean are almost total failures, but 
when this cause of defect is removed by plant- 
ing these same varieties in the orcharil lands 
of the interior they become not only thrifty 
and productive but the fruit is unsurpassed in 
size and flavor. 

All trees should be selected with reference to 
the climate and soil where they are to be 
planted. 

The pear tree in California is much more 
hardy than the apple tree, and will grow and 
produce good fruit in almost any locality, but 
succeeds best in a deep, rich and moderately dry 
soil. 

The peach tree succeeds best whore the cli- 
mate during the summer mouths is warm, 
ranging from fifty to ninety degrees, and the 
soil rich, moist and loose. In a cool place ttiis 
fruit is often of an inferior quality, juicy but 
insipid. 

The plum tree should have a rich, moist soil, 
and when planted in poor land manure should 
be used unsparingly. 

The cherry may be grown to the highest state 
of perfection when the land is a deepj rich, 
sandy loam, the water at no time standing 
nearer than eight feet of the surface of the 
ground, and where the temperature during the 
summer months ranges from forty to eighty 
degrees. 

On mahaleb stalks the cherry can bo grown 
quite successfully where the soil is much more 
wet and heavy. 

The quince, valuable for preserver and jellies, 
can be grown on moderately wet land, and will 
produce enormous crops. 

Almonds, we have experimented with two 
varieties of trees for a few years, and they hnvo 
fruited to fsome extent. liike the apple, it suc- 
ceeds br'st when out of the reach of the coast 
winds, but cannot stand the heat of some of the 
interior valleys. We know of no better recom- 
mendation than to say that as a general rule 
where table grapes ean be grown, the almond 
will flourish. 

The grape may be said to do well in almost 
any location in California that is out of the 
damp winds and fogs that prevail along the 



VContinued on Pagre 28.) 



26 



ilP3ftlBBS. 



[January 8, 1876 



Prizes in Industry and Agriculture. 

The Societe d'Enconragement of Paris has 
recently published its list of prizes offered 
from 1876 to 1881, both iuolusive. It may be 
menliontd that this society bestows annually 
a gold medal bearing the likeness of some man 
wJio has achieved a high reputation in art or 
science, or is the originator, whether French 
or foreign, of works which have exercised the 
fjreatest influence on French industry during 
the six preceding years; in 1873 this grand 
medal was awarded to our own countryman, 
Sir Charles Wheatstone. 

Although all the subjects are open to for- 
eigners as well as natives of France, many 
would of necessity be confined to the latter. 
The following items from the long list are 
likely to have an interet^tin this country: 

A prize of 200 francs is offered in 1880 to the 
author of the most important improvements in 
the material and proce-ses employed in civil 
engineering, architecture and public works. 

A prize of 2.000 francs is offered in 1879 to 
the inventor of a machine for combing short 
staple cotton which has been brought into prac- 
tical use. 

A prize of the Rame amount is offered for 
1880, for u machine for cutung files of all kinds 
automatically, and which shall have worked 
for at least three months. 

A prize of the same amount is proposed to 
be awarded in 1877 for the invention of any 
efficient means of stopping the vibrations 
caused by steam hammers, and other tools 
acting by peroHsaion, from being propagated 
beyond the works in which they are em- 
ployed. 

Prizes of the same amount are offered in 
1878 and 1879 for the industrial application of 
oxygenated water, and for the economic prep- 
aration and application of ozone; and in 187C 
for fixing the nitrogen of the atmosphere in 
the form of initric acid, ammonia, or cyanogen, 
the object being to obtain practically some 
compound of nitrogen cheap enough to use in 
making manure from the nitrogen of the at- 
mosphere, to the exclusion of animal matter. 

A prize of 0,000 francs is proposed for 1878, 
for a theory respecting steel, founded on actual 
experiments, and resulting in improved means 
of directing the manufacture of steel. 

A prize of 3,000 francs, set down for 1880, 
for the disinfection of the residue from gas 
works. 

One thousand francs are offered in 1880, for 
an apparatus capable of producing high tem- 
perature in home workshops rapidly and eco- 
nomically. 

A prize of 2,000 francs is announced for a 
method of preventing soot adhering to chim- 
neys so that they may be completely and easily 
cleaned. 

All memoirs, models, etc., must be lodged 
with the secretary of the society before the Ift 
of January of the year in which the prize is to 
be awarded. Full particulars will be found in 
the August number of the Bulletin of the soci- 
ety, which is in the reading room of the society 
of arts. — Journal Sockty of Arts. 

An Impboved Babbel. — Mr. L. E. Sunder- 
land, of Williamsburg. Va., has devised a new 
style of barrel, the object of which is to pro- 
vide a barrel for the shipment of produce, 
which shall be capable of transformation after 
the said produce is delivered, so as to occupy 
a comparatively small space, and be returned 
to the sender at the rates of solid freight and 
at a comparatively trifling cost. It consists in 
a series of staves, connected by hoops which 
have peculiar fastenings, which adapt the 
staves to be disposed flat for return transDor- 
tutiou, or rolled up and fastened to form a bar- 
rel. The sides of the barrel are straight, and 
the heads are held in place by lugs alternating, 
when the barrel is set up upon opposite sides of 
the head. The heads are thus ol less diameter 
than the inside of the barrel, so that the barrel, 
when returned, may be packed full of heads, 
and the rest of the barrel sides packed flatly 
together. 



SnABi'ENi.No Edge Tools. — Very few general 
amateurs have sufhcient practice to acquire, or 
to retain when acquired, the knack of pro- 
ducing perfectly fl it facets ou their plane-irons, 
chisels, etc. By the aid of the following sim- 
ple contrivance, put together very easily, the 
end may be attained with dispatch and cer- 
tainty, the shavings leaving the plane with the 
real professional " whistle." A simple saddle 
of wood, with a thumb screw and clamp, or 
dog, for fixing the tool firmly to the cross bar. 
The oil-stone is placed between the cheeks and 
the tool, 80 adjusted that the saddle bears with 
its heels or hinder angles on the bench, the 
tool, of course, bearing on the oil-stone. The 
saddle, and with it of course the tool, is then 
worked backwards over the stone. — Ex. 

Beeaking Weights.— a correspondent of the 
Scientific Anterk-an writes as follows: Some time 
since I ordered some short timber to be placed 
on some joists in my shop, and left When I 
returned I found it all placed on two joists, 
and I took one-third off. Twenty-four hours 
afterward the joist broke. Why did it not break 
when all the timber was on? To this query 
that journal responds: Time is an element 
to be tikeu into consideration in overcoming 
the strength of the fibers of timber. Two- 
thirds of the load in this case was sufficient to 
break the joist in iweuty-four hours after oue- 
tbird had been removed; but a much shorter 
time would have sufficed to break it with the 
whole load upon it. 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

For 187<>. 

BETTER AND BETTER. 



NVIiile we cauoet proiuUe to labor auy more faith- 
fully or earnestly for our readers lu tbe future tbau we 
have iu the past, we Bhall endoavtr to make the Pit£8a 
MORE COMPLETE IN ALL ITS DEPARTMENTS. 

Its Editorials, 

Will be written hy able and poneiicntious writers, and 
with such judgment and care as to render the Journal 
of the highest usefulness to its readers, and to the per- 
manent welfare of the new and progressive community 
its columns esiiecially represent. 

New Editorial Talent 

Has been engaged to work in co-oporatlon with tbe 
senior editor of the Rubai. and other aasistants, in 
extending forward some of its important branches. 

The Live Stock 

Departments— including the horse, homed stock, 
sht!pp, goat, swine and poultry interests— will receive 
constant attention, and our researches for reliable in- 
fsrmatlun, which shall be of practical use to our Occi- 
doutal readecs, shall not ne limited to any narrow 
sphere. 

The Dairying Trade 

Of this coast is yet in small dimunsiou to what it 
might and should be— to what it is destined soon to 
be. Intelligent experience: careful experiments; the 
dissemination of demonstrated (acts iu regard to the 
liest bree<ls of stoek; inforuiation of the best grasses 
fur pasturage (or all seasons; the best ma< bines and 
methods for manufactunug; bints for marketing, etc.. 
will be some of tbe subjects to be treat<^^d in an earnest 
way in our columns, that the Rubai. Purss may well do 
its share in advancing one of the must promising in- 
dustries of tbe coast. 

Our Correspondents 

Number some of tbe ablest domestic writers m the 
Union, and we are proud to say we would not exchange 
their co-operative pens for those of any other corps 
of newspaper correspondents. They are not only 
friends at heart of our pajier, but of the true cause of 
progressive manhood and womanhood everywhere. Otir 
sources of 

Fresh Information 

Are not e<iuall«d by those of any other agricultural 
journal iu the United States, and making tbe l)est use 
possible of our facilities, we are determined that every 
issue of the Rubal Puks.s for 187t; shall teem with 
a choice and well dressed variety of desirable informa- 
tion. The pursuit o( 

Floriculture and Horticulture 

On the P.icific slope presents a tield of delightful study 
more pruliflc in novelty and fruitful iu protits than 
awaits tbe student and laborer in any other portion of 
the globe. We trust to exchange valuable hints with 
our Horlsts, vineyardists and fruit growers throughout 
the Pacific States. 

Our Home Cinci.E department will contain none "ther 
thau 

Chaste Literature 

In pleasing variety, calculatetl to amuse, instruct and 
elevate both tli-) young and old boys and girls, who 
may turn to its columns for pastime and si-lf-improve- 
ment. 

Our Illustrations 

Will be numerous and calculated to please the eye and 
help the mind to see quickly an<l correctly many im- 
portant objects that mivrht otherwise pass their knowl- 
edge. Some of theui will enable farmers to see and 
contrast for theniselves many kinds of new and impor- 
tant machines and Implements. This illustrated fea- 
ture of our paper, although expensive to its publishers, 
is an important one to rural readers— especially in a 
new and rapidly developing country. 

The Mind and Health 

Of the readers ff the Kcral will be cared for iu our 
fJooD Hbalth, UsEFi l Ini'obmation and Domestic 
Economy column*. Our Genekal News Items, New 
Inventions, ScifNiiFin and MEruANiCAL Miscellany 
articles will be continual throughout the year. 



Agricultural Notes. 



Under this head will be reported weekly, carefully 
selected and condensed Items concerning the agrlcultu 
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Information of the Resources 

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our paper, is not only of imnortant benefit to its read- 
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who are not benefited annually by our publication 
above tbe amount of its subscription price. 



Market Reports. 



In its commercial department, the RtlRAL Paess will 
spare no efi'ort to furnish the agriculturist an accurate 
and trustworthy schedule of the prices which various 
productions are gaining in the market. We regard 
this department of our paper as worthy of the most 
careful and discriminating labor. In our review of the 
markets we shall {present all attainable information 
concerning the tendency of production of various su |i- 
plies and the features of the trade iu them. We shall 
afford all the evidence which ran be secured (or form- 
ing true judgment of the fea'ures of agricultural trade 
and commerco. Although this is a dlfVuult department 
we shall especially strive to give the best weekly do- 
mestic produce reports in the city. 

The Best is Cheapest. 

We might fill our advertising columns with high- 
priced 

Quack and Swindling Advertisements, 

And our reading columns with paid puffs, and thereby 
be enabled to furnish a large paperat a remarkably low 
price, but wc mill not ilo il. We Iwlieva our subscribers 
prefer a good naper at a reasonable price to the so- 
called cheap papers th.it trifle with their confidence. 
Time is precious, and patrons will find that read- 
ing the cheapest which is most suitably prepared (or 
their special avocation and locality. 

The Friends of Our Paper 

Have done much since its first issue, in .lanuary, 1870 
to make tbe Rubal I'bess o( the Pacific coast what it is 
to-day. Thanking them lor past kindnesses, we invite 
all our readers to make known its merits to those who 
are not yet its reading or advertising patrons. 

A Farmer's Paper Throughout. 

We repeat that the Pacific Rural Phk.<is will con- 
tinue to be a faith(nl advocate of the best and highest 
interests of agriculturists on this coast— according full 



Justic* to other kindred industries in conjunction 
with which agriculture alone can permanently thrive. 

A Handy Map 

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r>EWEY -te CO., 

American & Foreign Patent Agents, 

The best, speediest, and surest method for yon 
to obtain patents, tile caveats, or transact 
any other important business with the Patent 
Office at Washington, or with foreign coun- 
tries, is through the agency of DEWE"V a. 
CO., PUBLISHEKS OF THE MINING 
AND SCIENTIFIC I'KESS, SAN FRAN- 
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side of the continent. They refer to th e thous- 
ands of inventors who have patrouized them, 
and to all prominent business men of the 
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with their reputation as straightforward jour- 
nalists and patent solicitors and counsellorn. 

We not only more readily apprehend the points 
and secure much more fully and quickly the 
patents for our home inventors, but with the 
influence of our carefully read and extensively 
circulated journals, we are enabled to illus- 
trate the intrinsic merits of good patents, and 
secure a due reward to the inventor, besides 
serving the public who are more ready to give 
a fair trial, and adopt a good thing, upon 
the recommendation of honest and intelligent 
publishers. 

To Obtain a Patent. 

A weU-construct<:d model is generally first need* 
ed, if the invention can well be thus illustrated. 
It must not exceed 12 inches in length or 
hight. When practicable, a smaller model is 
even more desirable. Paint or engrave the 
name of the article, and the name of the 
inventor, and bis address upon it. 

Send the model (by express or other reliable 
conveyance), plainly addressed, to "Dkwky 
& Co., Mining and Scientitic Fbkss Officb, 
San Fbancisco." At the same time, send a 
full description, embodying all the ideas and 
claims of the inventor respecting the im- 
provement describing the various parts and 
their operations. 

Also send $15 currency, amount of first fee of 
the Government. The case will be placed on 
our regular file, the drawings executed, and 
the documents made up, and soon sent to tbe 
inventor for signing. 

As soon as signed and returned to us vrith tht 
fees then due us, it will be sent straightway 
to the Patent Office at Washngton 

For designs no models are necestiary. Dupli- 
cate drawings are required, and the specifica- 
tions and other papers should be made up 
with care and accuracy. In some instances tor 
design patents two photographs, with the 
negative, answer well instead of drawings. 

For further information, send a stamp for oar 
illustrated circular, containing a digest of Pa- 
TKSi Laws, 112 illustrated mechanical move- 
ments, and Hints and Instbdctions regarding 
the liioHTs and pbivilkoes of inventors and 
patentees, which will be furnished post paid. 
Also a copy of NEW PATENT LAW of 1870' 

When the invention consists of a new article of 
manufacture, a medicine, or a new composi- 
tion, samples of the separated ingredients, 
sufficient to make the experiment (unless 
they are of a common and well-known char- 
acter), and also of the manufactured article 
itself, must be furnished, with full description 
of the entire preparation. 

For Processes, frequently no model or drawings 
are necessary. In such case, the appliciin 
has only to send us an exact description, an 
what is desirable to claim. 

Addresa UEWIOV &. OO., 

Ptmi.fKnmm, Patent Agents and Enobavebs,, 

No. 321 BAUsome street, 8. F 

Thanks for Prompt Attention. 

Sioo-iTON, June 26, 1875. 
Mrssrs. Dfwey d Co., S. F..-- 

I have received the patent for my invention in wagon 
Vjrakes, which you prosecuted for me; patented May 
11, 1875— No. 1«:),046. Thanks to you (or your prompt 
atteutiou to the case; you will hereafter bo my attor- 
neys iu such cases. I recommend all inventors on the 
Pacific coast to give you a call, which I think they will 
never have any cause to regret. Very tnily yours, 
GKO. G. BUCKLANU, 

Stockton, Oal. 

TiiK Rubai. PBEss.—This excellent agricultural Jour- 
nal has entereil upon its tenth volume with every 
mark of increasing prosperity, and with ii, increasing 
usefulness. We are glad to note this, and although the 
Pbkss and J(/ricitl'tirist are rivals iu a certain sense, we 
have no desire t<i succeed at the expense of our gener- 
ous rival. We are bulb working for the advancement 
of the same* interests, and we have both achieved wreal 
success In tha direction. We wish the Pkess renewed 
success. — tSac. Valley Agriculturist, July Ith. 

Addbess Wantki).— If those subscribers to the Uuiial 
i'BEss who answer tr* tbe following names, will send 
their P. O. address to this otBce, they will greatly oblige 
the publishers: H. Overaker, Antonio Byros, L. Boyer, 
F. Anson and M. Levis. 



The Pacific Rural Press, 

AN ILLUSTRATED 

AGRICULTURAL HOME JOURNAL. 



Among other Beasons for Subscribing are the 
Following: 

Because it is a permanent, first-class, conscientious, 
able, and well conducted journal. 

Because it is the largest and best sgrtcultoral weekly 
west of the Rocky MiMintAins. 

That Patrons may be fully posted ou the progress of 
the Order in this and othor fields. 

That more farmers' wives and children in their 
isolated homes may be cheered by its weekly visits, 
laden with its pleasing, yet moral reading;, and sound 
instruction. 

That a more extended interchan»,'e of views and opin- 
ions may be h^d among farmers, upon all tbe great 
qm-stious touching their mutual interests and progress. 

That the agricultural resources wf the Pacific States 
may be more wisely, speedily and thoroughly developed 
by an open and free discussion in our columns. 

That all tbe honest industries of our State may be 
advanced in connection with that of agriculture, our 
columns being ever open to the discussion of the merits 
of all progressive improveaiente. 

That tbe Rural, after having been read and pondered 
over by tbe home circle, can bi* died away for future 
useful reference, or forwarded to the old Kastern fire- 
side of the Atlantic border, in aid of an Increasing im- 
migration to our sunny dime. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

No. 2MSausome street, HAN FRANOISCO. 



California Farmers' IMutual Fire 
Insurance Association. 

No. 6 Leidesdorff St., Rear of Grangers' Bank. 

CAPITAL. $200,000, GOLD. 

OFFICERS AND TRl'STEES: 

.1 D BI.ANrHAR, Pre8't|I. U. (:*RDNF,R .V. Prea'l 

G P KEI.LOGG. TreasurerlA.W. THOMPSON Atfy 

I i; .STKIiLE San MaleoifJHAS. l.AIRD, 8alina.< 

A W01,F Slockton A. D. I.OOAN Colusa 

W. H. BA.XTER^ S. KG. W. UULHV Butte Co 

" "" — — ■ .. . --«« w. Oakland 

■upo 



W H. BA.XTERi, S. KG. W. UULHV Butte 

.J O. MERRVFlfel.D. Dixon C. J. OREShKV. ..Oakh 
A li. NAI.I-V... SanU Rosa^. W. STKEI.E, S. L. Obe 
FERD. K. RIlirK. Secretary. 

First Annual Statement for Yf»ar Ending 
September 30th, 1876- 

TOTAL RISK',; WBITTF.N 8:i,o:i«i.:i'3'i-«.<><> 

TOTAL PRK>liUMb «:i.3O0.4« 

LOSSES PAID <»-l:«I.O<» 

No. of Policies Issued DurlDg tbe Year, 1.436. 

This associfltioo i- organized (or the purpose of alloi-d- 
ing theiarmem of this Slata tbe masos of >afely i-^aaring 
aKainat loss by lire, at actual cost of iDsnraaoe, without 
being couoected with city risks. 



FARMER.**' XJNIOTV. 

SnccEssoB TO A. Pfibieb k Co., 
Cor. Second and Santa Clara Sts , San Joce. 

CAPITAL, --------- $100,000. 

WM. KRKSON PRKSIDENT 

II. E. HLLLS MANAiiER 

Directors:— Wm Erkson, L. F. Ohipman. Horace Little 
J. P. Dudley. David (Campbell, Jamea Singleton, Tbomas 
E. Snell. O. T. Settle. E. A. Braley. 

Will doaCleneral Mercantile Basioees, also receive De- 
poaita, on which nucb in'erest will be allowed as may b« 
agreed upon, and make Loana upon approved aecuritv. 



NEW FRUIT DRIER 



JF-Oll THE CENTENJVIAI-i. 

A roan of limited means has recently invented a 
New Fruit Drier, which be wishes t« exhibit at tbe 
Centennial. It is adapted to either farm or factory 
purposes. 

Dries all kinds of Fruit and Vegetables, 

And makes tbe finest kind of Raisins, with less labor 
aud less fuel than any other Drier ever invented. Ue 
wishes to dispose of an interest in it or take a partner 
who will lurnish means to carry out bis plan. This 
will a£ford some enterprising man a good opportunity 
to visit tbe Oertennial, and make money at the same 
time by selling the Patent. For particulars call 
un or address 

TIFFANY & ROBERTS, 
207 Kearny Street, S. F. 

P. 8.- We refer to Dewet & Co., Patent Solicitors, 
through whose Agency the patent was obtained. 

SANBORN & BYRNES. 




Mechanicit' Uilla, Uiasion Street, 

Uet. First and Fremont, San Francisco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended to. All kinds of Stall 
Material (urnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ton Pins, Fancy Newels aud 
Balusters. a6v8-8m-bp 



ATTORNEY AT LAW, 

306 PINE ST., N. W. Cor. Sansome, SAN FRANCISCO 

■E^Eapeclal atiLeation given tf oa^es involving Uin- 
Dg, Patent or Commercial Law. 



January 8, 1876.] 



Bf^EEDEI^s' Olf^ECyOf^Y. 

PuKCHASEits or Stock will find in this Directory 
XHE Names of some op the most reliable Breedebs. 
Our Rates.- Six lines or leaa inserted in this directory at 
£0 ctsa line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



B. ASHBURNER, Baden Station, San Mateo Oo., 
Cal., breeder of Short-horn cattle. Pure Bred Bulls 
for sale, from cows of choice milking strains. 



J. BREWSTER, Gait Station, Sacramento Co., 
Oal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 



POWERS & STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., breed- 
ers of A. J. C. C. Registered Jersey Cattl^ Cows and 
Calves for sale at low rates. Address Luther C. 
Powers. 



A. MAILiIiAIRD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 304 Davis street, San Fran- 
cisco, (or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) : 
Breeders of Short-Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



27 



H. P. BUCKLiEY, Hopeton, Cal. Thoroughbred 
also % and M Cotswold grade sheep. 



SEVERANCE * PEET, Niles, Alameda Co., 
Oal., breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino 
Sheep. 



A. G. STONESIPER, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co., 
Oal., breeder of Pnro-Blooded French Merino Sheep. 



Ij. TJ. SHIPPBE, Stocliton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle 
and Essex Swine. 



B. F. W ATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thor- 
oughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



U- EYRE.Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown; 
Sheep. Bucks and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each 
Lambs, 415 each. 



POULTRY, 



M. EYRE, Napa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Geese 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Ferrets. 



GEO. B. BAYIiEY, Cor. 16th and Castro sreets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale. 

ALBERT E. BURBANK, 43 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Babbits, etc. 

URS. Ij. J. WATKINS. Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown LBghotns, S. 8. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahmas, B. B. Bed Game Bantams and 
Aylesbury Ducks. Al so Eggs. 

WILLIAM KNOWL^S, P. O. Box 337, 0»kland, 
Cal., has for sale Eggs for Hutching, carefully pack- 
ed, from Browu Logliorns at $4 per doz. Houdans, 
White Leghorns and Bull' Cochins at $3 per doz; two 
doz. for $5 Sent C. O. D. to any address. 



Live Stock Notices. 




We respectfully invite the attention of wool growers 
to our line stock of Cotswool Sheep and Angora Goats. 
We have 200 head of Pure Breed Angoras to select from; 
we have some of the finest Goat^ in America; we 
guarantee everything we sell to bo as represented; our 
prices are as low as any in America for tke same grade 
of stock. Call and see, or address, 

LANDRULC & RODGERS, 

13v7-eow-tf Watsonville, Cal. 



THOROUGHBRED JERSEY CATTLE. 



FOR SALE, twelve bull calves of 1875— three yearling 
bulls— Also cows and heifers bred from the best im- 
ported stock. Address, 

A. HAILLIARD, 

San Rafael, Marin County, Cal. 



—CELEBRATED— 

Worcestershire Sauce. 

Declared by Connoisseurs to be the only 
good SAUCE. 

Caution Against Fraud. 

The success of this luo.st delicious and 
unrivalled Condiment having caused cer- 
1 tain dealers to apply the name of "Worces- 
I tershire Sauce" to their own inferior com- 
1 pounds, th" public is hereby informed that 
the only way to secure the genuine is to ask 
] for LEA & PERBINS' SAUCE, and see that 
I tiicir names are upon the wrapper, labels, 
' stopper and bottle. 

Some of the foreign markets having 
] been supplied with a spurious Worcester- 

- ■ shire Sauce, upon the wrapper and labels of 

which the names of Lea k Perrins have been forged, L. 
& P. give notice that they have furnished thoir corre- 
spondents with power of attorney to take insiant pro- 
oeedings against manufacturers and vendors of such, 
or any other imitations by which their right may be 
infringed. To be obtained of 

MESSRS. CROSS & CO., 

San Francisco. 





The Gilmore Angora Goat 
BREEDINa ASSOCIATION, 

IMPOBTEES AND BEEEDEBS OF 

PURE BLOODS, 

—ALSO OF — 

stock Raich situated at El Dorado, (Mud Springs) 
El Dorado county, four miles from Railroad Station. 
For prices of stock and any other facts connected with 
the business, address 

N. GILMORE, 

El Dorado, El Dorado Co., Ca 



The attention of Wool Growers is cordially invited to the 

Thoroughbred Stock Bred and Kept on the 

MERINO RANCH, 






Situated at Niles, Alameda County, Oal., only five minutes walk from the station, 

junction of San Jose and C. P. R. R. Parties desiring to visit our ranch can leave San Francisco at 3 p. m. and 
have an hour at the ranch, returning on Overland train at 6 p. M. Or, coming out in morning, can return 
to city at 11 a. m. The proprietors make the 



THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP A SPECIALTY, 

Our flock are all Imported Sheep, and have no superiors in the United States. We always have on 
choice young RAMS and EWES, of all ages, for sale at Seasonable Prices, giving time, if required, to respoi 
parties. City Office— 315 California Street, San Francisco. 



nnd 
ible 



Importers and Breeders of Spanish Merino ^h ' ep. 



Miscellaneous Notices. 



THE ALOKN 

FRUIT PRESERVING COMPANY, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 

OFFICE, 426 MONTGOMERY ST., S, P. 

Our improved apparatus will do one-third more work 
than that erected last season, whileaour prices have 
been materially reduced. A portion of the purchase 
money may be paid in the products of the Alden fac- 
tories. We guarantee against infringements. The 
Alden is the oldest, the best and the cheapest process 
known for preserving fruits, vegetables, meats, etc. 

It would be unwise to purchase the new and untried 
dryers before they have demonstrated their superiority 
by at least one year's regular work. Send for our cir- 
culars. 



THE BEE-KEEFEES' MAGAZINE, 

An iUuslratea month, 
ly Journal oi 32 octa, 
vo pages devoted ex, 
cluslvely to Bee-Cul, 
TtTRB. Edited by Al, 
JBERT J. Kino, con, 
taining monthly con, 
tritjutions from Mrs. 
E. S. TtTppEK, and 
other eminent Bee, 
Keepers in Ijoth Eu- 
KOPB and Amehica. A large space is devoted to 
BEGiNNEKS giving useful iuformation Just wlien 
it is needed tUroiiglioiit the year.. Terms $1.50 
per year. Wc will send the Maoa/.ink 4 months 
ON TRIAL and include a 6J-page pamphlet, (price 
50 cts. ) containg a beautiful life-like Chromo ol 
UoNEY-PLANTS and Italian Bees in theirnatural 
colors, Prize Essay by Mrs. Tupper, Queen Rear- 
ing by M. tJniNBY,'Instructlons for Beginners, etc. 
all for 50 cts. Address 

KING & SL,OCUM. 
61 Hudson Street, JleMV York. 




HoUoway's Sure Death 

— TO — 

GOPHERS, SQUIRRELS AND RATS. 



This preparation, compounded by a most skillful 
chemist, is the most efficient poison for the extermina- 
tion of Gophers and Squirrels. It is cheaper than 
strychnine, and in using it, saves a great deal of time 
and unpleasant work. Price, 75 cents per pound. For 
sale everywhere. 

ABRAMS & CARROIili, 

WaOLESAI.E Dbuggists, 

Sole Agents. 



H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 
jy. r>. •J?.— isow. 

Is gaining a wide spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast show it to be a companion in 
every family. It quickly removes Wind Gulls, Spavins, 
Callous Lumps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the 
horse, while the family finds it indispensable for 
Sprains, Bruises, Aches, Paine, and wherever a good 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 

Stockton, Oal. 



Union Box Factory, 

, GEO. W. SWAN & CO., 

116 and 116 Spear St., bet. Mission &.Howard 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Cherry, Qrape, 
Orange, Lime and Wine Cases. 

Tomato, Potato, Fig and Kaisin Boxes. 

Strawberry, Raspberry and Blackberry Chests 

and Drawers, and Baskets for all kinds of Berries. 
Peach and Picking Baskets, Batter Chests and 

Boxes, Cheese Boxes, Square and Round Egg Carriers. 

Drnms for Figs, Cherries, Raising, and for 
other Dried Fruits. 

Free Packages — Boxes not to be returned — a 
good r.rticle, costing less than Sawed Boxes. 

Lard Caddies, Cofifee and Fruit Caddies. 

Turkey and Chicken Coops, Bee-Hives, Etc. 

Packing Boxes for Dry-Gooods, Cigars, Can- 
dies, Candied Fruits, Honey, Maccaroni, Crackers, 
Sugar, Soap, Boots, Etc, 

In fact, every style of Boxes manufactured in 
the Union, and turned out in the Best Style at Favor 
able Prices. Orders from the country well attended to 



SEED WHEAT. 

For sale in lots to suit. Seed Wheat, raised from gen- 
uine imported Australian, French and English Wheat 
of best quality. Apply to 

J. W. H. CAMPBELL, 
433 California Street, S. F. 

(Merchants' Exchangai) 




Allen's Planet Jr, 
SILVER 

WEDAL ____ 

H«nd Sfed nrlllii and Wheel Hom, perfeeltd for '7n. Fooh nlicsl 
Ibt-y '-sow hke a chnrm:" no packing of bcM In the hopner no 
ertithmg it, no pausing or uastc at the ends, no trrrgularitv in 
dppth, no springs or gearing to wear out, no "skips," no noise, 
noequalt Thb Douhlii WhiblHob works caster, better, and from 
III to tu^elvc limes /aster tbaa tlie hand hoe ; often saving the gar- 
jlrner JlOO in a season,- finishes two rotes at once, when 6, S,or 10 
Inches apart Four pairs of hoes ; htadet tempered tieel. Wo 
nasc an admirable Coubinkd UaOHtKii posscsning nearly all tho 
Mocllencles of the separate ones. Ko vcKCtalilo garden, however 
small, should ho without one. Oar New Homk Hoi, perfected 
after ten Tears of experiment, saties most of the hoeing and maket 
the remainder easy ; leaves the ground level or ridged as dcki nd, 
opens furrows, hills, and cultivates shallow or deep, and is a thor- 
ough weed killer : should be owned bj/ every farmer Full Re- 
•cripllvc Circulars and Testimonials free, ifention this paper. 
B. L. ALLEN ^ CO., Sole Manf rs, No. 119 S. 4tti St.. PhUaOa* 
Pa. TremiutliaT«aUT*lgentliilT<i7Towa. "'■''""'"'*' 



NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Clay and 114 Commercial Sts., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

O AGrS of All Kinds, 
TENTS!*, All Sizes and Descriptions. 
HOJ^E for Hydraulic Use. 
CA-IVVAS^, All Numbers. 
TWirVE for Sewing, Etc. 



Commission Merchants. 



T. O'CONNOR & CO., 

SEED AND PRODUCE 
Commission House, 

EVrPOETERS OF 

Seeds and Semi-Tropical Trees 
Plants and Fruits, Etc- 

500,000 Australian Blue Gum at $25 to $40 per M In 
boxes: 250,000 Monterey Cypress at $25 te $40 per 'm 
in boxes; also a consignment of Australian Blue Gum 
Seed, warranted 1874, per steamship City of Melbourne 
at 75 cents per oz., or $10 per ft. 

Navil (or Seedless) Orange Trees, 1 
Lisbon Lemon Trees, 

Passion Fruit-Bearing Vine and Seed, lAustralian 
Norfolk Island Pine (Elcuria) Seed or f •"•"^^'^^^'^lan. 
Plants. J 

Orange Trees. — Wilson's Seedlings, Kona, Malta 
Blood and St. Mikel'e. 

Chuchapela, Pemambuco and Sweet Acapuloo; also 
Vegetable, Grass, Field and Flower Seeds. Australian 
and Sicily Lemon Seed in barrels. Orange and Mexican 
Lime Seed in barrels. For sale by 

T. O'CONNOR & CO., 

426 Sansome street, near Clay, S. F. 



3, K. CUMMIHQS, 
1868. 



H. H, BALBTON. 
1876. 




i. o o K. : 

ALBERT E. BUEBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder of Fancy I'owls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etu. Also Eggs 
for hatching from the finest of im- 
ported stock. Eggi and Fowls 
reducru prices. iend for Prl 
List. 

ALBERT a. BURBANK, 
lT8-3m iSbif Oal , Market S.F 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Oommisaion 

House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast corner of Washing 
ton, San Francisco. 

Our buslnesB being exclusively Ociamisslon, we have 

interests that wiU conflict with tb )se of the producer 

4v23-lr 



Davis & Sutton, Commrssion Merchants, 

For California Fruits: also for the sale of Butter, Ekkb 
Cheese, Hops, Green and Dried Fruits, etc., 7j Warrea 
street. New \ork. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; lElIwanger <t Barrv. 
Rochester, N. V.; O. W. Reed, Sacramento, Cal.; A 
l.iiBk A Co.. Pacific Fruit Market, San Francison Oal 



^ftjSJMld^ 




CALVERT'S 

CAIJBO Lie 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per 0allon. 

T. W. JACKSON, San Francisco, 

Sole Agent for California 

and Nevada. 



ItUPXUKE. 



Use no More Metallic Trusses. No more suffering 
from iron hoops or steel springs. DR. KOWE'S PAT- 
ENT ELASTIC TRUSS is worn with ease and comfort 
night and day, and will and has performed radical 
cures when all others have failed. Reader, if you are 
ruptured, try one of DR. ROWE'S comforti'ble elastic 
appliances; you will never regret it. 

KOWJE ELASTIC TKUSS CO., 
'f 609 Sacramento Street, 8. F. 



HOOPER'S SOUTH END WAREHOUSES, 

FIRST-CLASS FIREPROOF BRICK BUILDING, 

COR. JAPAN k TOWNHEND STREETS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, OAL. 

Goods taken into the Warehouse from the dock and 
the cars of the 0. P. R. R. and 8. P. R. R. free of cx- 
nense, at current rates of storage. Advances and 
Insurance effected at Lowest Rates. 

JOHN JENNINGS, Proprietor. 



LEA & PERRINS' 

CELEHIlATEIl 

WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE, 

DECLARED BY CONNOISSEURS 10 1!K 

THE ONLY GOOD SAUCE. 

//; cunsequence of Spu/ious Imitahoin of 

Lea & Perrins Sauce, 

which are calculated lo deceive the Public, 
JuEA & PERRINS have adopted 

A New Label, 

hearing their Signature, thus — 
which will be placed on every bottle of 

Worcestershire Sauce, 

after this date, and ivithout which none 

is genuine. 

Nox>ember 1874. 

*^* This does not apply to shipments 

made prior to the date given. 

Ask for LEA & PERRINS' Sauce, 
and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle 
and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the 
Proprietors, Worcester; Crossei^ Blarkwell, 
London, iSc., l5c. ; and by Grocers and 
Oilmen throughout the World. 



d^ 



28 



[January 8, 1876 



(Continned from Fagre 26.) 



coast, even in some sheltered locations verj- 
near the coast they may be grown quite suc- 
cePflfully, but not of the best quality tor wine. 

The currant is one of the most valuable of all 
the small fruits, and is being used estensively 
for jelly as well as for table fruit and pies. 
Like the cherry it should have a cool summer 
climate, and a loose rich soil. 

The gooseberry should have a moderately dry 
soil, with plenty of manure and good cultiva- 
tion. If grown in cold, dimp places the fruit will 
be subject to blight and mildew. The Hdw- 
ton's seedling, however, may be grown in al- 
most any location. 

The blackberry should have a warm, moist 
soil to succeed well. 

Preparation of the Soil. 

Plow the ground at least twice and as deep 
as possible; the subsoil plow may be used to 
great advantage and when the ground is hard 
it should not be omitted. 

Pruning the trees at the time of transplant- 
ing should be carefully attended to. The ends 
of the roots that always are more or less bruised 
in digging should be cut off with a sharp knife 
and the branches should all be cut back to a 
bud within four or six inches of the main stem, 
leaving them iu a proper shape for the forma- 
tion of the tap. 

Planting. 

I will give our method of planting, and think 
it will do to work by as a general rule : 

Dig the holes circling three feet in diameter 
and two feet in depth; the rich soil of the sur- 
face should be thrown out on one side, the 
balance on the other side of the hole. In re- 
filling the hole, throw in the surface dirt first, 
which will leave the richest part of the soil 
where the tree will receive the most beneiit 
from it. Fill up the hole to a proper depth to 
receive the tree without bending the roots, 
kefping it about the same depth that it stood 
in the nursery. Fill iu about with loose dirt 
until the ground about the tree is level, then 
the planting is doue. 

From the time of plowing the ground should 
be kept well tilled and free from grass and 
weeds. A crop of carrots, beets or beans may 
be grown betwoea the trees, but should not be 
planted nearer than four feet to the trees until 
after they have grown at least one year. Cur- 
rants or gooseberries may be planted in the 
same manner, and may be allowed to grow 
until the trees are ten or twelve years old. 

The distance that the trees should be planted 
apart arc : • 

St&udard apples i!4 feet escli way. 

Pears 18 " " 

Stanilard Heart cherrioB i* " " 

Duko C 10 

Aliuoiiils, peaches, pliioiH aud uec 

tarlnes 'iO " " 

Apricots 24 " " 

Uooxeborriea, Eoglish 3x5 " " 

Hawton'n Seedlings 6x8 " " 

Currents ix.? " " 

Blackberrie« 8x8 " " 

EngliBh walnuts 40x40 " " 

Qrapevines (in vineyard) 7x7 " " 

' Manuring. 

The very common practice in regard to man- 
ure is to apply a very large quantity imme- 
diately around the trunk of the tree, which is 
decidedly wrong, as it creates an excess of heat 
and enfeebles the growth of the tree. The 
proper way is to apply a sufliiient top dressing 
broadcast between the rows, and should be well 
plowed in where it can reach the extremity of 
the roots. There are many rich soils where 
manuring is unnecessary. 

Mulching. 

This should be practiced in very dry soils, 
and only with newly planted trees. Would rec- 
ommend sand to be thrown around the tree to 
the depth of three or four inches, and about 
six feet in diameter. It should be applied early 
in May. In protecting trees from the heat of 
the sun in summer, it is only necessary to pro- 
tect the trunk. This may be done by means of 
two boards set together forming an angle; this 
is placed on the southwest side of the tree. 



growth, from the recently planted just appear- 
ing out of the ground, to those now being dug 
aud prepared for markpt. One word more, 
about pine-apples. Mr. D. W. C. Howard, our 
nurseryman, has several growing in the open 
air in his nursery, and they appear to be in a 
most flourishing condition. If the experiment 
of growing them proves successful, I will re- 
port. R. B. W. 
Orange, Los Angeles Co., I'al. 



Mass Meeting 



in Relation 
Debris. 



to Mining 



Bananas. 

Messbs. Editobs: — The Bubai. Pbess of 25th 
iust. is at hand, and I have read in it my com- 
munication respecting bananas, and the success 
of Messrs. Huntingdon aud Messenger in grow- 
ing them; but, unfortunately, the place where 
these bananas were grown is omitted, either by 
mistake of mine or of the printer. 

Now, I never intended to convey the idea 
that bananas would grow in any part of Los 
Angeles county. I know the attempt to raise 
them in other places has proved a decided fail- 
ure, while the growing of them here has proved 
as decided a success. 

For the rnis-iog of beets, corn, alfalfa and 
pumpkins, I think Comptou, Los Nietos, 
SVe.stmin.ster and Gospel Swamp cannot be 
oxcelkd anywhere in this county or in any 
county in tbis State; but for the cultivation uf 
oranges, lemons, liiues, bananas and other 
semi-tropical fruits I believe Orange cannot bo 
ecjualed anywhere in this or in any other county 
in the State. 

We have a most fertile soil, abundance of 
water lor irrig iting, a most healthful climate 
aud au almost entire immunity from frost. Wu 
have had no frost this sea.son, and it is today 
the 28th of December; tomato vines in blos- 
som and sweet potatoes and Irish potatoes 
growing luxuriantly, the latter iu all stages of 



An adjourned meeting of the citizens of Sut- 
ter and Yuba counties was held on Friday af- 
ternoon, December 24th, at the City Hall in 
Marysville. 

The meeting was called to order by Jtidge 
Craddock. 

Dr. S. R. Chandler, of Yuba City, chairman 
of the committee to draft a bill to be submitted 
to the Legislature, to prevent the further de- 
struction of the valley farming lands and the 
navigation of the Sacramento and Feather riv- 
ers, presented for the consideration of the 
meeting a bill, the main features of which 
were: That it should be a misdemeanor for 
hydraulic miners to befoul and fill with sedi- 
ment from their mines the waters of the riv- 
ers. That employer aud employee should be 
held equally guilty and responsible in a civil 
action for damages, aud a judgment for dam- 
ages when rendered should be a lien upon all 
the mine and the machinery aud appurte- 
nances, and should take precedence of all 
other liens. That the second ollense should 
be punishable by tine or imprisonment, or 
both, in the discretion of the court. The doc- 
tor stated that he had submitted his draft of a 
bill to several legal gentlemen, who thought it 
Bufliciently comprehensive, but that in its pres- 
ent form would be difficult to enforce. He 
maintained his position with ability, and 
arguei that self-protection was the first law of 
nature. That the farmers had bought their 
lands of the government, settled and improved 
them in guod faith, and were entitled to pro- 
tection. That we might bankrupt ourselves 
building levees which were at the best but tem- 
porary protection against encroachments of the 
sediment. That unless something was done 
immediately we should see a large portion of 
the finest lauds in the State turned into a des- 
ert, and the inhabitants, with blasted hopes 
aud shattered fortunes, fleeing from their once 
happy homes. 

Judge I. S. Belcher, one of the legal gentle- 
men ot the committee, being called upon, said 
that since his appointment upon the committee 
he had not had time to fully consider the ques- 
tion so as to be fully satisfied in his own mind; 
that the matter was beset by many difficulties, 
both from a legal and financial standpoint; that 
hydraulic mining had now such approved ap- 
pliances for moving earth that it was compara- 
tively easy to send a large quantity down upon 
the cultivated lands, carrying destruction and 
desolation; that in law there was no principle 
better settled than that every man should so 
use his property as to not interfere with and 
injure his neighbor; that the hydraulic miner 
was injuring his neighbor was clear, but that 
the best remedy was not so clear; that he was 
willing to co-operate with the committee and 
give them all the assistance in his power. 

W. H. Parks said it was high time that some- 
thing was done. That the State could not af- 
ford to see so much of her best territory de- 
stroyed. That many well-to-do farmers had al- 
ready been broken up Dy the sediment from the 
mines upon their farms. That the navigation 
of the Sacramento and Feather rivers was be- 
ing ruined. That he with others well remem- 
bered when to be " a good miner was much 
greater than to be a good, honest farmer." 
liut the thing was reversed now. That the 
State now must look to agriculture as one of 
her greatest and most permanent sources of 
prosperity and wealth. That he was not in 
favor of one industry being built up at the ex- 
pense of the other; and that it was not just to 
use the farmers' fields as a dumping place 
for the mining sediment. That as a business 
proposition it would be better for the State to 
buy every hydraulic mine and pay every dollar 
it was worth than to permit the valley lands to 
be ruined as they soon would be; but he 
doubted whether that would be practicable, 
as there would be countless worthless claims 
for wortblets mines. That the hydraulic miner 
was in a condition that we should carefully 
consider. He has his money and business in 
his mine. He is sending his sediment on our 
lands, but are wc ready to say he shall stop im- 
mediately? Are we ready for so radical a moas- 
' lure at onceV For one, I dare not say it. I 
doubt whether any man here will say it, while 
we all feel that we are suffering a great hard- 
ship. The question is beset with many diffi- 
culties; but X believe there is a remedy, and I 
will cheerfully support any measure that offers 
the needed relief. 

•J. H. Keyessaid: " I have no objections to the 
miners digging out all the gold they can find, hut 
I don't want them to send the whole side of a hill 
down upon my ranch and bury me and all I 
have. And that is just what they have doue 
and are doing. I want to be let alone. I don't 
know much about law nor don't want to. If it 
is the law that one man shall use his property 
so as not to injure his neighbor, I should like 
to see that law put in force. As far as I can 



learn, when you go after a miner for damages 
the miner says, ' I have not damaged you; how 
do you know that my sediment is on your land? 
There are others mining.' " Mr. K. thought a 
law should be passed making any miner that 
threw sediment into the river where it would 
come upon a farmer's land, responsible for all 
the damage, and the putting of sediment into 
the river evidence of such damage. 

Dr. Wilkins agreed with the other speakers 
in that it was u very great evil, and should en- 
gage the serious consideration of all the people, 
and hoped that some relief may be fouud. 

J. L. Wilbur, in BUggesting a remedy, said 
thf Legislature miv;ht find it expedient to ap- 
p lint a commission to visit the localities of the 
luines aud see if possible whether cheap and 
worible-s lands might not be found where their 
washings could be conveyed to where they 
would at least be no injur/ if they did no 
good. 

George Ohleyer was in favor of any move or 
compromise that would save the agriculture of 
the State. This being now by far the greatest 
interest in the Stute, it should receive the fos- 
tering care of all those who look upon Califor- 
nia as the permanent home of themselves and 
posterity. To show what had already been de- 
stroyed, he submitted the following figures: 
Twenty-four sections of land destroyed on 
the Yuba river— l.'i.SGO acres— valued at 

ifJOO per acre $:t,07'J,()00 

Personal property aud iraprovemonta 3,000,UOD 

Loss and depreciation of propirty in Uarys- 

ville 2,000,1100 

Dostructiou on Feather river 600 ,om) 

Kightoeu pectiouB on Bear river — 11,520 

acr'js— valued at $100 per acre 1,152,000 

Dbstructiou iu Vubii county 9,7'.!4,000 

AsBossod value of all property In Yuba county 

for 1875 .5,025.7'JO 

Assessed value of all mlninp; property in 

Yuba eouuty in 1875 WB.IKIO 

Destruction of iroperty in Sutter county— 
eighteen sections of laud on Bear rivor — 
U.MO acres, valued at tlOO per acre l,lS>,OtX) 

Personal property aud improvements 1,000,000 

Deatructiou in southern portions of the 

county, Coon creek aud Auburu ravine. . ' COO,0(X) 

(Ju Featlier river ou botli sides 500,000 

Total In Sutter county $a,15'J,000 

The speaker estimated the total amount 
already spent by the building of levees to pro- 
tect what is net yet wholly destroyed, at $1,000, - 
000. And thew works, he claimed, were as yet 
protecting $20,000,000 worth of property. But 
the filling up of rivers is gaining on our atiility to 
levee it out, making it perfectly plain that all 
must soon go together. For these reasons he 
held that should no remedy occur short of 
stopping the mines, that mining should stop. 
Three hundred thousand dollars of mining 
property should not be allowed to menace and 
destroy property assessed at $10,000,000, be- 
sides destroying our rivers aud harbors. 

On motion it was ordered that W. H. Parks, 
Judge Crane aud Judge Filkin be added to the 
committee heretofore appointed to draft a bill 
to be presented to the Legislature, making it 
nulawful to flow mining debris into Bear river, 
Yuba river or Feather river, or thfir tribu- 
taries, and making any and all hydraulic inin 
ing companies so flowing debris in said streams 
answerable in proportion to the amount so 
thrown into said streams for the damage caused 
thereby. Also, to a^k the Legislature to in- 
vestigate by appropriate means this subject in 
order that some plan may be adopted by which 
the destruction occasioned by hydraulic min- 
ing on said streams may cease. And to ask 
the Federal Government for appropriations to 
keep open for (iommerce the navigable streams 
of the State rendered unnavigablo by hydraulic 
mining. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned till Satur- 
day, January 8th, at twelve o'clock, to hear the 
report of the committee and take action 
thereon. J. H. Cbaddock, Chairman. 

George Ohlevkb, Secretary. 



PATENTS & Inventions. 



A Weekly List of 0. S. Patents Is 
sued to Paoiflo Coast Inventors. 



Fbom Offioui, Bepobts fob thb HiNiNa and Soieh 
Tino Pbess, DEWET it 00., Pobushebs and 

U. S. AND FOBBION PATENT AOENTS.] 



By Special Dispatch, Dated Waahinrton, 
D. O., Jan 4th, 1876. 

Fob Wekk Ending Deckmbek 21sf, 1875." 
Spittoon Mat. — John Lee, S. F., Cal. 
Mash AiiEMPJiBAToB. — William Paddon, S. F., 

Cal. 
Appakatus roB Aging Lkjcobs. — Jean B. 

Baux, Oakland, Cal. 
Hanging on Portabi.b Fountains. — Frank C. 

Shafer, S. F., Cul. 

Tbademabks. 
Haib Pboduceb.— II. A. Moore, S. F. Cal. 
Poison and Poisonous Compositions fob tub 

De.stkuohon of S(^uii!i:els. — 

'Tlie patents are not ready for delivery by the 

Patent Office until some 11 days after the date of issue. 
Note.— Copies of 0. 8. aud Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewxz & Co., In the shortest time possible (by tel. 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business (or Paclllc coast inventors transacted with 
perfect security and In tlte Bhortest possible time. 



Dewey & Co. UJ,^* s,! Patent Agt's. 



Cotnmercial Hotel, 

We call attention to the following circular 
issued by the proprietors of the new Commer- 
cial Hotel, on Montgomery avenue, in this city. 
The senior partner of the firm is F. A. Horn- 
blower, formerly of the Orleans hotel, in 
Sacramento, well known as able to keep a hotel. 
Mr. H. P. Saxe is one of the "thoroughbred 
boys" whom the stock men of the coast know 
so well. The firm is strong aud their maDifeBto 
which we print below is inviting: 

The Commercial Hotel was opened to the public on 
the LiOth of December, 1875. It was erected by Wm. 
Hood. Esq., of Sonoma county, at an expense of some 
$200,000. aud has been nearly two years in coostruo- 
tioD, and the entire y new furnishing of the hotel 
amounts to near $40,000. The structure is of brick, 
four Rtorles hig;h: has a street frontage of 321 feet, and 
has ns large rooms, all uf which are lighted from out- 
side, and are perfectly ventilated. In Its architecture 
it is solid, unique and elegant — " founded upon a 
rock " on one of the high levels of Kearny street— and 
its sewerage is well above high tide. It is triangular 
in shape, and so located as to afft rd over sixty suits of 
sunny rooms; for light, ventilation and sewerage ii 
unrivaled by any hotel on this continent. '1 be main 
entrance to the hotel is on Montgomery avenue, where 
one of Stebbin's improved patent hydraulic elevators 
and two grand stairways receive the guests and convev 
thein to each story of the hotel. It is supplied with 
all the modern improvementH; hot and culd water, 
battling rooms and flosets on every floor. 

Till; bar, billiard room, barber shop and laundry of 
the (Commercial will be under the supervluion of its 
proprietors, and will be properly conducted. The lo- 
cation of the hotel is four blocks west of the Bacrs- 
mento, Donahue and Petaluma steamer docks, aud two 
blocks west of the postolhce and custom house, and is 
quite as near the business centers of the city, as the 
Palace hotel. The Kearny street cars, from the South- 
ern Pacific railroad depot, pass in front of the hotel. 
The cars from the Oakland ferries will also pass the 
hotel on Montgomery avenue. The hotel coach will 
convey {latrons to tlie hotel free of chanie. It will bo 
kept Ftrictlv a lirst. class house, and at the htaeonable 
rate of two dollars per day, and it a less price by the 
week, or muuth. The senior partner of this firm em- 
braces this opportunity to tender his thanks to his 
former patrons at the Orleans hotel, (Sacrametito) and 
bespeaks a continuance of their favors at his Lew, and 
more elegant estsblishinent, iu the cit.v ot Ban 7tan- 
cisca. 



To the Readers of the Pacific 
Rural Press ! 

We wish you to speak to all wlio you tbink 
would be pleased with our paper, and 
tell them of its merits, and of the ad- 
vantage it has been to you and your 
aajuaiutauces. 

We need a larger subscription list, which 
will enable ns to keep up a good paper 
and to improve it, and become still more 
useful to you and to our whole coast. 

Hand your paper to others when read— if 
you do not file it. Send it to your 
friends by mail. Send to our office for 
back numbers, which will bo sent free 
as samples for you to distribute. 

The attention of meetings of Granges and 
Clubs called to articles of local or spe- 
cial interest, would i)rove of mutual 
benefit. 

Write for the columns of the Bubal Press. 
Wend us friendly counsel, business hints, 
aud all information of interest to us and 
our readers. 

Subscription, $4 per annum. Old sub- 
scribers sending us a new subscription 
with a renewal of their own, may remit 
87 for the two. 

liemit by P. O. Order or registered letter 
to 

DEWEY & CO., 

Office, No. 224 Sansome St,, S. F. 

SuBSCBiBERS are requested to examine the printed 
address on their papers. If mistakes occur at any time 
please report them to this office. The last flgurcg (at 
the ixtrenie •nght) represent the year that your sub- 
scription is paid to. Next to these the day and month 
is represented. For instance, your subscription being 
paid to July 4th, 1876, it would be repieeemted, viz: 
jl 4 76; or 4J176. 



StJTTKB Cbkek, February 36th, 1875. 
Messes. Dewey & Co. — I have received my Letters 
Patent through your Aagency. nd, for your prompt 
nces. accept my thanks. Yours, S. N. Kmoht. 



The Scandinavian and German Immigra- 
tion and Employment Office, 

610 Merchant iStreet, near City Hall, S. F. 

Since July, 1H75, consolidated with the old Califor- 
nia Labor Exchange, established in 1S6H, Located in 
the business center of San Francisco, with agents in 
the East and the mother countries of Europe, and mas- 
tering all the princl|ial Eiiroptan languages, we have 
unsur{ia6sod facilities for complying with uny demand 
on us lor male and female help iu any capacity and of 
any nationality, at reaeonable terms. A lady attends 
to the female department. Scandinavian, Qerman, 
French and American help our specialty. We can fur. 
nlsh farmers with any number of BcandinaviiLU and 
German help, if timely notice la given. Hotels and 
prlvato families supplied with French and Qerman 
waiters. When female help is wanted in the country, 
the remittance of the piissatie Htouey in advance Is 
indispensable. Tour orders will be filled promptly and 
conscientiously if addressed to 

V. de BRETTEVILLE & CO., 
(P. O. Box U3f,.] San Francisco, Cal. 



Mauufacturer of 

Dr. Ely's Patent Artificial Limbs. 

Office ani> Addbess, 
No. 166 TEHAUA STBEST. 

Cor. Third, bet. Howard and Folsom, San Francisco. 

eowbp 



January 8, 1876. J 



2y 



S. F. 



KET f\ErOJ\T' 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Fbancisco, January 5, 1876. 

The trade of the week has been quiet and withont 
uotable features. Thn general observance of the New 
Year holiday and the usual Inyentory taking and 
changes both in firms and locations engrossed the at- 
tention of many of our merchants. In addition to this 
the opening diys of this week were attended by storms 
of unusual severity and people were disposed to en- 
joy their homes. 

During the year now closed the trade of this city has 
handled large amounts of produce, and the summary 
for the year shows a healthy commercial life and 
growth. Following is a statement of the 

Receipts 
Of California produce at this port for the twelve months 
ending December 31et, 1875. 

Flour, bbl8 491,408 

Wheat, ctls 7,670, 0(]0 

Barley, ctls 988,280 

Rye, sks 14,672 

Oats, ctls 248,207 

Hay, bU 473,400 

Wool, bis 368,352 



Potatoes, sks 657,542 

Beans, sks 111,452 

Hides, No 143,288 

Corn, sks 148,905 

Quicksilver, flasks.. 49,921 

Uuckwheat, sks 1.31)2 

Hops, bis 4,357 

Exports- 
The quantity and value of domestic produce, other 
than treasure, exported by sea during the twelve 
months ending December 31st, 1875, were as follows: 



Quantity. 

Abalones, sks 1.078 

Barley, ctls 129,158 

Beans, sks 10,493 

Bran, Meal, etc , pkgs 7,140 

Brandy, K»ll8 42,158 

Bread, pkgs 16,621 

Brooms, dozen 11,180 

Building Materials- 
Lumber, feet 10,653,471 

' Shingles, No 4,845,750 

Flour, bblg 467,719 

Hay, tons 502 

Hides, No 130,121 

Leather, pkgs 4,550 

Maccaroni and Vor. bxB 3,016 

Mustard seed, sks I,0i3 

Malt, sks 2,503 

Oats, ctls 6,373 

Ores — 

Copper, tons 2,877 

Silver, tons 504 

Various, tons 2.0i3 

Quicksilver, flasks 27,501 

Salmon, pkgs 262,839 

Vegetables, pkgs 32,274 

Wheat, ctls 7,546,207 

Wine, eaUs 516,942 

Wool, B5S , 7,608,245 



Value. 
$11,738 
216,623 
20,. 35 1 
13,225 
87,671 
45,51)1 
30,4.67 

200,891 

12,871 

2,452,967 

10,605 

568,041) 

217,698 

5,457 

2,901 

6,621 

10,248 

128,680 

120,349 

118,915 

1,622,196 

1,389,678 

64,805 

14,101 328 

343,211 

915,163 



Export value $22,782,192 

1874 21,984,649 



Increase .....' $797 ,643 

During the week the local Grain market has been 
quiet, with a slight downward tendency in quotations. 
The course of the Liverpool quotation to the Pro- 
duce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded in the following table: 

Ranere of Cable Prices. 



Thiurfcday . . 

Friday 

Saturday. .. 

Monday.... 
Tuesday.; .. 
Wednesday. 



Average. 



lOs 6(i®10s U)d 
lOs 5d(V!>10« lod 

Holiday 
10a 5d@10s ind 
108 4a(«>10s 8d 
10s 4d@10s 9d 



Cldb. 



108 10d@lls 6d 
los 10df(<)ll8 6d 
No quutationsi. 
lOj 10d®lls (id 
lUs 10d(a)lls 4d 
lOs 10d@ll8 2d 



To-day's cable qu otations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows: 
Average. Club. 

1874 13s 7d(ai3a lid 14e@14s 3d 

1875 98l0d@108 4d 10s 4dfaJ108 9d 

187G 10s4d(g)10s 9d 103 10d@Hs 2d 

The cable reports for January 3d of the comments 
of the English Grain authorltiel have been received as 
follows : 

The Mark Lane Express, In its weekly review of the 
grain trade, says: 1875 has unfortunately proved a 
year of general deficiency and inferiority. Barley has 
shown the best yield of the season, boiuK only slightly 
below the average; but its color has been so generally 
aflected tliat its value for malting purposes is greatly 
reduced, perhaps eight to ten shillings per quarter. 
Sales have been unusually dull. Oats and 
Beans are below the average, but the better 
prices paid for the latter compensate for 
the defect. The Wheat crop has sufi'ered most, only 
one-eighth reaching the average, while five-sixths sink 
below it. Whatever dulness now prevails and may foi 
a period continue, our large deficiency will become 
more evident as the season advances. Should we havt* 
a bad spring, an importnnt advance must eneue." 

The London Cora Trade Association of Liverpool 
publish a statement of their estimated stock of bread- 
stuffs there on the 3l8t of December, 1875, as compared 
with the same last year. The tables show the follow- 
ing: December 31st, 1876, wheat, qrs, 793,613; corn, 
qrs, .32,684; flour, sks, 19^,652; flour, bbls, 52,068. De- 
cember 3l8t, 1874, wheat, qrs, 144,311; corn, qrs, 50,- 
901; flour, sks, 158,070; flour, bbls. 59,140. 

The Mark Lane Express, as noted in our quotation, 
anticipates a possible advance in the value of Wheat. 
On this point we would refer also to a showing of Eng- 
lish opinion which will be found in our editorial col- 
umns this week. 

In General Produce there has been a quiet tone 
throughout the week. 

The following table shows the bay receipts of Do- 
mestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as 
compared with the receipts of the week before : 
Receipts of Domestic Produce. 



Barley— Barley is quiet at former prices. Among 
other sales were 100 tons at $1.27^, and 150 tons or 
dinary Chevalier at $1.35 per ctl. 

Beans— Beans are arriving in good amount with 
slight changes in values, which are noted in our 
tables. 

Com— Corn is a little in buyers' favor. We not^ a 
sale of 306 sks new Yellow at $1.05 per ctl. Our ex- 
treme quotation for choice Yellow is $1.15. 

Dairy Produce— Dairy Produce is unchanged at 
last week's quotations. The supply of fresh Butter 
is abundant, and very little else is beirg sold. Eggs 
are a^ain scarce and quotable at 62 iic per dozen. The 
supply has doubtless been restricted by the condition 
of the roads by reason of the heavy storms, and a full 
supply is expected as soon as this difficulty is over- 
come. 

Feed— Feed prices are unchanged. The supply is 
ample for all demands. 

Flour— During the week there has been a large 
shipment to China and Japan per steamer City of 
Peking, amounting over 10,000 bbls. Quotations are 
stationary. 

Fresh Meats— Beef is firm. Good Mutton is 
scarce. Hogs are firm and in light supply. 

Fruits — The Fruit market is quiet. There are sev- 
eral slight changes in particular Fruits, which are 
noted ill our quotations. 

Hops— Hops are a little off from last week. There 
is little sale at anything above 1,5c. Concerning the 
New York market for the week ending December 24th, 
Emmett Wells says: • 

"The market has heldits own very well this week, 
considering the largely increased receipts, and the com. 
parativoly small shipments abroad. There Is a grow- 
ing scarcity of fine Hops, and no large orders could be 
executed on the market for London account at this 
lime without calling into requisition a goodly propor- 
tiou of stocks known as 'seconds' in quality; in other 
words, we think a shipper would find it difficult to ex- 
ecute an order for 500 bales ,just suited to his wants. 
The fact is, the Hops are not here, and it would prob- 
ably reqiiire a good deal of riding around to find them 
in the country, as we know that most of the important 
districts have already been well scoured and nearly all 
the best growths taken lor export and already shipped. 
With this view of the situation, what few choice Hops 
there are remaining in the country unsold, should 
command more money; but whether they will or not 
we are not elected to say. Californians are quoted at 
17@20c." 

Onions— Onions are imchanged. 

Poultry and Qame— The trade is without notable 
features. Chickens are in rather better request, and 
Mallard Ducks are Blow in gale. Turkeys maintain 
values. 

Potatoes — Potatoes are steady at last week's 
prices. 

Seeds— The trade is ruling at former prices. 

Smoked Meats — Smoked Meats are unchanged. 
Supplies of Eastern Hams are expected next week. The 
Provision market generally is quiet with unch.anged 
prices and moderate demand. 

Tallow— Tallow is in moderate demand . 

Vesretables — The market is nearly bare of small 
Vegetables. Cabbages are received in good amotmt and 
excellent quality. 

Wheat— Wheat is freely offered, but buyers are 
few. We note a sale of 100 tons good Shipping Wheat 
at $1.90 per ctl. The Produce Exchange is now engaged 
ill making up an estimate of supplies on hand in this 
State, which we will publish as soon as received. 

Wool— Wool is quiet. The trade is very small at 
quotations. Ocmcerning the general course of prices 
the i'nited Stales Ecnnomisl has compiled the following 
table: 

Fine. 
Year. Fleece. 

1H26 6Go 

18.56 55 

1801 44 

1866... 47 

1874 50 

1876 ~ 47 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

IWHOLESALE.l 

Wbdvbsdat m.. January 5, 1876. 



75 

1 9(1 

2 00 
1 87 

3 
5 

8 18 

jcr. 



u 



- o 



3 
3' 

30 

17 
20 

62)i 
.66 

;io 

.■JO 



,^22 ,60 
&M 00 
1919 OH 

a 

@37 .60 



BKA.NS. 

Bayo, *ctl — @5 

Butter 1 26a) 

Pea — @ 

Pink 1 90f(* 

Sm'l wti 1 70(a> 

BKOOH CUKK. 
Common, lit D) . . 2 (2^ 
Choice, do ... 4 @ 
COTTON. 

Cotton, '^Ib l.i 

D-^I&T rKOD 
ETC. 

BUTTEB. 

Cal. Fresh Roll 

per ft 30 @ 

Point Keyes — (& 

FirKin 30 im 

W'st'n Reserve. 17 @ 

New York 2,^® 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Oal 16 

Eastern 16 

EGGS. 

Cal. freah i* doz — 

Ducks' — 

Eastern 16 

Oregon.... 

FEED. 

Bran, per tou 

Corn Maal 29 00 

Hay 15 1)0 

Middlings 30 00 

Oil cake meal . . . 

Straw, * bale...— fi6 

FI.UCTBr. 
Extra "i?. bbl....5 76 m> 26 

Superfine 4 76 ©6 UO 

FKBSU MKAID 
Beef lat quality ftp. 8 10 9 

Second do ... . H ® 8 

Thirddo 6 (g 8 

Lamb 

Mutton 

Pork, undressed 

do^dreased.... 

Veal 

Milk Calves 9 

eRA.lI«. ETC. 
Bariey.feed ctl 1 20 @ 1 26 

do brewing. 1 ao (0 1 3h 

Chevalier (<4 I M 

Oorn, White... 1 06 tat 1 10 
do Yellow.... 1 05 @ 1 16 

Oats — © 2 00 

Rye I .60 ral 1 .65 

Wheat shippingl HO <a) 

do milling.. 1 96 CS 

UIDEN. 

Ilidcs.dry 16 r^ K'i 

do wet salted 7 ^a) 7>5 

HOIVEY, KTC, 

Beeswai.perlb.. 26 (di V}i 

Honey in comb.. 18 icj) 22 

do Strained.... 6 (en 
HOP*. 

New crop iV4'(i 

NUTS-.Iobblnii. 
Alm'da li'rd sh'l ff> 8 i^i) 

do, soft sh'l... iO 

Brazil do 14 

Cal. Walnuts.... 7 
Chile Walnuts.. II 
Peanuts per lb 

Filberts 15 

Pecanuis 17 



5 a 

5 (a> 



12.'^ 
15 




OPTIONS. 

Union City ctl. — & I 12^.^ 

Stockton .'iO ra) I 00 

rOTATOEIs. 

Potaluma 1 20 (a> 1 40 

Salt Lake 1 66 (g 1 70 

Sac River I OU (w 1 25 

Humboldt I 25 (S) I 60 

Early Rose — 'Oi 2 26 

Sweet (0)3 00 

POllr,TKlf * OJLMK 
Hens, oerdz... 6 .60 '<j)7 61) 

Reosters 6 .50 (SiT .60 

Broilers 4 .60 'a)fi ,60 

Ducks, tame.dz.8 00 (iJO 00 

do Mallard 2 .60 (m'i .50 

do Canvass 3 61) @4 50 

Geese, per pair. 2 60 {mi 00 
do Wild Gray. 3 00 @4 00 

do White I 50 @2 00 

Turkeys, Live, lb 17 (a 18 
do Dre.ssed.... 20 (g 22 
Quail, pei doz — I .'0 ^{ 76 
Snipe, Eng., doz.l 60 @2 00 
Doves, per dozen ."H) fd) 76 

Rabbits 1 00 m\ 26 

Hare, per doz. ..2 00 'oi3 00 
Vemaon, perlb.. 7 @ 9 

pJsOVISIONi«. 

Cal.Bacun.L'ght 16 @ 1,5'^ 

doMedinm... 14 (m I4^^4 

do Heavy 14 @ — 

Lard 14 (a) 17 

Oal.SmokedBeef 9 (a) 10 

Kastern do.... — ^ fa 
ISast'rn Should'a — M 10 

Hams, Oal 13 @ U'^ 

do Whittakers 20 @ 2S 
do Armour — 20 ta 21 
do Boyd's.... 20 @ 22 
do Woister's. - (i) 21 

Alfalfa, Chile i). 'sH'^ H-'^ 

do Oaliioriiia. 11 i$ 14 

(Mnary — (9 20 

mover Bed — & 26 

do White 50 @ 56 

Cotton B @ 10 

Flaxseed — @ i'/, 

Hemp 12>4@ — 

ItalianRyeGrass 25 @ 30 

Perennia do .... 20 

Millet 10 

Mustard, white. 3 

do. Brown 3 

Rape 9 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 33 

do 2d quality.. 29 
do 3d Quality. 
Sweet V Grass. 
Orchard do.. . 

Rod Top do... 26 @ 

Hungiirian do 8 fc^ 

Lawn do 59 @ 

Mesquit do... 16 @ 

Timothy li & 

TAl.I.OW^. 

Crude 6^® 

Refined 9 fg) 

■WOOL, ETC. 
FALL— 

Seedy II @ 

Choice free 12 (S 

Burry 9 (di 

Oregon — (^ 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



WHOLESALE. 1 

Wfdnesday m., January 5, 1876. 



Eng. Stand Wht.. 

Neville & Go's... 

Hand Sewed.... 






2x3fi mmo 

24x36 11 @UH 

24X40 12 (Sl2'^ 

Machine do 24x40. 12 @I2'4 

•' 23x40. llVilSllS 

" 22x40. II ®\V4 

" 2'2x36. 9H m» 

Flour Sacks !4». . . HJ^Ull 

' Ha " "" 



'As 



& 



76 @l 00 



(a) - 



4'i 
6 '4 
10 



S. F. 



RETAIL MARKET RATES. 

Wednesday, m., January 5, 1876. 



Medium 
Fleece. 

43c 

45 

40 

40 

46 

46 



Coarse 
Fleece. 

34c 

39 

38 

37 
44 

45. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



tWnOLESALE.J 



Wednesday m., Jauuary 5, 1876. 



FKCIT MAKKET, 

Oraub'cs Mex. ^ 

M, 16 00®35 00 

Tahiti, do O 

Cal. do I6(i0@40 00 

Liimes, Mc.>;ican, 

^ M 10 00® 

Malaga Lemons, 

Mbx umtmi 00 

Oal. f. 100 2 Olku. i 00 

do Sicily *b'x.l2 00i2)14 00 
Bananas, T» bncb 2 .609 4 00 
Oocoanut8,*100. 7 00 @ 9 00 
Pineapples, %*dz.7 00 m W 
Apples, if» box. . .1 t'O (31 25 

do Choice 2 OO 1<S - 

Blackberries..., — ® ~ 

auckicberrie.s. .. - ^ — 
St.rawber'slRch.. — (&20 00 

Poingranates ~ ^ ~" 

Raspberries ~ & ~ 

Currants. T{* oh.. — m — 
Quinces iti bx. .. — @ — 
Cranberries 1t*bbl-13 0(@I4 00 
Peacnes, %* bx.. — ® — 

Pears, Wbx 76 m 00 

do Choice.... 2 00 m 00 

Crab iipiilos, W hx — la} — 

UKIEU FJSVIT. 

Apples. » * 7!2* 9 

fears, «i lb 8 ©13 

Peaches, f, lb 12 &li 

Aoricots, *l B) II (<al6 

Plums, »m 7^8 



Pitted, ao « » 18 @20 

Raisins, imported. 3 26 (wi 75 

Oal. Raisins 8 (g) I2>4 

Black Kigs, * a.... 6 (§10 

White, do H @I0 

Prunes Vi'igtU 

Citron 28 iffl 30 

Zante Currants. 9 ® 10 
VEOETAJS JL.EI9. 

Asparagus — @— 

Beets (S— 

Cabbage, » lOO lbs.. -60 'ah2'4 
Carrots, per ton. ...8 00@10 00 

Cauliflower, doz .6oia)i6 

.Celery, doz 50 (^75 

Oarlic.'^ 8) — ® f. 

Green Peaa — @10 

Green Corn B doz..— (5»— 
Sum'rSquash ~^ box. — i(j— 
Marro'lat Sq'sh.tn 6 00:aJ8 00 
Artichokes.'l* doz.. — ®— 
String Beans, 1fl lb, — @ — 

Lima Beana — ^ — 

Parsnips — @— 

Shell Beans 2 @ 3 

Peppers, green, bx. 76 @1 00 

Okra 4 @ 6 

Oaoumbers, 13 box I 2,6'9I 76 
Tomalocs, box.... I 00® 1 50 



Egg Plant, bx. 

Rhubarb 

Lettuce 

Turnips, pr ton. 
Mushrooms, lb. 



-@ - 

(eg- 
-®- 
-@- 
® 10 



POCI^TIlTf, ©AME. 

Chickens 60 (0)1 00 

Hens 76 (5 88 

Eggs, Hens .. 56 M (iO 

do Ducks' — M 60 

do Farallones, — (g — 
Turkeys, 1» lb.. 16 (S 26 

Ducks, eacli 1 00 @1 '26 

Geese.wild, pair. — (a — 

Tame, P pair. .3 00 (^4 00 
Snipe, ^ doz — — & — 

do English.. — 3} 3 00 
Quail, per dozen — (?2 00 
Pralne Ch'k 8,pr — (a — 
Hares, each - - - 26 m 36 
Rabbits, each... 16 ® — 
Sqnirrelsldo - & 16 

buel, tend, f. tt>. 16 @ IS 

Corned, W lb.. 8 (S 10 

Smoked,* B).. — @ 16 

PurterHouseSt'k — @ 20 

Sirloin do 12 'S 16 

Round do 8 & 10 

Pork, rib, etc., lb 12 @ 12 

Chops, do,* lb 16 ® — 

Veal, % lb 10 @ 16 

Outlet, do 15 @ 26 

Mutton-chops, lb 10 (<S 12 

LegMutton, f( lb 8 (3 10 

Lamh, ^ B) — a — 

Venison 12 (a) 20 

do dry 20 foJ 26 

Antelope 16 f") 20 

Tongues, heel, .. 60 '4 76 

do, do, smoked 75 Wl 00 

Tongues, pig, lb 12!^® — 

PKUITS. 

Apples, pr lb 5 M) 

Pears, perlb 5 m 

Apricots, lb — @ 

Peacbes, D) — ® 

Plums — W 

PmeApples.each ,60 Ml 

Lady Apples — (9 

Grapes — @ 

Bananas, * doz.. 76 Ml 

Muskmelons — S) 

Watermelons... — ® 

Blackberries' — &■ 

Oal. Walnuts, lb. — & 

Cranber'es, Org., — (^ 

do Eastern qt. — @ 

Huckleberries.. — (2) 

Strawbernos, B) — @ 

Raspberries. B>.. — ® 

Gooseberries. .. — (^ 

Currants — '& 

Cherries, 18 li... — ® 

Nectarines — ® 

Pomegranates... 6 ffl 

Orangeb,|» doz.. 60 @1 

Lemons 76 ^ 

Limes, per doz .. 20 @ 

Figs.dned Cal. . i'i'i® 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 26 (^ 

Asparagus, 3).. .60 @ 

Artichokes, doz. 76 31 

do Jerusalem. . — (& 

Beets, * doz 20 M 

Potatoes, * B> . . . i m 

Potatoos.sweet. . 3 w 



- ® 
12)4*8 

— & 



Bacon, Oal., 1* B) 16 
Hams. Oal. JS ft. 16 
FISH. IKEATS, 

Flounder, 18 tt>....16 
Salmon. # B>....26 (.S 

Smoked — '.g) 

Rock Cod, ^B).. 15 m 

Cod Fish, B) 12 

Perch. B) 15 ® 

Lake Big. Trout. 

Smelts.* ftp 

Herring, Sm'kd. 

do fresh 

Tomeod, * B) 

Terrapin, * doz. 
Mackerel, p'k,ea 

Fresh, do B> .. . — 
Sea Bass, * B)... - 

Halibut — 

Sturgeon. * B).. 6 
Oysters, * 100.. 76 

Ohesp. Wi doz.. 60 

Olams * 100 — 

Mussels do - 

Turbot 65 

Crabs * doz....l UO 

do Soft Shell. 40 

Shrimps 8 

Sardines — 

Anchovies — 

.Soles — 

YoungTrout.bay — 

skate, each 

Whitebait,* B).. 
Orawash * B)... 
Green Turtle,... 



VEOETABI-ES. 



® 20 
& 20 
ETC 

® 36 
36 

8 



® 15 

® - 

® 30 

'S) 12'^ 

® - 
® 



9 20 



® 75 

a « 

a - 

® 76 

(§ 60 

(0) 26 

® 76 

®1 26 

® .60 

@ 10 

® 16 



16 



Hessian 60-in lVA'$ii'/i 

do 4.6-iu S'/i® 9 

do 40-in .... 7)^(3 8 
Wool Sacks,3;.^Ib3. 46 (a50 

do 4". 50 @.62)ti 

Stand. tJunnies. .. — @1H 
single seam do.. — w — 

Bean Bags 1'4@^ 

Barley Bags 24x3S. ll«@12 

do 23x40. 11'.^@I2 

do 24x40. 12 @12'^ 

Oat Bags, 24x40.... 12 @12H 

do 28x36.. . — (S)13S 

Detrick'3"E. W.".. »}4 'tell 

do "E — (ai^'i 

CANNED OOOUS. 
Asst'dPie Fruits 
in 2>i fi) cans. 2 76 @ 3 (.0 
do Table do.. .3 "5 ® 4 26 
Jams A Jellies 4 26 @ — 
Pickles H gl.- - @ 3 60 
Sardines. qr boxl 66 i^ 1 90 

do hf boie3.3 0(1 @ 

COAL— JobUlnu. 
AuBtrAlian,*ton — '^ 9 0» 

Ooos Bay 8 00 f^lO 00 

Bellingham Bay. @ 8 60 

Seattle 9 26 ©10 .60 

Oumbarl'd — 16 &— 18 

Mt. Diablo 6 26 @8 26 

Lehigh @22 OO 

Liverpool 10 00 ®ll 00 

West Hartley... §14 00 

Scotch 9 00 Sll .61. 

Scranton 13 00 (316 UO 

Vancouver's Isl.lO 61) ai3 00 
Charcoal, *8k... 75 g) - 

Coke,*bbl - @ 60 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — ^ 21'^ 
Costa Rica per tt) 22'-^'g — 

QuatemaUi — ® iVi 

Java — ® 30 

Manilla — (d 21,!^ 

Ground in OS.... 26 g) 

Olilcorv 27 

FIlSU. 
Sao. Dry Cod, new 4 

oases 6 

do boneless.... 8 

Eastern Ood l:-il9 » 

Salmon in bbls.. 8 .60 '09 OU 
do )i bbl84 .60 m 00 

do 21b cans.. 2 26 ra)2 30 
do Ifti cans .1 25 SSI 30 
do Ool. R. >4b.6 00 (gib so 
Pick. Cod, bbls.22 00 M — 
do >i bblsll 00 @ — 
Maok'l,No.l,*ibl89 00 @11 00 
Extra. ... - @12 00 
in kits....l 90 @2 00 
El mess. .3 00 @3 .60 
Ex mes8.)4bs-.ai2 00 
Pio'd Herr'g, bx.. 3 DC ® 3 .60 
Boa . Sm'k'dHer'e40 @ 60 
HAKDWAKK.. 
Amoskeug handled Axes 
$lti(ai7 ; do unhttndlcd do $13 
(^14— less .60c in 6 case lots. 

Amoskeag Hatchets, Shin- 
gling, No 1,$7.26; No. 2, $8, 
No. 3, *8.2.6. Do do. Claw, 
No. I. S7.75; No. 2, 8..60; No. 3, 
$9.26— less 10 per cent. 

Locks, Yale Look Mt'g Co., 
discount 33'3 per cent, from 
list. 

Planes, Ohio Tool Co., dis- 
count .iO per cent, from list. 
Am. I'ack Go's Cut Tacks 
66'5 per cent, discount and 6 
per cent, extra. Finishing 
and Clout Nails net list: 
3d fine Nails $7.ijO per keg, 
Ohio tJutt Oo's Loose Joint 
Butts .60 per cent, do Fast, 
36 per cent off list. 
Machine Bolts, 20(ffi35 off. 
Square Nuts, 2(t^3c off list. 
HexaKon Nut.s 2fi?3c off list 
Wrought Iron Washers, 
2(5)30 oil list. 

Lag Screws, 15 per cent off 
list. 
MI8CEr,I.ANK01T8. 

Pulu — I Si 9 

WAILS. 
Assorted size. lb. 3 75 04 00 

UlLS. 
Paciflo Glue Co 
Neat F't No. 1.1 00 (3 90 

Pure "" ?^, — 

Castor Oil, No. 1.. — @1 '25 

Baker's A A — @1 40 

Oocoauat 56 ® 60 



OHve Plagniol..6 .60 ®6 75 
do Possel 4 75 @5 UO 

Palm B) 9 m — 

Linseed, raw 80 fa) — 

do boiled — ® 76 

China nut in os.. 70 a) 75 

Sperm, crude..,. — ftSl 40 
do bleached. .1 90 (2)2 25 

Ooaat Whales... 47H@ .60 

Polar, rettned.... 

Lard 

Oleophine 

Devoe's Bril't... 

Long Island 

^^iareka 

Oevoe'a Petro'm 

Barrel kcro-scne 

Olive 

Downer Keroae'e 

Gas Light Oil.... 

PAINTS. 

Pure White Lead 9ii (3)10J4 




Whiting . 

Putty 4 

Chalk — 

Paris White 2\i 

Ochre 3 

Venetian Red... 3'-^^ 

Red Lead 10 1 

Litharge 10 ® II 

Eng. Vermillion — @l 25 
Averill tJhemical 
Paint, per gal. 
White 4 tints.2 00 m 40 
Green. Blue & 

Oh Yellow.. 3 00 (3t3 ,60 

Light Red.... 3 OO @,H .".0 

Metallic Roof.l 3U @l 60 

KICE. 

China No. 1 6 00 (86 26 

Japan ® — 

Siam Cleaned.,. — @ — 

Patna — ® 

Hawaiian. * lb. . — (^8 
Carolina. * ft)... 10 ® 

SALT. 

Oal. Bay.per ton 10 00(314 00 

do Common.. 8 00® 7 OO 

Carmen Island.. 12 m®\b 00 

Liverpool fine.. .22 .60a)26 00 

SOAP. 

Oastile * B) 10 @ U'a 

Common brands.. i}>i® ti 
Fancy do .. 7 @ 10 

SPICF.8. 

Cloves 46 (g 47!j 

Oassia 23'ia 26>i 

Citron 2H & 30 

Nutmeg 96 C? 97!- 

Wbole Pepper... US^a I'i., 

Pimento — 3a 16ii 

Gr'nd Allspprdz — Sill 12': 

do Cassia do . . — (^1 .60 

do Gloves do.. — Ml .60 

do Mustard do — ®1 20 

do Ginger do.. — @1 00 

do Pepper do.. — ®1 00 

do Mace do.. . — (0)2 00 

SUeAK, ETC. 

Cal. Cube per fti.. 12 (3 — 

Partz' Pro. Cube — ® 12 

Circle A crusned — @ 11* 

Powdered — @ lU 

Fine crushed... — ® 12 

Granulated — ® II' 

Holden O — 'O) 10' 

.'lawaiian 9 (3) lO 

Oal. Syrup in kgs — (a) 70 
Hawaiian Molas- 




TEA. 

Oolong,Cantoo,B> 19 ® 26 

do Amoy... 28 ® ,60 

do Formosa 

Imperial, Can ton 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune.. 

Gunpo'der.Oant. 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune. 

Y'ng Hy, Canton 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune.. 

Japan, H chests, 

bulk 30 I® 76 

Japan, lacquered 

bx3,4^and6fti3 46 @ 67 
.Japan do,3 lb bis 46 @ 90 
do pl'nbx.4'4ft) 36 @ 66 
do ^&l lb paper 30 ® 66 
TOBACCO— Johblnn. 

Bright Navys 

Dark do .... 
Paces Tin Foil.. 

Gregory 

Dw . t rwisL 

Light Pressed... 
Hard do 
Conn. Wrap'r.... 
Penn. Wrapper.. 
Ohio do 
Virgi'aSmok'g.. . 
Fine ct che'g,gr..B .60 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.* ft).. 75 
Banner fiae cut.. — 

Oal .Smoking 37 (mil 

TUKPENTINE. 
Eastern 5I;4'S)55 




10 ® 

- ® 
10 ® 

- m 



Abticles. 


Wkek Endino 
January 5. 


Week Endino 
Decb;mi)er '29. 


Flour, quarter sacks. 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, ("acks 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 


41,210 

83,636 

5,478 

349 

2,456 

791 

162 

5,920 


22,537 

201,128 

15,472 

623 

6,172 

1,476 

251 




39 


Hay, bales 


666 



Bairs— There is little doing in Bags, and quotations 
•le uDcbanged. 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 

Wednesday m., January 6, 1876. 



Butter,Oal.ch'ioo 36 

Cheese^ ft) 18 

Lard. Oal., lb.... — 
Flour.ex.fam, bl6 26 

Corn Meal, lb 2'A\ 

Sugar, wn.crsb'd 12>2'^ 

do U.browD.Ib 8 
Coffee, green, B).. 23 
Tea, flneblK,50,65,76 
'rea,fin8tJap,.66,75,90 
Candles, Admant'e 16 
Soap, Oal., b.... 7 

Rioe, b 8 

r«aat Pnwderdz.l SO 
Bowen Bro. large 



can per doz — 6 00 ® 

Small, do 2 50 @ - 

Oan'dOysier8,dz.2 00 (fflS ,60 
SvruD.S F.Gol'n. 65 ;a) Ti 

Dried Apples 

Dr'd Gor.Prunes 
Dr'd Figs, Oal... 
Dr'd Peaches.... 

do Peeled 

Oils. Kerosene .. 
Wines. Old Port.3 .60 

do Fr. Claret..! 00 

do Cal.,dz.bot.» 00 
WhiBk7,O.B,cal.3 5a 
Pr. Brandy 4 00 




Broccoli, each.. 
Oauliffower, . . . 
Green Peas* B). 
(Jabbage, per lid. 
Oyster Plant. bn 
Carrots, * doz. . . — 

Oelery,*dz 75 

Cress, * doz bun 20 

Onions 3 

Turnips, * doz 

bunches — 6 

Brussels Sprouts 6 u 

Eschalots — 6 

Dried Herbs, doz 30 (c 

Garlic* B) 12!4'c 

Green Corn, doz. 
Lettuce,* doz.. 
Mint, * bunch. 
Mushrooms.* lb 
Horse radish,*n) 16 
Okra, dried, * lb — 
Pumpkins. * u>. 5 
Parsnips, doz . . — 

Parsley 12 

Piokles,frsh.*a) 
Radishes, doz.. 

Sage 

Marrowfat, do 

Hubbard, do 

Mangoes,* doz. 

Spiuage. * bskt. 

Rhubarb 

Green Ohilies... 



12;^ 
12'4 
!6 



@l 00 
@ 26 



25 



— a n!< 

" 26" 
25 

6 
26 



20 



10 



12.'^ 

12 

25 



LUMBER. 



CAReo PKicEs or 

KEDIVOOD. 

Rough,* M tlfiJIl 

Rougn refuse,* M 14 

Rough clear. *M...... 30 ]|» 

32 .VI 
24 00 
30 00 
20 00 
28 00 
■in 00 
30 Oil 
26 00 
22 .60 



Rough clear refuse, M. 

Rostic, * M 

Rustic, reluae, * M.... 

Surfaced,* M 

Surfaced refuse,* M.. 

Flooring, * M 

Flooring, reiuse, * M. 
Beaded flouring, * M.. 
Beaded floor, refuse, M 
Half-inch Siding. M....- -- 
Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 
Half-inch, Surlaocd.M- '26 00 
Half-inch Surf, ret., .M . 18 00 
Half .Hch Battens, M 
Pickets, rough, * M. 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd. 
Piekete, fanCT, p'ntd,, 
ShlnglM.VM. 



PUQET SOUND PINE 

—Ret all Price. 

Rough,* M 22 .60 

Fencing, * M 22 .60 

flooring and Step, * M 32 .60 
Flooring, narrow, * M.. 35 00 
Flooring. 2d quality, M. .26 00 

Laths, *M 3 60 

furring, * lineal ft.... ■« 

REMWOOU-Retttll. 

Rough,* M '22 60 

Rough refuse, * M IS 00 

Hough Pickets. * M.... IS 00 
Hough Pickeu, p'd. M.. 20 UO 

Kancy Pickets, * M 3011 

Siding, *M 26 00 

Surfaced and Long 

Beaded »7 50 

F\o'-..ag 36 00 

Uudo refuse, |» M 25 00 

._ .. Half Inch surfaoed.M.. 32 .60 

16 OIl'Bustio, No. 1,* M 40 00 

26 00! Battens, Wllneal foot... H 
J00|8hln«lwW M 3 2 



22 .V) 
13 Of 



LEATHER. 

I wholesale. 1 

Wednesday m., January 5, 1876. 

Olty Tanned Leather,* B) 22(«29 

Santa Cruz Leather, * Bi a2fg28 

Country Leather, * ft) "®^9 

Stockton Leather, * ft. • • •■ -r^y-^^^H 

Jodot, 8 Kil., per doz ''JS S '?J m 

Jodot,lltoi3Kil.,perdoz '^..''nr'^a? no 

Jodot 14 to 19 Kil., PO^^oz .,..^.. -IfSfi m 

Jodot, second ohoioe, 11 to 16 KiL* doz 6i "«g^ 74 00 

Oornellian,l2 tolOKo 2? S S ?n 

Uornellian Females. 12 to 13..;... 5? 3 51 ^ 

Coruellian Females. 14 to- 16 Kil 71 g 76 .5^ 

Simon Ullmo Females, 12 to 3, Kl S ,S *, n« 

Simon Ullmo Females, 14 to 1,6 Kil 66 Wffl ,0 M 

Simon Ullmo Females, 16 to 17, Kil Jf OOJ 7 OO 

Simon, 18 Kil.,* doz G' W® 6^ ^, 

Simon, 20 Kil. f doz ?5 ?m^ ?i ne 

Simon. 24 Kil. * doz « S L^, I", 

Robert OaU, 7 and 9 Kil '? ffS ^ « 

trench Kips, * ft> ''g® ' " 

California Kip,* doz ***„'^XS. f. '" 



Krcnch Sheep, all colors, * doz 

KttBtern Calf tor Backs,* ft>..... •• 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colore, * doz. 

Sheep Roausfor Linings,* doz 

Ualifornia Rusaett Sheep Linings. 



8 W® 16 00 
1 0Urc> 1 2S 

9 W® 13 00 
6 .60® 10 6U 
1 7.6ia 4 .'50 
6 W9 5 25 
4 Om 4 75 
4 00® - 

24,q) S2!-4 



Best Jodot Oal f Boot Logs, * pair. 

Good French Oalf Boot Legs, * pair 

French Oal f Boot Legs, * pair 

Harness Leather,* B). 

Fair Bridle Leather,* doz 48 ^HSi i:Z 

Skirting Leather,* It. M® 37H 

Welt Leather, * doz 30 00® 60 00 

Bntf Leather, * foot.. 17M H 

Wax Side Leather, » foot 



m 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Ouaklks Sutro A. Co.) 

San Fbanoisoo, January 6, 3 p. m. 
Leoal Tenders i n S. K., 11 a. m., 8H)i to 8D>4. 
Gold in N. Y. 112M. , , . 

Goi-u Bars, 880(<i',99O. Silvrr Bars, Di and 8 per cent. 
discount. .„ . . . ,j 

Excii vNGE on N.Y., 60-100 per cent.premium for gold ; on 
London hankers. 49; Commercial, 49M; Paris, five Irancs 
per dollar; Mexican dollars, three to Ave per cent, dis- 

""london - Consols. 93 to 93H ; Bonds, lOW 
QoioasiLVEB in S. F.. by the flask, per ft., 72'2C®76o. 



More than double the number of Farmers and 
their families read the PACIFIC RURAL 
PRESS than any other journal on this 
Coast, 



30 



Jgr (^^^ Ay Ji ji; iai^ 



[January 8, 1876 



Nurserymen. 



[Established 1853.] 

SEEDLING STOCKS and PLANTS 

FOR PnJItSERYlMCEN. 

Apple SeeiUlngs, fine $10.00 per 1000 

Puar Seedlings, flna $16.00 per 1000 

Plum Seedlings, Mirubolan, Dest French 

stock dons not Sucker $40.00 per lOOO 

Cherry Mazzard Seedlings $12.i'0 per looo 

Cherry Miibalcb Seedlings $15.00 per lOCO 

Blue Gums in Variety $5.U0 to $10.00 per 100 

Magnolia Grandlflora~all siies— large stock. 

Golden ArborTtta" 1 

Hi'utli. leaved ArborvitiP.... 

CrataMUH Arboria | 

LanristlnuB ^ Fine Plants— Large Stock. 

Sweedisb and Irish Juniper 

Medeterranian Heath | 

Loquat or Japan Plum j 

OrangcB and Lemons, large stock, best European, 
Australian, and Chinese varieties, all grafted, from 
$l'2.oo to $1H.I10 per dozen. Larg'e Palms, Large 
Tree Ferns. Larfs'e Auriearias, at special prices, 
with the iiRual largo stock of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees. BERNARD S- FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 

THOS. MEHEKIN, Agent, 516 Battery St., 8. F. 

1865. 1875. 

Haniiay Bros.' j^urseries. 



We the unilcrsiKnoil have been encaged In the Nnrscry 
business lor the last ten yearH in San Jose, and our chief 
aim has In-en to Krnw and produce only the very best vari- 
eties ot Fruit Trees, and thoae ol a healthy gravrth, and 
such trees as will give satisfaction to our pairoiis. in 
order th.it purchasers may know our varieties, and also 
our prices at wholesale or small lota, wc give the tol- 
lowing: 
ONE VR OLD. Pr 100. Pr 1000. TWO YES OLD. I'r 100. Pr 1000 



Apple trees $12 



Pear 

Prune '* 
Plum 
Cherry 

Peach " 
Nectarine ** 

(juince "' 

Almond " 

Currant *' 



$100 
ISO 

180 
180 
ISO 



Apple trees $20 



Pe 

Prune 

Plum 

Cherry 

Apnoot 

Kig • »> 

Fertille de Palican 6 



. 30 

. 28 

. 3(1 

. 2S 



$1.W 

2.y» 

2.10 
260 
2uO 



Wo also offer a large assorimcnt of the leading kiads of 
Ornamental and Kvergreen Trees. Purchasers wliu wish 
chi ice grown trees are invited to visit our Nurseries and 
examine uur stock, as we know their character and heal- 
thy growth will nieace them, i'ersons unknown lo us, 
that order tree."*, should send the cash or good reference, 
in order to secure their tree;*. 

Our Nursery is situated apon Julian street, one mile 
east of the ('ourt House. 

HANNAT BROS. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

The altention of Nurserymen and Planters is invited 
to my large stock of 

FRUIT TREEH 

Of the very best varieties for Market, Shipping and 
Drying. Also 

GKAPEVISE8, CURRANfS, GOOSEBEP.RIES, BLAOK 

BERRIES AND RASPBERRIES. SHADE 

■ TREES, EVERGREENS, BLUE GUMS 

AND SHRUBS. GREEN HOUSE 

PLANTS, BEDDING 

PLANTS. ETC. 

Send for a Catalogue. 

JOHN ROCK. San Jose. 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 



(Established In 1868.) 



PETALDMA, OAL. 



Qreen Houses and Tree Depot corner Wash- 
ington and Liberty streets. 



4 Qreen Houses. 



3,000 feet of Glass. 
Specialty. 



Fruit Trees a 



We ofTer for sale at lowest market rates a general as 
sortmeiit of Fruit and .Shade trees, small Fruita, Vines 
eto. Evergreen trees anil Shrubs in great variety. Green 
House, Oiia..ervalory and Kedding Plants. Roses, etc. 

Euiralyptus in varietv. Eucalyptus tnobulus, per 1000 
for fore.sr, planting, at very low rates. Cataloijue and price 
lUt furnished on application. 



Address, 



19v8.tf 



\W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma. Benoma Co., Oa), 



60,000 FOREST TREES 

FOR SALE — CONHISTINO OF 

Australian Gum Trees. ( Eucalyptus ) 
Monterey Pines and Cypress, etc. 

The undersigned, having earnestly engaged in the 
above business, will strive to merit and receive a fair 
share of the trade. Prices for all klnos very low. rang- 
f rom $3 per hundred upward. A liberal discount made 
for large orders. For lurtner information address 
GEO. C. BAXTER, 
Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
November, 1.175. 



SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

k Located seven miles west of Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Depot, Cor. Munteclto and Castillo streets. 
JObtPH SEXTON, - . - Propria )r. 

ctTLxnATon or 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also 

Orange, Lemon, Lime and Palm Tress, 

Pot Plants, and Hardy Ever 

irreen Shrubbery. 



W. B. Stboho. Seedsman. 
Established 1857. 



1876. 



RoBT. WiixuHBON, NoTseryman, 
Established 1805. 



W. R. STRONG & CO. 



SEEDS. 



TREES. 



San Francisco Office, 418 & 420 Clay Street. Sacramento Office, 8 & 10 J Street. 
Nursery Grounds, Sacramento County. 

Our Stock i? full and fine. Seeds of our own (frowth or imported by ourselves from the 
most reliable producers in Europe or America. For freshness, purity and perfect development 
they cannot bo excelled. Oarden, Flower, Field and Tree Seeds. Ornamental, Kvergreen 
and Deciduous Shrubs and Plants. Flowerine Bulbs "f every description. Trees Fruit, Or- 
namental and Shade Trees; California, Australian, Eastern and European. We guaran- 
tee Satisfaction. Send us your orders. Catalogues furnished on application. 

House in Sacramento, - - - W. R. Strong & Co- 

House in San Francisco, - - Strong & Williamson- 

p. S. Alfalfa, Chile grown, 7 to lie; California, 11 to 15c, as per quantity and grade 
Quaranteed fresh and genuine. 



The Aughinbaugh ] nlhi 




This new blackberry U a California prodiiction, of 
large size, hrm, and excellent flavor. It ripens from 
May until August. The last of the crop of Iwrries sold 
readily at 4u cents per pound when the-'Early Wllsou" 
brought 20 cents at the same time. Plants are now 
really for transplanting and for sale at my residence on 
Central avenue, west of Webster street, Alameda, and 
Geo. F. Silvestek's, 317 WashinRton 8t., 8au Francisco. 
Prices: 

For one doz., by mail, postpaid $3 00 

Less than one doz., by mall, postpaid, each .... f>i) 

For luu, forwarding expenses i>aiu by purchaser 16 00 
For 1000, forwarding expenses paid by purchaser loO 00 

Send your address and receive circular containing 
particulars fbee. 

a. AuaHiNBAxraH. 



^ THOMAS MEHERIN, £ 

B. S- FOX'S NURSERIES, 
616 Battery Street, - - San Francisco. 

(Opposite Post-office.) 

I now ofler foe sale at Lowest Market Rates, a large- 
and choice assortment of FRUIT, SHADE and ORNA 
MENTAL TREES, POT PLANTS, BLUE GUMS, MON- 
TEREY CYPRESS, and ENULISH WALNUTS, per 100 
or 1000 at very low rates. Send for Pi ice- list. 



P. O. Box, 722. 



THOMAS MBHEBIN, 
616 Battery Street. 



RIYER BANK NURSERY, 

San Jose, Cal. 

Established - . . . 1865. 



FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES In great varisty. 
Choice and Rare Variety of EVERUUEtNd, SHRUBS, 
ROSES, BEDDINU PLANTS, PALMS, MAONOLIaS, 
FERNS, TUBEROSES, QLADIOLaS, Etc., with general 
collection of Oreeuhuuse Plauta, Hanging Baskets, 
Etc. 

Nursery and Greenhouses, corner Berryessa road and 
12th street, two blocks Irom terminus of North Side 
horsG,railroad. Address 

L. F. SANBKBSON, 

Nurseryman and Florist, San Jose. 



SUPERIOR FRUIT TREES, 

TllTJJQ TO NA-JVtJi:. 

A tine collection of Evergreen and Deciduous 
trees. Australian Gum trees in variety, by 
the htmdred or thousand. Uonterey Cypress in 
quantities and sizes to salt all. Orange and 
Lemon trees at reduced prices. A general variety 
of Nursery Stock. Also, Rhubarb and Asparagus roots. 

T. COKLEY, 
326 Washington street. S. F. 
Formerly at 316 Washington street. 



BLUE GUM TREES. 

400.000 For Sale. Price from $30 to $60 

per 1,000. Also 1,000 Cypress trees- 

BAILEY & CO., 

Depot, 118 East Twelfth street, Oakland, Alameda 
county, Cal. Lock Box 80. 



FOR SALE—BLUE GUM TREES. 

The undersigned has the pleasure of announcing to 
those contemplating planting largely this season, the 
nursery btock of the well known Gum I'rce Farm, at 
$16 per thousand, nursery price. The young stock Is 
extensive, ranging in bight from 8 inches to 1J4 feet, 
specially grown for Forest Culture. Address, ISAAC 
COLLINS, Haywood, AlamedaCo., Cal. Nursery situ- 
ated on Redwoixl road, 1 )4 miles from Haywood. 



LOS OATOS NURSERIES, 



S. Newhall. Prop'r, 



San Jose, Cal. 



A larKe and general assortment of 

FRUir AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Roses, 

OJreenliotise naiits, 

GRAPEVINES, SMALL FRUITS, Etc. 

I offer for sale a well assorted, well grown and 
healthy stock. Low-topped stalky fruit trees a spe- 
cialty. Address 

S- NEVTHALL, San Jose. 




This is a beautiful i^uarterly Journal, hnciy illustra- 
ted, and eontalnhip; an elagsnt colored frontispiece 
with the first number. Price only twenty-five cents 
for the year. The first number lor 1870 just issued. 
tt-^'Vick's Flower and Vegetable Uarden, :15 
cents- with cloth covers, C'l cents. Address 

JA3. VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 



CAMELLIAS. 

We offer a laruu stock of very Une plants at from 
$33 to $100 per 100. For catalonues ot those, as well 
■M of Azaleas, Rhododendrons and Evergreen 
Trees in t;icat variety, address 

R. B. PARSONS & CO., 
Box 09, Flushing, N. Y. 

Grapevine Cuttings. 



B. Malvasia, Zinfindcl, UuBcat Alexandria, Berger, 
Large White Malaga and many others. Price, three 
to five dollars per thousand. 

H. "Sr. CRABB, 

OakTille. Napa County, Cal. 



1,000000 BUie Gxinv Trees 

At $10 per 1000 in lots of 10,000, or $15 ner lOOO in 
smaller quantities. Address W. A. T. STRATTON, 
Pacific Forest Tree Nursery, Petaluma, Cal. 



Lands and Homes for Sale. 

Rich Farm Land For Sale. 

L. F. UOULTON, of Colusa. 

OFFERS FOR SALE VERY CHEAP, FOUR THOUSAND 

ACRES OF EXTRA WHEAT OR VEGETABLE 

LAND, ADJOINING WHICH HAS GROWN 

FORTY BUSHELS TO THE ACRE THIS 

YEAR, AND IS EASY TO IRRIGATE, 

YET HIGH LAND, AND ON THE 

LINE OF THE COLL'SA AND 

CHIOO RAILROAD. 

This Is the best and cheapest land in the State. 

Address the owner, at Colusa, for partic- 
lars. 



FRUIT RANCH FOR SALE. 

Ten miles Bontb-east o( Ran Bernardino. Eighteen 
acres of vineyard. Ten acres of alfalfa. Several thou, 
sand young fruit trees. Abundance of water. Beau- 
tiful location and only five miles from the railroad. 
Terms easy. For particulars, address 

Wm. CRAIG, San Bernardino, Cal. 



HUMBOLDT COUNTY LANDS 

And Building Lots In the city of Eureka. For sale 
by DOLLISON k DART, Eureka, Humlxjldt Co., Cal. 



200,000 Forest Trees 

For Sale. Consisting of ilONTEREY CYPRESS, PINES 
and BLUE GUMS; all sizes at low rates. Also, large 
AURlCURIES EXCELSA and a GENERAL NURSERY 
BTOCK of FRUIT TREES, Fruit Bushes, Vines, Street 
and Ornamental Evergreen Trees, Shrubbery and Green 
House Plants. Send for prices. Address 

WM, SEXTON, Nurseryman, Petaluma, Cal. 



EMPIRE PARLOR MATCHES 

I We have imported the reqmsite Machinery and Chemi- 
cals to add to our previouB assoriment of Matches the 
celebrated Parlor Match, deterveiilr popular among fami- 
. lies and smokers, od account of brilliant burning lualitirs, 
^and absence of amell or odor. Mauufnctiired from the 
best HUKar pfne, a vrood Superior to any other, and found 
only u|>on the Pacific Coust. They are full count, and 
without objection of any kind. Packed m b^xes of moat 
dt-'*!ir;ible style. Brimjuine and Safety Matches of superior 
quality manufacturvd, and are guaranteed to give entire 
satiHfaction. Encourage Home Industrj-, ami get superior 
Koods at le^B cost ihan the imported urttcle. 

Ask your lirocer for the KMPiRE PARLOR MATCHES, 
autl be sure you get no others. For Sale by all Gro- 
cers. 

B. BEKDEL & CO., 
MANUFACTURERS, 318 FRONT STREET. 
FAOrORV— Comer Eleventh and HarriHon Btreets, S. F 

t'«6-60W 



Seedsmen. 



R. 

Grower, 



J. TRUMBULL, 



Importer, Wholeeale 
Dealer in 



and Retail 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUIT AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 

Comprising the Most Oompleto Stock 

EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 
Prices TTnusually Low. 

KrTndc Price-Llst on application. 

*,*My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden" 
will soon be ready, and will be sent riiEE to au. Crs- 
TOMEKS. It will contain Instrmtions on the culture 
of Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Tree Seeds, Tobacco, 
Alfalfa, etc. 

B. J. TKUMBTTLL. 

419 and 421 Sansome street, S. F. 



SEEIDS 



If you want Seed that you can depend upon as to 
variety and fret-hnoss, why not send direct to the 
grower and make a saving of at least thirty per cent, 
on the prices of olher seedsmen? As we grow our needs 
we guarantee them fresh and true to name. Send for 
catalogue, free, post-paid, and compare with piices of 
other dealers. Just received, 

Grasses, Clover, Alfalfa and Field Seeds, 
Trees, Shrubs, Flowering Shrubs, 
and Oreenhouse Plants, Cab- 
bag-e. Onion and Cauli- 
flower Plants. 

Largo assortment of BULBS from Holland. Address 
all orders or letters of inquiry to 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 
607 Sansome St., San Francisco. 






■^ Will be 
lilcd free 
^ to all appU- 
'^cants. I'hisis 
2 of I he largest 
d mo^t complete 
Cataloipiea pub- 
lished I contains about 
S-V) pages, over 600 fine 
engravings, 2 elegant col- 
ed plates, and gives full de- 
scriptions, prices, and directions 
r pl.inting over 1200 varieties of 
Vegetable andFlowcr Seeds, Bedding 
Plants, Roses, &c.. and is invaluable to 
'^Farmer, Gardener and Florist. Address, 

D. ra. FERRV A CO., . 

Baedsmen and Florists, DETROIT, lUcb. 



LAW, SOMNER & CO., 

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA k DUNEDIN, 
OTAGO, NEW ZEALANT), 

Offer Collections of Native Seeds, includiog 

Blue, Red, and all other Varieties of Gums, Etc. 

ie/"Illustrated Catalogue free on application. 



GItA.lST &, CAWCEROIV, 

Seedsmen. 

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA, 

Collectors of all Seeds of Trees and Shrubs indlgenotlB 
to the Australian Colonies, including 

Blue, Red and Peppermint Gums, Acacias, Etc. 



FLOWER 

SEEDS. 

VEGETABLE 

SEEDS. 



Spooner's Prize Flower Seeds 

Spooner's Boston Uarket 
Veg-etable Seeds. 

The cheape t and best seeds In 
the market. Send two 3 cent 
stamps for our illustrated cata- 
logue and see the prices. 

W. H. 8POONEB, Boston, Mass 



ALL ABOUT GARDENING 

For Home Use iiud for Market, in Root's Gabdes 
Manoai.— practical, pointed and thorim^h-coniaining 
one-ball as much matter as »1 .60 books on the subject. 
Gardeners throughout the country commend its prac- 
tical labor-saving meth.ids as invaluable to them. Sent 
for 10 cents, which will be allowed on the first order 
for seeds. J. B. ROOT, Seed Grower, Rockford, 111. 

GOOD SEEDS 

Grown with care and painstaking, from selected stocks, 
ALWAYS i-AY. Try mine. See advertisement, "All Abou 
Gardening." J. B. BOOT, Seed Grower, Ruckford, HI 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS has a 
larger Circulation than any other Pacific 
Coast Weekly, independent 0/ a daily itisiie, 



January 8, 1876.J 



31 



Agricultural Articles. 



OAKLAND GANG PLOW 




-A'i THL- 



I? A. C H E C O 

Agricultural Implement Works, 

Pacheco.Oal., Established in 1858. 

Thin Plow is constructed In the best stylo of work- 
manship and finish, and Is guaranteed to run with 
LIOHTKR DRAFT, to do MOEK PEKFECT WOEK, 
and to be more EASILY and PEllt'ECTlil MANAGED 
than any other yet ofl'ered the farmer. 

The essential feature of the device, which is illus- 
trated in the annexed engtaving, is a colled spring, 
which «ct8 upon a crank axis, turning the latter so 
that the plow m»y work to a depth of nine inches into 
the ground, or be raised seven inches above it, and 
the gang will work on side hill an well as on level 
ground. For ilhiatrated circulars and prices, send to 

HENRY N. DALTON. 
PaoUeco Agricultural Works, Pachcco, Cal. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 



05 



a 



Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It Is so constrticted that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied npon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 




14T3-3m 



MATTESON ft WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton, Oal. 



r>AVIt> WOERNEK, 




COOP £^R , 

No. 104 and 112 Suear St.. San Pranoisco. 
Wine Casks, Tanks, Tubs. Pipes, Beer Bar- 
rels, etc.. Manufactured at Short Notice 
and liOW RATES. 

LTTMBER for CASKS, etc., TANKS, etc. Steamed 
and Dried If required. 

eow-bp. 

Office of Drain Pipe Works 

S. W. Comer Sao 

ramento and 

.BContgom- 

«ry Sts., 

S. F. 

DRAINS 

CONSTBUCTED 

In any port of tho 
, State, and 

Work Warranted 

E. T.MENOMY 

Proprietor. 




GUANO FOR SALE, 

InHiotM to Suit, i>y 

CROSS & CO., 
816 Oallfomla.Street, - - - 8an Francisco 



BUY THE BEST AND LATEST IMPROVED PLOWS. 

PRICES REDUCED. 
IRON KING" GANG PLOW, 

MADE BY SACRAMENTO PLOW M'F'G CO. 
301 & 303 J STREET, - - - SACR'AMENTO. 

This cut represents the 
"Iron King" Uang Plow 
which we claim to be the 
Standard Plow of the Pa- 
cific Coast, for the fol- 
lowing reasons: First- 
It runs lighter, working 
easier Cor man and team 
than any other plmv 
Second -it turnd the fur- 
row better and lifts easier 
out of the ground. 
Third— It is stronger and 
^ less complicated. The 
^ materials need are all 
^ iron and steel, except the 
S pole, which is of the best 
= ash. Fourth— The beams 
are made of wrought 
iron, and are very strnng, 
and higiier in tlie throat 
than any other plow, and 
the mold-boards thicker 
and better. Fifth— The 
shares are all made from 
our latest improved pattern^, neatly fitted, *nd are stronger than any other in use. 

They are built with cast steel shares, molds and landside*, ana have no cflsrings on the under Pide oftheplowto 
prevent the plow from poing in when the point is worn short. Thev are differently shaped from anv other plow, 
being the rcsnlt of fifteen years' experience of the inventor. They have Ready's Patent Center Draft, which dispenses 
entirely with the unnecessary weight on the wheels, thei-cby let-senlnp the draft of the plow. We guarantee the gang 
to run lighter for the team than any other plow on the Pacific Ooa^t. It was awarded the premium at the California 
State Fairs of 1874 and 187\ for the Best Stubble Plow. In the'e particular?, we claim a vast superiority over all other 
plows heretofore niide. We also guarantee a perfect fit in diipbcaling each and every part of this plow. We ask of 
f;irmers simply a trial of this plow, which we warrant to work well in all kinds of soil. We believe itto be the neatest, 
simplest, strongest and mnstdurable plow in the world. 

**Little Gia,nt'* Iron Beam Gang: Plows, Moline Bottoms— Price Reduced from. $90 to $70 
Cash. Singrle Plows from $11 to $20. All kinds of Tule and Breaking Plows made to order. 

No. 1 "Iron KinR" Gang Plow.. $85 00 1 Extra Shares— No. 1 $3 00 I Landeides for single Plows.. $2 50 

No. 2 ■' " •' •* .. 90 no I " " No. 2 3 50 I " " GangPlows... 1 50 

All kinds of casting done on short notice. 

San Francisco Agrents. FI-EISCHMAN, SICHEL & CO.. No. 37 & 39 Battery Street. 




THE TURBINE 



Farmers, Take Notice. The Most Important Invention of the Age. 
THE ENAMELED STEEL BARBED WIRE FENCE, 

Patented l>y J. XA GUljlDDEN. 




mag 

- flj 

^ 4) r1 

OS** 



The GLIDDEN PATENT BABB WIRE has been tested by tbousands of practical farmers, who universally 
recommend it. Wo ask you to try it for the following, among other reasons: I. If it does not answer the recom- 
mend, you can return it and your money will be refunded. 2. It is the chaapest and most durable fence made. 
3. It takes less posts than any other fence, i. It can be put np for one-quarter the labor of any other fence. 
5. Cattle, mules, and horses will not rub against and break it down. 6. The wind has no effect upon it, and fires 
will not burn it up. 7. Stock will not jump orer or crowd through it. 8. Your crops will be safe as far as fence 
is concerned. 9. You will know where your stock is by night as well as by day. 10. You can draw enough in a 
buggy to fence lUO acres, and two men can put it up in two days. 11. Because it is what every farmer need.?. 
12. Because it was invented by a practical farmer and you will say, after a fair trial, it is the BEST FENCE IN 
THE WORLD 1 13. The change of seasons has no effect upon it— it being twisted, holds its tension. 14. The 
wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative strength of over 30 per cent, greater than that of 
any common iron wire. 15. The only steel coppered wire barb. 16. The only barb that cannot be displaced 
with thumb or finger, or cattle's horns. 17. The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire, 
and cannot be bent, broken, or lubbed oif, and never need replacing. 18. The only coiled barb with broad base 
on main wire, which renders it immovable. 19. The only barb wire which, during process of manufacture, 
its Ktreiigtii is tested equal to that of two-horse power. 20. The only barb put on by machinery— it is not 
pounded on with hammer and indented in main wire to hold its place. 21. The only barb wire tha*. gives 
universal satisfaction, and has greater sale than all others put together. t^Be sure and ask for the Glidden 
Patent Barb Wirk. Enquire of Hardware and Agricultural Dealers. Samples sent free of charge by addressing 

JONES, GIVENS «fe CO.. 
General Agents for the Coast. K and 10th Streets, Sacramento. 



A.TJT01^^A.TIG IPXJIS/dllP 




S!50m:exhi]vg nr-tt. 



RAISES WATER BY COMPRESSED AIR. 



SEND FOB CIBCTJIiAK. 



J. E. HOLLOWAY, Gen. Agent for Pacific States, 



31 Beale Street, San Francisco- 




iSimplest, Clieapest, 

nnd JMost Durable. 

The Inventor of the Dexter Windmill has made new 
and useful improvements in Windmills, patented March 
16th, 1875, and now feels confident o( having the 
SIMPLEST, CHEAPEST, MOST DURABLE, and 

ONLY PERMANENT WINDMILL 

IN THE WORLD. 

Simplest, because it is legs complicated; Cheapest, 
because it never needs repair, standing on a firm foun- 
dation; Most Dutiable, because It is all under cover, 
and has less rigging to get out of order; Only Pebiu- 
NENT, because the only Windmill in the world that has 
never been injured by storms. Hundreds of people, 
who have thought the Dexter perfect, will be glad to 
observe the SUPERIORITY OF THE TURBINE over 
all predecessors. Although much improved, the price 
of mills remain the same as formerly. Persons who 
study their own interest will investigate the TURBINE 
before purchasing any other. 

Territory for sale outside of California, at reasonable 
rates and easy terms. 

Mills built to order of the best material, and at the 
shortest notice, by Kimball Manufacturing Company, 
corner Fourth and Bryant streets, San Francisco. Any 
orders sent to their address will receive prompt atten- 
tion. 

H^WoT further information regarding Mills or Terri- 
tory, Bend for New Circular. Address, 

A. H. SOTTTHWICK, 

P. O. Box 1385, San Francisco; or 
P. O. Box 23, Oakland, Cal. 

mrlS-lam-bp 

REMINGTON SEWING MACHINE. 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SA.IS" F R A.NCISCO, C A. IL. . , 

MANtrji'ACTURERS OF 

LINSEED, CASTOR AND COCOA NUT OILS, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL- 

Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans delivered at our Works. 
0:mce— 3 and 5 Front Street. 



FOR. HALE. 

NEW ZEALAND GRASS SEED 

By HELLMANN BROS. & CO.. 

Oor. .Front and Jaokson Streets, San Franoisoo. 




Superior to all others, because of their simplicity of 
construction; the most durable and are always ready 
for use; will do all kinds of work. Price of Machine 
as represented in cut, with Hemmers. Feller, Braider. 
Gouge Tucker, Quilter, Johnson's Ruffler, andDiamond 
set of Hemmers, $75. 

SHOWERS, JEW^ELL & COLE, 

6159 Market st., under Palace Hotel S. F. 

AGENTS WANTED FOR CITT AND COUNTRY. 



LEVI STRAUSS & CO., 

Patent Riyeted 
Clothing, 

14 & 16 Battery St., 
San Francisco. 

These goods uegpoclslly 
adapted foi the use of 
FAEMERS, MECHANI08. 
MINERS, and WORKING 
MEN 111 general. They 
are manufactured of the 
Best Material, and In A 
Superior Manner. A trial 
will convince everybody of 
this fact. 
Patented May 12, l87a. 

rSE NO OTHER, AND INQtTlEB POR THESE 
GOODS ONLY. eow-bp 




32 



T'&mwm ^wns^ Fmsss. 



[January 8, 1876 



^^^ETT A CO'^ 



«i 



ij 



Scientific Press 




Publishers, Patent Ag-ents and £ng-raverB, 

No. 224 Sansome Street San Francisco Cal 



OtTB Fbiends can do mncb In aid of oar paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and Bcience, bj asslBting 
Agents in their laboru of canvaBaing, by lending their 
influence and encouragi-og favors. We intend to Bend 
none but worthy men, 

.J. L. Tharp — San Francisco. 

B. W. Cbowell— California. 

A. O. Champion— Tulare, Fresno and Inyo Counties, 

John Kobtkon— California. 

A. O. Knox, California. 

(i. W. McGBf;w— Santa Clara county. 

D. J. Jamks— Australian Colonies. 

CnA.'i. T. Bell — Montana, Utah, Idaho and Nevada. 



Something of Interest to the Old Folks, 
and to the Boys and Girls. 

The Boston .TouBNAL, in a recent issue, says: "Pic- 
ture to yourself what a nugazine for children ought to 
be— how bright and winning in contents, how pure and 
stimulating in teaching, how resplendent withpiitures' 
and then turn over the i)ai,'e9 of St. Nhholas, and you 
will find your ideal realized." 

The Chicaoo Inteb-Ocean says: "St. Nicholas is an 
institution of which Young and Old America are as proud 
as England is oJ Punch. A house without St. Nicho- 
las," continues the writer, "does not deserve to own 
any boy.s and girls; no dog should wag its little tail 
while pressing its nose through the area railings; em- 
phatically, we would observe that should the sua con- 
descend to shine upon that hcnse, his solar majesty 
would make a big mistake." 

The FiBST volume OF St. Nicholas was a surprise 
even to the public that had heartily welcomed it, num" 
ber by number. Newspaper critics expressed enthusi- 
astic approval; children and parents were alike de' 
lighted, and congratulatory letters from distinguished 
men and women poured In upon the publishers and 
editor. Charles Dudley Warner wrote: "I do not see 
how it can Ixi made any better, and if children dou'j 
like it, it is time to change the kind of children in this 
country;" Whlttier, our great poet, wrote: "It is little 
to say of this magazine that it is the bobt child's peri- 
odical in the world;" and words of hearty commenda- 
tion came across the ocean from such earnest workers 
and popular favoritea of the young as &co. Macdouald, 
Christina Rossetti, and Canon Kingsley. 

Beautifully bound, superbly Illustrated, and illled 
with good things from the best writers, (including 
three long serial stories), the llrst volume of St. Nun- 
OL.VS, complete in itself, is a hnor Christmas gift for 
girls and boys to-day than any single book in the mar- 
ket, excepting 

St. Nicholas for 1875, 

Which, with its magnitlcent pictures, its two complete 
serials, and its innumerable shorter stories, sketches 
poems, fairy tales, rhymes and Jingles, bits of wisdom, 
its French, German and Latin stories— its fun and its 
puzzles, Jack-in-the-pulpit, the Letter-box, etc., etc., is 
even more superbly attractive. 

St. Nicholas for 1874 and 1875,4 Vols. 

For the convenience of libraries, and beoanse many 
children find the two large volumes for '74 and '7.5 
rather l)ulky to handle, we have had thee twenty-fotir 
numbers bound in four elegant volumes, and inclosed 
In a neat box, under the general title of 

THE ST. NICHOLAS LIBRARY. 

These four volumes are sold for $3, being only two 
dollars a volume— a beautiful and valuable Christmas 
present for an entire family of young folks. 

The New- York Tbibdnb says: "In the avalanche of 
immoral literature that threatens the children, some 
strong, vitally wholesome, and really attractive maga- 
zine is required for them, and St. NicuoLAshas reached 
a higher plattorni, and commands for this service 
wider resources in art and letters, than any of its pred- 
ecessors or contemporaries." 

The Sunday School Times says: "A cleaner, purer 
more trustworthy periodical cannot be named. The' 
magazine does not claim to be religious, but it is on the 
side of all that ia true and good, from beginning to 
end." 



The religious press all over the conntry heartily com- 
mends St. NlOHoLAB, and virtually echoes the opinion 
of the New York Chbistian Union, that it is "A DE- 
LiaHTFDL MAGAZINE FOR ALL CHILDREN BE- 
TWEEN FIVE AND EIGHTY-SEVEN." 

St. Nicholas for 1876 

Promises even greater attractions than tbe previous 
volumes. A strong feature of tbe new volume is an 
American Sebial Stobt, 

"The Boy Emigrants," by Noah Brooks, 

Giving the adventures of a party of boys on their long 
journey across the plains, with a vivid portraiture of 
their Life is Calhoenh dorimo the days of the 
Gold Feveb. Mr. Brooks brings to this work, in adai. 
tion to his well known literary gifts, a thorough famiu 
iarity with the features of that wild country and the 
people then flocking toward it. What he has to say of 
them is pervaded with a subtle and intense savor of 
reality that enables the reader to follow the characters 
in their adventures with a positive sense of compan- 
ionship. The contagion of the "gold-fever;" the great 
difticulties and perils which beleaguered their journey 
across the plains and mountains, and finally the ad- 
venturous, half-civilizad, and yet, in a certain rude 
way, poetic life in the mines of California, are all de- 
scribed with wonderful trnthfuInesB and skill. Add to 
this the elevated tone pervading the work, and the ir- 
j.esistible attraction which such a narrative possegses 
for boys, and the valne of this stirring, healthy serial 
becomes evident. 

There is to be another and shorter serial, beginning 
in January and rutming through three numbers: 

"Jon of Iceland," by Bayard Taylor. 

A delightfully vivid stovir of an Icelandic boy's ca. 
reer, full of incidents which could happen in no other 
country, and graphically touching upon the customs, 
life, and general features of that strange land. 

The best general reading for boys and girls is Insured 
by a list of present and promised contributors, among 
whom are: 

WILLIAM CHLLEN BRYANT, GEORGE MACDON- 
ALD, CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, LOUISA M. ALCOTT, 
J. T. TROWBRIDGE, T. B. ALDIUCH, ELIZABETH 
STUART PHELPS. ABBV MORTON DIAZ, HARRIET 
PRESCOTT SPOFFORD, DONAI.D G. MITCHELL, H. 
H., EDMUND C. STEDMAN, LUCY LABCOM, CHAS. 
DUDLEY WARNER, BRET HARTE, FRANK B.STOCK- 
TON, ELIZABETH AKERS ALLEN, T. W. HIGGIN- 
SON, LUCREIIA P. HAU], PROF. B. A. PROCTOR, 
MRS. OLIPHANT AND REV. EDWARD EGGLE- 
8T0N. 

Special papers are secured or promised, viz: At.- 
tronomy for Young Folks (Prof. Proctor) ; Chapters on 
Windsor Caetle and EngliKh History (Mrs. Ollphant) ; 
Talks With Girls (Mrs. A. U. T. Whitney. H. H., Lou- 
isa M. Alcott, Susan Coolidge and Mrs. Dodge) ; Little 
Housekeepers' Pages (Marian Harland, author o( "Com- 
mon Sense in the Ilousehold") . Alsw, incidents of 
American History, Practical Handwork for Boys and 
Girls, Sketches of Adventure and Travel, Fairy Tales, 
and Stories of Home Life. A Young Contributors' de- 
partment is to be added to the well known and ap- 
proveil Regular Features; and, in short, the Uagnziue 
will be made as useful, lively, and entertaining as the 
purest and best writers and artists can make it. 

Some of the Finest Works of the Qbeat Painters 
have been engraved for St. Nicholas, and its illustra- 
tions for 1876 will surpass anything ever yet attempted 
in Juvenile llt<:raturo. 

$300 A Tear; $4 for Bound Vol. 

We will send the maeazine for one year, beginning 
November, 1875, and either of the two bound volumes 
ae above, post paid, for $7.nil: or, a subscription one 
year and the two volumes for $10 nfi. The price of the 
4-volume edition is |8.()(i. All newsdealers and book- 
selleiK will receive subtcriptions and supply volumes 
at above rates. 

NOVEMBEK and DECEMBER numbers FREE to all 
new subscribers for 187C. SCRIBNERS MONTHLY 
and ST. NICHOLAS, J7. 

SCRIBNER & CO., 

743 and 746 Broadway, New York. 



TRAVELING 



AGENTS 



WANTED 



For this paper. Experienced canTasaers can 
make excellpnt wiiges. None but intelligent 
persona of good recommendation need apply. 



COM:m*21*C!IAL «otjkl, 

Montgomery Avenue, Kearny and Pacific 
Streets, 4San Francisco, Cal. 

Two blocks west of the Post-office— Street Cars from all 
the Steamers and Railroad Depots, and 

FREE COACH AND CARRIAGES TO TEE HOTEL. 
HORNBLOWER & SAXE, Proprietors- 
Hotel is brick, four Btories, contains 17/i large rooms, 
all perfectly lighted and ventilated, bathing rooms, 
hot and cold water and closets on every floor, street 
frontage :i2t feet, three flights of stairs, and one Patent 
Hydraulic Elevator. Hotel and furnifhing all new- 
cost nearly $245,000. Will be kept First-class, at $2.00 
per day, and less by the week or month. 



50 



Viattln)^ CaniN, with your name finely 
printed, sent Cor l!.>c. We have lOO styles. 
Aicent* Tl'untt^il. 9 samples sent for 
stamp. A. II. Fuller & Co., Brockton, Mass. 



$250 



A MOXTIl".\g,.nts wanted every- 
where, lliislness lionoruhleaud (Irst 
labs, rarliciilars sent free. Address 
J. WOUTH A CO., St. LoulB.Mo, 



A Card. 

Walsonville, Dec. 6, 1875. 
To C. P. Hoag, Gen. Agent. 1/8 

Be ale street, S. F., 
Dear Sir. — We have had the 
Eclipse windmills in use several 
months. They have worked to our 
entire satisfacuo'\ /••^ ' 
lightest breeze, nn-i , ■-■.■■, 
lating apparatus working lO pcrjec- 
tion in the severest gales. We take 
pleasure in recommending the Eclipse 
to all desiring windmills. 

Yours truly, 
Otto Stoesser, E. S. Peck, J. M. 

Rodgers and E. J. Martin. 



Reasons 



why the 
should be 



Eclipse Windmills 
Preferred. 



1. — It has been tested eight years in almost every 
State in the Union. 

2.— It is the most simple In principle, Btrongest in 
constraction and possesses more power than other milU. 

:i.— It is noiseless in operation, beautiful in design, 
and Well finished. Has no loose joint to get out of 
order. 

4.— Has hardly any friction and will run in light 
■winds. It IS a perfect self-regulator. 

6.— It is sanctioned and adopted by the leadine rail- 
roads for their water stations, and pronounced by rail- 
road engineers to be built upon true mechanical prin- 
ciples. 

•"••—The entire mill is guaranteed, and any casting 
or portion of a mill breaking from defect in material 
or workmanship will be renilaced free of charge with- 
out delay. 

7.— The rims are straight, instead of steamed or bent, 
as in other wheels, and the enth-e mill is durable. 

8— The t-ost is less than others when the actual 
power, durability and safety are considered. 

Write mo or call. 

CHAS. P. HOAG, 

General Agent for Pacitlc Coast, 118 Beale street, 
between MlsBion and Howard, San Francisco, Cal. 




The Twentieth Edition li rated Seed 

Catalotrue and Amatuui s Guide to the 
Flower and Kitchen Garden, containing up- 
wards of 200 pages, inrluding several hundred finely 
executed engravings of favorite flowers and vegetables, 
and a beaatiful colored chromo, with a Supple- 
ment for 187C, will be mailed to all applicants upon 
receipt of 36 cents. An edition elegantly bound in 
cloth, $1. 

BLISS' ILLUSTRATED GARDENERS' 
ALMANAC 

For 1876. and Abridgred Catalogue of Garden 
and Flower Seeds, contains upwards of 100 pages, 
and embraces a monthly Calendar of Operations and a 
price list of all the leading Garden. Field and 
Flower Seeds, with directions for their culture. A 
copy will be mailed to ail applicants inclosing ten 
cents. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay St.. 
P. O. Box 5712, New York- 



M. Eyre, Napa, Cal. 



Hi^h Class, 
THOROUGHBRED 

POULTRY. 

EMDEN GEESE, 
Pekin Ducks. 
PIGEONS. 




BRONZE 

TURKEYS. 

Pbice-List 
For 1876 
Now Beady. 
FERRETS. 



RABBITS. 

— ALSO— 

THOROUGHBRED SOUTHDOWN SHEEP. 

Address 3C. E7RE, Napa, Cal. 

Please enclose stamp. 



Scions for Grafting and 
Strawberry Plants 

At FeUx Gillet's, Nevada City, Cal. 



Best varieties of winter Pear: Bergaraotte, Passe- 
Crassanne, Royal d' Hiver, Doyenne, Beurro Clairgean 
and Duchesse d' Angouleme, (fall pear). 

Cherry: Guigne Marbree, Grosse de Mezel and Noire 
Luisante. 

Chestnut; Marron de Lyon and Oombale. 

Walnut: Proiparturlens. Four varieties of Filbert 
plants. All imported varieties. 

Twenty-six varieties of the nicest Strawberries at $5 
to $8 per hundred plants. Ever bearing Raspberries, 
(three crops a year), $5 per hundred. 

Every variety guaranteed to be true to name. 



FOK, SALE. 

A fine young draft stallion, price $1,000 cash, or on 
time With approved security. For particulars and ped- 
igree, inquire of J. M. DUDLEY, 

Dixon, Solano County, Oal. 



NEW 0£0P OF 
BLUE gum: »eeo. 



CLOVER 

FLOWER A.]Vr> 
VEGETA.BL,E 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 

\..S J»s. 

OF EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY AND OF THE 
BEST QUALITY; OFFERED A'l WHOLE- 
SALE OR RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

8EEr>!S»M:A.IV, 



V8.tf 



No. 317 Washington Street, 

SAN FRANOISdO . 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland . 

Constantly on hand and for Fale choice 
Bpecimens of the following va- 
rieties of Fowls: 

Dark and Light Brahmas, Buff 
VThite and Partridge Coch- 
ins. White and Brown Leg- 
horns. Dorkings, Polish 
Hambargs, Game and 
Sebright Bantams, 
Aylesbury and 
Rouen Ducks. 

ALSO, FOB SALE, 

20 of the Largesl Bronze Turkeys In America. 

£gg8 for sale after January 1st. 

NO INFERIOR FOWLS SOLD AT ANY PRICE. 

SATISFACTION QUARAXTEED. 

For further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Oircnlar, to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

P. O. Box 659, Ban Francisco. 




FOR H A. L E 

—BY THE- 

COUNTRY REAL ESTATE 

ASSOCIATES. 



OfB.cer8 and Directors. 

G. W. Colby NordiJ. REnENsnuBGER 8. F. 

J. Vollmak S.F. A. W. TaoMPsuii.Petalums 

J. D. Hlanchab Napa F. A. Kimball.... San Diego 

0. MlTCHBLL Obant |l. O. Oabdnes 8. F. 

O. P. Kelloou Saliaaa. 



30,000 ACREN 

Of the choicest farming land In SAN LUIS OBISPO 
COUNTY, subdivided into small farms of from 40 to 
GOO acres, for sale on favorable terms. 

This is one of the best opportunities yet ofTered to 
persons who wish to locate in one of the most desirable 
portions of California. Choice farms for sale in all 
parts of the State. 

The Company is now fully Te«dy for the transictlon 
of business, and all persona who have lauds for sale, or 
who wish to purchase land are requested to call upon 
the Secretary. 

J. R. BEAD, 6 Leldesdorft Street. S. F. 



CAMELLIAS. 



A laree !*tnck of very fine plants 
at raI<}Hfiam$33to$IUOperlO(l 
according size aadkmdfl. Also 

Bhododendrons, Azaleas and Boees- 

PURPLE BEECH and other RARE and 
ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

ROSES and the Best FLOWERING SHRUBS. 

CLEMATIS OF MANY NKW AND FINE SORTS. 
Catalogues Free. Address 

B. B. PARSONS & CO., 



[Box 99,] 



Flushing, New York. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OP EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTDOKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYE, 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, ME8QUIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
HED CLOVER, Eto. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a ftne and complete cellection of TREE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA GIGAN- 
TEA, PINUS INSIGNIS, Etc. 

For Bale, wholesale or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 



(Successor to £. £. Moore) , 
ilS.WaahinKton St., San Francisco. sarT-ly 



ALEX. BXJ8WELL, 

BOOK BINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER. 

621 Clay Street, S. F. 

Blank Books Ruled, Printed, and Bound to Order 



Fabkibs write for your paper. 




Volume XI.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 15. 1876. 



[Number 3 



The Oakland Nurseries. 

All mankind agree in invoking blessings on 
the man who plants trees. Whether it be for 
the grateful shade, for the luscious fruit, or for 
the beauties of blossom and perfume, he who 
works to cover the surface of the earth with 
salutary growths does a public service. There 
is a class of men who do much to aid the tree- 
planter and amateur orchardist and florist. 
They are the nurserymen. Although they labor 
like other industrial classes for a livelihood and 
a coinpetenoe, still, when they are true to their 
calling, they are dispensers of much useful 
truth and knowledge, and are entitled to pub- 
lic thanks. A nurseryman who is true to his 
calling must be an intelligent man. Pie must 
be quick to seek far and near all those varieties 
of plant growth which can be propagated under 
the conditions which prevail in his locality. 
He must study their propagation and the ways 
to accomplish it. He must have a good eye for 
symmetry and beauty. When he combines 
honesty and good taste, and builds a reputation 
by furnishing his customers just such goods as 
his catalogue describes, he is entitled to credit 
as a benefactor. 

As the time for tree planting is at hand we 
think we can do our readers good service by h 
few visits to the nurserymen, for the purpose 
of commenting upon the features which we ob- 
serve in their establishments. We began by a 
visit to Oakland on Thursday last, and though 
our trip among the nurserymen was cut short 
by the torrents of rain which fell, we succeeded 
in gaining notes concerning two establishments 
which maybe of interest to tree planters. 
Eastern Trees. 

We stopped first to look over a stock of trees 
and shrubs which has been recently deposited 
for sale at Oakland Point by T. D. & L. A. 
Crandall. We saw a eonsiderable supply of 
thrifty looking young trees. There are per- 
haps two dozen varieties of shade and orna- 
mental trees, the leading selections being ma- 
ples, lindens, elms, mountain ash, tulip, mag- 
nolia and forest nut trees. The trees are grown 
from the seed in Ohio nurseries, owned by 
Messrs. Crandall. The proprietors claim to be 
doing a large business in tho sale of their stock. 
They believe them to be perfectly adapted for 
this climate, and meet doubters with the ex- 
perience of Captain Fowler, of Berkeley. Cap- 
tain Fowler brought to California several years 
ago twelve Eastern maple trees. He carried 
them in his trunk, and he came by water. 
Upon arriving at Berkeley he set out theae trees, 
and now has maple trees eight and ten inches 
in diameter growing on his place, Messrs. 
Crandall regard such experience as conclusive 
as to the fitness of their stock for California 
planting. They have, in addition to forest 
trees, a large variety of flowering shrubs and 
not a few fruit trees, chiefly the dwarf peach, 
which is selling well here. 

Hutchinson's Nursery. 
We called next at the nursery n{ Mr. Hutch- 
inson, on Telegraph avenue, Oakland. We 
found Mr. Hutchinson busy in the manage- 
ment of his fine establishment. A tour through 
his greeen-houses will convince the beauty 
seeker that he has not sought in vain. Mr. 
Hutchinson makes a constant study of the in- 
troduction of new plants which will^ thrive in 
this State. He is a lover of the beautiful and 
his selections display it. We saw in his stock 
some splendid magnolias, Chile and Bidwell 
pines, arbor vitals, Norfolk island pines, silver 
junipers, Irish yews and others of the best 
varieties of ornamental trees. These trees are 
worth a journey to see. He has on his place a 
■variegated eucalyptus, which is the admiration 
of all visitors. It grew from seed and has a 
fine narrow border on the leaves which gives it 
a striking appearance. He will begin at once 
to grow trees from this one. Mr. Hutchinson's 
stock of flowers is noteworthy. He makes a 
specialty of fuchsias and flowering begonias, 
and excels in propagating them. His collec- 
tion of the agave family is good, and is headed 
by a magnificent plant, which is the pride of 
his lawn. He has a Monterey cypress one 
year from the seed, which is two and one-half 
feet high. Mr. Hutchinson is pushing his 
buildings to cover his growing stock and has 



now 42.5 running feet of green-houses. 

We next made a call upon Mr, Kelsey, but he 
was not at home, and while on our way to Mr. 
Gill's the rain descended and the floods came 
and we went. In a future article we expect to 
note the points at the other establishments. 



Improved Grinding Mills. 

Geared mills with vertical spindles, says the 
inventor of the improved mills illustrated in 
the annexed engravings, are going out of use. 
Their toothed wheels or cogged gears are too 



required in the use of georing would be avoided. 
As now made, the mills are compact and con- 
venient to be driven from portable steam en- 
gines or horizontal shafting. The boxes for 
supporting the spindles are four times longer 
than are usually made, extending almost through 
the entire mill ; and they carry the runner, which 
is solidly attached to the spindle, in a true 
plane with the face of the bedstone. 

The small portable burrstone mills grind fifty 
bushels of good meal per hour, as regular 
work, from day to day, and have averaged as 
high as eighty bushels. This, the inventor 
claims, is due to the peculiar mode rf inount- 




HARRISON'S GRINDING MILliS. 



rough in running and too expensive, while 
spindles in a vertical position do not run well, 
because they cannot be kept thoroughly oiled, 
and do not lie steadily against their bearings. 
Almost all the shafting used for driving ma- 
chinery is now horizontal, with vertical pulleys, 
and therefore the driving pulleys of grinding 
mills should obviously also be vertical, in order 
to be as convenient as possible to set up and 
put in operation. 

In constructing the mills represented, the 
horizontal shaft was the inventor's main object; 
but subsequent experiment showed hira other 
and superior advantages attaching to the form. 
The machines became more quiet and light 
running, but ground more rapidly, while their 
simplicity evidenced that the extensive repairs 



inuiand dressing the stones, Ihoir facility for 
receiving grain at tho eye, and the ease with 
which the meal passes out of the new discharge 
spouts. It is due also to the vertical position 
of the stones, the extraordinary velocity at 
which they run, and to such an adaptation of 
speed to grinding surface that, when the meal 
is once properly ground, it is thrown out and 
does not clog the furrows and consume the 
driving power. The inventor has submitted 
written certificates as to the above mentioned 
capabilities of liis mill. He farther states that 
ower 9,000 machines wer j sold up to the begin- 
ning of the present year. 

The engravings show two different types of 
mill, the principal points of difi'erence being 
tho styles and sizes of frames for supporting 



the spindles and working parts and the num- 
ber of bearings required, the construction and 
mode of adjusting the spring bearings by means 
of which tbe pressure of the stones is auto- 
matically controlled. The mills are adapted 
to all varieties of grinding and for every sub- 
stance, whether wet or dry, hard or tough, 
heavy or light, brittle or fibrous. Several 
sizes of this machine are made. 

The strength and durability necessary to en- 
able these mills to be run safely at a very high 
velocity, is secured by the employment of the 
best materials, metal and stone only being em- 
ployed iu their construction. They are deliv- 
ered to purchasers ready for use and in complete 
running order. For further information ad- 
dress the inventor and manufacturer, Mr. E. 
Harrison, New Haven, Conn. 

Improvements on the Overland Railroad. 

Mr. George A. Crofutt, lessee of the Park 
hotel. New York, and publisher of "Crofutt's 
Transcontinental Guide," is at present on a 
visit to California. He made a short stay at 
his old "stamping ground" in Colorado on the 
way here. He notices many improvements oh 
the route, some of them very important. He 
thinks there are at least 10,000 people who con- 
template going to the Black Hills in the sum- 
mer. At Cheyenne numerous parties are out- 
fitting for the trip and getting ready to start. 
At Laramie many improvements have been 
made, including a rolling mill which cost $250, 
000, and gives steady work to sixty men. They 
utilize all the old rails and old iron along the 
road. They are working over many old rails 
which are said to be better, as when rerolled 
there are less flaws in them and less splitting 
IS experienced. 

At Hilliard, near Bear River City, on the 
Union Pacific, the Hilliard lumber and fluming 
company, formed some time since, have built 
a V-flume twentj'-eight miles long, intersecting 
Bear river and bringing down wood to supply 
upwards of seventy-five patent kilns for burning 
charcoal for the use of smelting works in Utah 
and mechanical uses along the line of the rail- 
road. At Ogden, Brigham Young and the rest 
of the officials have given 130 acres of land 
close to the present depot for a union depot 
for the Union Pacific, Central Pacific, Utah 
Northern and Utah Central railroads. They 
propose next year to commence a large union 
depot and large hotel with all that is needed. 
The Central Pacific railroad company has bought 
the six miles of the Union Pacific west of 
Ogden, so this settles an old bone of contention 
and enables them to co-operate in giving the 
public improved aocommedations in the near 
future. 

Most of the towns on the Union and Central 
Pacific roads have greatly improved ; Cheyenne, 
Laramie, Salt Luke and Elko are places of 
notable improvement. The Utah Northern 
road will be completed within sixty days by 
laying twenty-five miles more track to a point 
where it will command the Idaho and Montana 
trnflic which now goes to Corinne. 

Mr. tJrofutl will revise his Transcontinental 
Guide, which still seems very popular. He 
keeps up with the times, being a stirring man 
who knows how to keep a hotel and print a 
book. The Park hotel, corner of Beekman 
and Nas-au streets, N. Y., now leased by him, 
was established over twenty-five years ago; it 
is still ont! of the most popular hotels of its 
class in the city. It has been thoroughly over- 
hauled and renovated. 



In the case of the London and San Fran- 
cisco bank, limited, vs. Alex. Austin, tax col- 
lector, and the Anglo-California bank vs. Aus- 
tin, Judge Sawyer decided that a tax upon 
money was legal, but as debts follow their 
owner— and in this case the debt belongs in Lon- 
don—it therefore could not be asssessed. In 
short, foreign money could not be assessed. 

The investigation into the Paci^c; disaster by 
the inspectors of hulls and boilers puts the 
blame of the accident on the ofiioers of the Or- 
pheus. The public, however, put little faith in 
these secret investigations. 

Hamill, the noted oarsman, is dead. 



34 



«K*!i kd «feJB>4>^;«iy»' iJfcr iJtC Jli> O o^* 



January 15, 1876 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Notes of Travel. 

MK88B8. Kditoes:— The dear old "Uubal," 
first number for 1876, is at hand, and after an 
hour over its pleasant columns and with a feel- 
ing of gratification at its improved appearance, 
I sit down to give you an item of my notes of 
hurried travel: 

Dr. Strentzel's Fruit Farm. 
I had telegraphed the doctor of my expected 
visit, and be bad sent a carriage to meet me at 
the wharf, but with my usual skill in such mat- 
ters I missed meeting it, and so I determined 
to travel the two and a half miles on foot. Not 
being acquainted with the road, I asked a 
mutual acquaintance to direct me to the doctor's 
place. He said, "Go out by the Ecboolhouse; 
keep plainest road ; you'll know the place when 
yon come to it." I followed his directions, 
and I knew the place "from afar off," as soon 
as I came in eight of it. Any of our fraternity 
of Grangers or fruit growers who know the 
doctor, (and who does not?) would readily have 
recognized it. His enthusiasm as a fruit eul- 
tnrist had left its impress on everything about 
the farm. It is surrounded by a magnitioent 
hedge of Osage orange. It occupies a narrow 
valley with lofty, brilliantly green bills on either 
side. I climbed one of these hills ard looked 
over the bodge at the broad inelosure, set with 
the choicest of fruit trees and vines, all show- 
ing evidence of the finest of care and culture; 
but my view was too distant. I hastened on 
to the house for a closer inspection of the 
premises. After a warm greeting from the 
doctor and his very pleasant family, we took 
a walk over the farm, and he has — no, I'm not 
going to tell it in that way. If the reader ex- 
pects me to tell h«w many hundreds or thous- 
ands of vines or trees he has of any or all kinds, 
he is mistaken. We didn't look at them in 
that way. There are lots of the second crop of 
grapes still on the vine— bright, luscious, plump 
fellows, such as we seldom see in market, and 
never at this time of year. I ate of forty-five 
different kinds. I remember distinctly that I 
didn't think the last kind as good as the first; 
and finally, that I didn't like grapes very well 
anyway. I wish I had some of them here now, 
just to see if I'm still of the same opinion. 
Oranges and Lemons. 
Here I saw many thousands of young orange 
trees, raised last year from the seed of decayed 
fnut purchased for that purpose. Also, about 
his house are quite a number of large trees, 
both orange and lemon, in full bearing. They 
have been raised from the seed. They seem to 
be thrifty, hardy and very productive. 
Grange and Text Books. 
Dr. Strentzel, Bro. Tl»nfro and myself were 
appointed by the last State Grange as Commit- 
tee on Education. I had written to Bro. Ren- 
fro of our intended meeting, but for some cause 
he failed to put in an appearance. The "battle 
of the books" had intruded itself upon our at- 
tention as citizens and laborers ju the cau.se of 
education; but as members of that committee, 
something more than thought and attention 
were required. Action was demanded , or else 
resign and allow others to be appointed that 
would do something. We accordingly devoted 
a few hours to getting up a circular, which will 
be given to the readers of the Robal next week, 
and in the meantime it will be generally circu- 
lated throughout the Granges. 

Feasting and Music. 
This sketch would be incomplete without 
mentioning how we sampled some of the doc- 
tor's very excellent wine, also almonds, wal- 
nuts, oranges, lemons, and other " home pro- 
ductions " too numerous to mention, besides 
helping to dispose of a fat turkey prepared in a 
manner that evinced that there was a most ex- 
cellent cook somewhere about the place. Then 
we went into the parlor and joined in with the 
family in singing some of our Grange songH, 
as an accompaniment to Miss Strentzel's skill- 
ful playing on her Steinway piano. We en- 
joyed it intensely, and fully exercised what our 
irreverent neighbor Smith calls our forty-muU; 
power bass. 

After a few hours' sleep the doctor provided 
ns with conveyance to Martinez, that we might 
catch the Vallejo morning train; but the deep 
mnd made it impossible for us to reach the 
railroad in time, so we had a few hours leisure 
before the arrival of the steamer. This we de- 
voted to a very pleasant call on the Fish Bros., 
who have 

A Beautiful Home 
In the northern part of town. They are ex- 
tensive farmers, but here, at their residence, 
they cultivate only a few acres. But on that 
they raise a supply of all kinds of fruit, 
besides having raised and cured a quan- 
tity of tobacco during the past summer. A 
beautiful Chinese lemon was growing beside 
the fence, weighted and loaded down with its 
large showy fruit. I asked Dr. Fish if no 
better lemons could be grown there. "O, yes," 
said he, and took me away into the orchard, 
wher« he bad a fine Sicily lemon tree with 
several dozen lemons upon it. "But, "said he, 
"that tree with big fruit, upon the hill, is far 
more admired than this is, though this is 
much the better." As I contrasted them, I 
couldn't help thinking how natural 'tis to ad- 
mire the gaudy display of "the big tree on the 
hill;" to pass by the modest Inster of pure gold 
and be dazzled by the glitter of mica, 



Pine-Apples. 

Here we saw a lot of pine-apples growing in a 
temporary hot-bed. They had been started 
from the tuft of leaves cut from the crown of 
the fruit. We have often raised them in that 
way. Your correspondent, W. M. O., has only 
to get a few pine-apples and carefully cut off the 
crown, stem and leaves, also the stems growing 
from the base of the fruit, set them in a dish of 
moist sand, keep in a warm place, keep damp 
and warm till spring, then transplant to a spot 
of well tilled, rich soil, and give then, plenty of 
water, and they will grow and increase by suck- 
ers, so as to produce a supply of the plants, if 
his locality is at all suited to their growth. 

Dry Creek, Fresno Co. W. A. Sandkbs. 

Items From Santa Clara. 

Mksshs. Editoes: — This being proverbially 
the dullfst town in California, items are scarce; 
as a matter of course, especially such as would 
be of interest to the readers of the Pbess. 

It commenced raining here last Sunday af- 
ternoon and has continued with but slight in- 
termissions ever since, with every indication of 
its continuing two or three days more. The 
farmers of course are all jubilant over the pros- 
pects for the next year, and all agree that this 
season opens more auspiciously than any 
within their recollection. The rainfall in this 
county up to date i'f about 11 inches, although 
at the Gilroy end nearly twice as much has 
fallen. Nearly all the crops on the high lands 
are in and doing finely, though on the low lands, 
toward Alviso and Milpitas, it is still too wet 
to plow. 

Our Grange celebrated New Year's day by 
in.italling its officers for the ensuing term and 
afterwards adjourning to the usual monthly 
feast. All present seemed to have a glorious 
time, and to enjoy themselves as only Grangers 
can. 

Appearances would seem to indicate that this 
town will shortly awake from the lethargy 
which has hung over it so long. The price of real 
estate is slowly but surely advancing, in spite 
of the dull times of the past few months. 

The Alviso and Santa Clara railroad is an ac- 
complished fact — the necessary surveying all 
finished and the right of way secured for the 
entire distance. Two hundred men commenced 
grading from both ends yesterday, and it is the 
intention of the directors to have the road in 
running order before the fruit season com- 
mences. The present terminus of the road will 
be at Santa Clara, where the workshops, etc., 
will be located, but it is the intention of the 
projectors to continue the road to Los Gatos, 
and from thence to Santa Crnz, so as to secure 
the immense lumber business of that county. 

New enterprises are springing up and more 
talked of, and everything seems to promise tkat 
this Centennial year will open up a new and 
prosperous era for Santa Clara. * « * 

Santa Clara, Janui^ry 4th, 1875. 



Poland Chinas Wanted. 

Messes. Editobs:— From necessity I have 
been driven out of the mule raising business, 
as my two jacks imported from Kentucky are 
defunct; I am now becoming somewhat enthu- 
siastic after the hog. Having noticed in the 
Press of December 18th a flattering account of 
the Poland China hog, where can he be had in 
our State, and what would be the probable 
price, six months old, per pair? 

Very reepectfully, F. W. Gibson. 

El Monte, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

[We are unable to toll our correspondent 
where he can obtain his Poland China hogs, as 
we have now no advertiser of the breed. Per- 
haps some breeder will write to Mr. Gibson at 
the address above. We would again suggest 
the wisdom of breeders advertising their stock 
in'the RrnAL. There is no better way of find- 
ing customers.— Eds. Press.] 



TljE Vl(lEYi\.E\D. 



A Napa Grower's Propositions, 

Messrs. Editobs: — Grapes and wine have be- 
come important products of our country ; a great 
deal of capital is invested in the bQsiness,and no 
little talent and skill is being devoted to bring 
the growing of the grapes and the manufacture 
of wine up to the highest standard. It is use- 
lefs to tell any one hereabouts, however, that 
our growers are not in that prosperous condi- 
tion their labors and investments entitle them 
lobe; which lack of prosperity is due to the 
depressed condition of the wine trade, and 
other reasons not necessary to enumerate just 
now. In view of this depression in our busi- 
iness I think something ought to be done— I 
think we should be up and doing, discussing 
and acting towards some point which will give 
us relief. And it is for this reason that I have 
sent this communication — sent il with the hope 
of arousing the grape growers to action. Some- 
thing must be done no^f if we propose to save 
our crops next season from waste and destruc- 
tion, and that something I propose to discuss, 
hoping to bring out others of more ability and 
more experience. The remedy I propose is 
this: 

First. I propose that the grape growers of Napa 
county form a grape-growers' ssssociation, 



every grape-grower in the county becoming a 
member. 

I propose second, that the members from 
three distinct joint stock companies, for the 
purpose of building three large wineries, to be 
situated in convenient and central localities. 

Third, stock in these companies to be taken 
by all grape-growers in proportion to the num- 
ber of acres each has in vineyard ; a certain 
part to be paid down in cash, in order to 
build and prepare for the vintage, and the re- 
mainder to be paid for in grapes. 

I would locate the three cellars, or wineries 
at Napa City, Yountville and !*t. Helena. Each 
cellar should have its own trustees and super- 
intendent, but I would employ jointly for the 
three establishments a wine-maker of approvi d 
skill, who would have the general management 
of the manipulation of all the wines and bran- 
dies, directing and overlooking each and every 
thing likely to effect the quality and soundness 
of the products. By adopting this precaution 
we would soon be able to offer to the world prod- 
ucts of ttie best (juality and of uniform grade. 

There is much more to be said on the sub- 
ject, in regard to agencies, shipping, cooper- 
age, etc., when I defer for a future article. 
Meantime Ift every grower ponder well the sit- 
uation ; let him consider the chances of los- 
ing half or more of his valuable crop from lack 
of means and facilities to handle and manufac- 
ture it, and then say whether it is not high 
time to be moving. Gbapk Gboweb. 

Yountville, Jan. 4th. 



BrscH or Syrian Gbapks. — \ correspondent 
of the Journal of Horlicidture describes a big 
bunch of grapes, grown in a hot house in Scot- 
land, weighing over twenty-five pounds. " The 
vine that carried the bunch of '25 Uij. 15 oz. , 
when weigh«d in Edinburgh, but which Mr. 
Dickson states weighed 2C Itis. 8 oz. when 
out, has only been planted four years. It was 
grown from an eye taken from an old vine 
which had produced very large bunches. The 
second year it was planted a bunch was cut 
from it that weighed 14 Bjs., the third year one 
that weighed 16 lt)s. 6 oz., and this year 
the same ai given above." This variety is sup- 
posed to be th« same as that which Joshua and 
his companion brought to the Israelitish camp 
after their visit to the land of Canann. 



SHEEf \^vi Wool. 



The California Clip of 1875. 

We print below, for the information of our 
readers, a review of the wool trade and pro- 
duction for the year prepared by E. CJrisar \- 
Co.: 

Wool Production. 

January, 344 bags; February, 359; Mar oh, 
2,197; April, 32,847; May, 27,798; Jnne. 10,- 
313; July, 5.615; August, 4,966; September. 
15,010; October, 22,213; November, 10,571; 
December, 1,819. Totol, 134,042 bags, of 
which there was spring wool, 78,561 bags, 
weighing 21,907,080 pounds; spring wool ship- 
ped direct from the interior, 740,650 pounds; 
total spring production, 22,746,7311 pounds. 
There was fall wool received, 55,481 bags, 
weighing 18,863,540 pounds; fall wool shipped 
direct from the interior 361,903 pounds; total 
fleece wool, 41,972.223 pounds; pulled wool 
shipped direct from San Francisco, 1,560,000 
pounds; total production of California 43.532,- 
223 pounds; on baud December 31, 1874, about 
6,458,000 pounds; received from Oregon, 8,006 
bags, 1,850,000 pounds; for<ign wool received, 
!''.);» bales, 375,000 pounds. < irand total 52,215,- 
2-.J pounds. 

Exports. 

Domestic, foreign, pulled and scoured, per 
rail, inclu'iive of shipments from the interior, 
40,493,248 ponnds; per steamer, inclusive of 
shipments from the coast, 4,071,69.'i pounds; 
per sail, 3,618,074 pounds. Total shipments, 
48,183,017 pounds. Value of exports, S8,4.J0,- 
UOO. On hand December 31, 1875, 1,400 bags, 
4-.JO,000 pounds. 

The difference between receipts and exports 
has been taken by local mills. The weights of 
receipts and exports are gross. The usual tare 
of bags received is about three pounds each; 
on pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 pounds 
each. 

Good Quality. 

Fully two-thirds of the wool graded during 
the past year is Al . The balance is .42 and B. 
This proportion has been unchanged for the 
past six years. The wool market during 1875 has 
tieen free from any great fluctuation or excite- 
ment. Stocks on band are the smallest for 
several year8,a8 the demand has been sutticieutly 
large to take not only the increased amount 
shorn, but also the large supply of the previous 
clip on hand at the beginning of the scison. 
Purchasers for account of Eastern buyers hnve 
taken the largest part of the wools, and the 
amount so taken increases each year. 

The Spring Clip, 
Excepting Southern wools, was in good con- 
dition, but the staple was below the average, 
owing to extensive shearing in the fall of 1874. 
Many parcels from the extreme North were less 
desirable than formerly on this account, their 
length of staple causing them to be iu good 
demand. Southern wools were inferior, as 
they were short stapled, iu poor condition, 
and contained more defects than 1874. Fall 
wools began to arrive in August, and the whole 
clip was T6Cfii^e<^ earlier than usual. Low 



prices and the financial disturbances at the 
time when wools usually come forward most 
reely, deterred many growers from shearing. 

The Amount of the Clip 
fHas, however, exceeded estimates made early 
in the season, and shows that the loss of sheep 
in consequence of poor feed and from being 
driven out of the country, was over-estimated. 
The condition and staple of the clip were above 
the average of the previous year. Wools of 
good staple and medium grade have been in 
bes: demand, and have brooght comparatively 
higher prices. The loss in scouring is less, 
and they can be used more extensively than 
short-stapled fine blooded wools. "The short- 
ness of staple in the latter limits their ase to a 
few manufacturers, and growers must accept 
low prices for them because the demand is 
small. 

Suggestions. 
California cannot compete with Australia or 
South America iu raising fine wool, as the 
climate is unsuitable. Manufacturers use Cal- 
ifornia wools because they cost less clean than 
the best foreign or domestic, and when the 
shrinkage is heavy the price for the wool in tlie 
grease must be low because it cannot be used 
in making high-priced goods. The supply of 
wool of medium grade and long staple is always 
less than the demand. By raising wool with 
these cbaracteribtics growers would obtain good 
prices for their spring and fall clip, as both 
would be of good staple and condition. There 
is a difl'erence of twelve to fifteen per cent, in 
favor of medium, and against fine wools from 
the same section, and the former are preferred 
at the increased price. Better wools would be 
produced if growers would shear early in the 
fall and give as much lime as possible for the 
growth of the spring clip. The large amount 
now produced in California renders it expedi- 
ent for growers to raise such wool as buyers 
want. There is always too much fine heavy 
stock, and the whole clij) suffers on this ac- 
count. The wools have generally arrived in a 
marketable condition, and the cases of fraud- 
ulent packing have been unusually few. Some 
growers have tied their tags and looks like 
fleeces, instead of putting them in separate 
packages. Such action tends to prejudice buy- 
ers against them as the preference is always 
given to wools carefully handled. The clip of 
Oregon has been about the same as in former 
years, both in amount and character. 
Product of California Wool. 

PuundB.I Pounds. 

18R4 niS.OOOIPCC S,633W7 

1855 :iOO. 000 1867 10,'J«8,(UlO 

IftSC f,«( 000 lWi« 14.2J'i,657 

1H57 1,100,000,18011 15,113,'J70 

1858 1,«8.3MI1870 -iOsmfim 

18S9 2,;t78,2.Wl 871 -Ji, 187,18s 

1860 8,0,56,325 1872 24, 26.5,41-8 

1861 3,721 9U8 1873 SUUSC.liHI 

1862 6,990,300 1874 39,356,781 

1863 fi,2«8.4W) 1875 43,682,22:1 

1864 7,923.670' 

186S 8.949,98ll Tot»1 271.B18,6r.8 




Temperature and Cream Raising. 

One of the moat discussed questions in dai- 
rying for butter is, at what depth and'tempera- 
ature is il advisable to set milk to secure all 
the cream ? There have been numerous 
opinions derived from diverse experience. 
We find in the New York Trihum an 
article from Prof. L, B. Arnold, secretary of 
the American dairymen's association, which 
states very clearly the principles which govern 
the rising of cream. The propositions set 
forth are of peculiar value to California butter 
makers, for here it is not as easy to secure ex- 
act temperatures as at the East where ice- 
houses are abundant. Prof, .\rnold showa how 
the setting may be made to act perfectly in 
different degrees of heat. He writes: 

There are a few general facts relating to set- 
ting milk and raising cream that have, an appli- 
cation in deep and shallow setting, which it 
may not be out of place to state briefly in this 
connection. 1. Other conditions being equal, 
it must be evident that it takes less time for 
cream to rise through a thin stratum of milk 
than a thick one — less time to rise two inches 
than twelve. 2. As fat, of which cream is 
chiefly composed, swells more with heat and 
shrinks more with cold than does water, of 
which milk is chiefly composed, i t is ^evident 
if other circumstances are alike, that oream 
will rise faster in a high temperature than a 
low one, since the fat in cream, by swelling 
more with beat, will be relatively lighter, when 
both milk and cream are warm, than when 
both are cold, the temperature in both oases 
being supposed to be neither rising nor falling, 
but standing without change. 3. Water is a 
better conductor t)f heat than fat, and hence, 
when the temperature of milk varies cither up 
or down, the water in the milk feels the effect 
of heat or cold a little sooner than the fat in the 
cream does, and therefore the cream is 
always a little behind the water in swelling 
with heat and shrinking with cold, diminishing 
the difference between the specific gravity of 
the milk and cream when the temperature is 
rising, and increasing it when the temperature 
is falling. The difl'erenco between the specific 
gravities of milk and cream, when both have 
the same temperature, is but little. It is barely 
enough to give a sluggish motion to the oream, 



January 15, 1876.] 



PSBS: 



35 



Where the difference in gravities Is so very 
small, a slight increase or decrease is sensi- 
tively felt, and the careful observer will have 
no difficulty in noting the retarded ascent of 
cream in a rising temperature, and its hurried 
ascent in a falling one. Tho fact of a hurried 
rising of cream in a falling temperature of milk 
has great significance in butter dairying, and 
though always open for recognition in every 
butter making establishment, whether corporate 
or private, it has failed of being recognized 
both by dairymen and dairy writers, perlmps 
because they have had their minds intently 
bant on some ideal temperature or depth as the 
nine qua non. A little explanation may help to 
show how these general statements are con- 
nected with deep ana shallow setting. 

If two vessels of milk at 80" and of the same 
depth and quality are set in a room which has 
an even temperature of 50-', and one is cooled, 
before setting, to 50^^, and the other is not, the 
vessel which was cooled will not throw up 
cream so rapidly nor so perfectly as the one 
which was not cooled before setting, because 
it received no benefit from an increased difier- 
ence between the specific gravities of the milk 
and cream by reason of a falling temperature. 
If after the cooled milk had stood at 50" till the 
cream ceases to rise, it is warmed and set again 
at 50', or if without warming it is set in a rooni 
colder than 50", in either case more cream will 
rise by reason of lowering the temperature. 
The same results would follow, but in a feebler 
degree, if the milk which was not cooled before 
setting was treated in the same way, provided 
it was set shallow, say two inches deep in the 
first place. Milk ^set shallow in a cold room 
will not throw up its cream so perfectly as 
when set in a warm room, because when shal- 
low it drsps to the standard of the room before 
the cream is all up, and now, having ceased to 
derive any benefit from a depression of tem- 
perature, it will not, in a cold room, throw up 
Its cream with a sufficient force to bring the 
heavier particles to the surface. Bearing in 
mind that, up to a certain point, the warmer 
milk is kept the sooner it spoils, 05" is a high 
temperature to set milk in; yet milk set two 
inches deep at 05*^ will throw up its cream 
quickly and perfectly, when it would not do so 
sot at 50;>, because though the milk may very 
soon fall to the standard of the room and cease 
to derive any advantage from a falling temper- 
ature, yet as the cream rises more readily in a 
high temperature than in a low one, it will, at 
such a degree, and such a depth, come up last 
enough to rise perfectly before souring begins. 
If we should set warm milk in vessels six 
inches deep, in a room at 05 ', it would take so 
much longer for the cream to come up through 
that increased depth that the milk would spoil 
before it all could get up. But let the deep 
vessel be placed in a cold room, say at 50^, and 
the result will be altogether difl'erent. Unlike 
the shallow milk in the cool room, the in- 
creased depth and bulk so much prolongs the 
time of cooling that tho cream will all, or very 
nearly all, be up before the milk has drojiped 
to the standard of the room. 

By having the foregoing general statements 
well grounded in the mind, and keeping in dis- 
tinct remembrance the relations between tem- 
perature and depth, and especially the im- 
portant effect of a falling temperature upon the 
ascent of cream, one anxious to learn can, 
with a little experience, be successful in rais- 
ing cream perfectly at any temperature from 
40° to 70°. It will become clear that though 
certain temperatures are desirable, they are not 
absolutely necessary to obtaining all the cream. 
There is a great deal of talk about an even 
temperature for raising cream, and so far as 
the dairy room is concerned, it is desirable 
that it should be uniform, because it gives reg- 
ularity to all the operations of the dairy, and 
aids in secnring uniform results. But so far 
as the single fact of raising the cream is con- 
cerned it IS better that the milk should i.ot be 
kept at any one particular degree, but that it 
should be kept varying downward 'as long as 
possible. 



Agriculture in the Public Schools. 

[By Prof essor Isaac Kinlet— Concluded.] 

The True Book Farming. 

There was a lime, and not long ago, when 
hook farming, or scientific farming, was the 
standing jest of the farmers theiriselves. It was 
looked upon as a species of pedantry, set up in 
opposition to experience. And it must be con- 
fessed that many were the men, with heads 
chock full of theories and visions of tho poetry 
of country life, wkose great promises and great 
failures gave point to the general joke. If, in- 
deed, I were compelled to choose between 
theory without experience, and experience 
without theory, I should, uuhositatiugly, t»ke 
the latter, confidently expecting that routine 
with industry and strong muscles would win 
the race. tor the farmer needs educated 
muscles as well as educated mind, and habits 
of industry as well as habits of thought. No 
one should be foolish enough to suppose that 
theory of itself can produce gr«at crops. It is 
theory applied— the skillful hand guided by a 
wise head, that must accomplish results. 

The science of agriculture — I use this phrase 
for convenience — is not one, but many sciences, 
or such parts of them as relate to and explain 
the practical operations on the farm. Agricul- 
ture is, by common consent, one of the oldest 
of human pursuits; and it would be paying a 
poor compliment to the tillers of the soil, to 
deny that anything more valuable than routine 



has been deduced from all the experience of all 
the ages. 

Value of Agricultural Science. 

The value of agricultural science has been 
recognized by the congress of the United 
States, in establishing an agricultural bureau, 
and in the donation to each State of a portion 
of the public lands for the purpose of building 
up the industrial colleges in which agriculture 
is to occupy a conspicuous place. It is further 
supported by the fact that severnl colleges have 
established departments of agriculture. But 
it will be generally and sufBciently recognized 
only when the common schools of the State 
admit agricultural students, and teach agricul- 
tural science as a necessary part of their edu- 
cation. When this is done, we shall see other 
industries alongside it having equal educational 
advantages. 

Now that congress has made a valuable do- 
nation for the purpose of having agriculture 
taught, its utility, as a collegiate study, is be- 
ginning to bo admitted; though, as a study, in 
the schools of lower grade, it is ridiculed as 
impractical. You may teach it in the colleges 
but not in the township or district schools. A 
little reflection will suffice to show the absurd- 
ity of this proposition. Not more than one 
farmer's son in a thousand has the advantage 
of a collegiate course of study; and of those 
who do have, the number is relatively small of 
those who rolurn to the farm. I agree, how- 
ever, that the introduction of a cour.se of agri- 
cultuial study will greatly increase the number 
of farmers' boys who enter college, as well as 
the relative proportion of those who, after 
haviug graduated, will return to farming pur 
suits. But after making a liberal allowance 
for this, it must still always be true, that only 
a very small per cent, of the whole people can 
ever have the benefits of a collegiate education. 
Whatever of agricultural science is taught to the 
great mass of the people must, therefore, be 
taught in tho common schools. A few farmers 
of aillHtnce will be able to send their sons to 
college; a few young men of great energy will 
work their way through the collegiate course; 
but the large majority must be educated only 
in the public schools, and unless the industrial 
sciences can be taught in these the great mass 
of the people must forego all school instruction 
in this subject. 

Tlie whok people should be educated in the knmd- 
edge and business of practical life. By denying 
the introduction of industrial science into the 
public schools, the very persons must always 
be deprived of it who most need its advantages. 
In this country it is not the policy to segregate 
the land into large estates, constituting the 
rural population into landlords and tenants. 
The policy is rather to subdivide into small 
estates, the farmer tilling his own soil. His 
boys take the place of hired help, and cannot 
well be spared from home. The public schools 
are, as a rule, their only opportunities, and we 
should make these opportunities equal to their 
wants. To say that agriculture shall be taught, 
and yet not taught in those schools, is to deny 
the teaching of it where alone it can be greatly 
beneficial. 

In order that agricultural education be valu- 
able to the people at all it must be taught in 
schools accessible to the people. What mock- 
ery to provide the benefits of agricultural in- 
struction, and yet have this instruction given 
only in institutions which no considerable por- 
tion of the people can by any possibility at- 
tend. It should be taught in the colleges, as a 
matter of course; but let the colleges be in this, 
as in other subjects, places to which students 
may graduate trom schools of lower grade. 

But cui bono, says the practical man of busi- 
ness, suppose every rea-ionable objection be 
answered and every farmer's son thoroughly 
educated in agricultural science, what good wiTl 
it all do? I concede that the question of utility 
properly stands at the threshold of every enter- 
prise. What use? On the proper answer to this 
question will depend the final success of the 
mo^'ement. We live in an utilitarian age. We 
are a utilitarian people. And in the widest 
sense of this much abused word I confess to 
the title of utilitarian. Utility is the motive 
power that gives force to enterprise and over- 
comes the inertia of popular indifference. By 
it let us test the present movement, and let its 
fate be decided by the answer to the question, 
"For what good?" 

The Results. 

The first and most manifest benefit arising 
from agricultural education will be the general 
increase of the products of the farm. As al- 
ready stated, the farmer applies practically im- 
Ijortant principles of science. That iu order to 
apply these correctly it is necessary to under- 
stand them, is a proposition which needs no 
argument. When the farmer plows he changes 
the mechanical and chemical condition of the 
soil. When he plants and cultivates he is mak- 
ing oxperimonts in organic chemistry. When 
he feeds his live stock he is applying principles 
of physiology and hygiene. And finally, every 
kind of farm work requires, in order that it be 
done at the right time and in the proper man- 
ner, piactical knowledge as well as practical 
skill. Now, if the sciences which give infor- 
mation on these subjects bo taught in the pub- 
lic schools, and be made the text for school 
books — the best methods with the reasons there- 
for explained— it is plain that the fund of prac- 
tical knowledge would be increased, and the 
judgment correspondingly improved. 

Agriculture in the school would cultivate 
early habits of reflection as applied to work, 
and in after life cause knowledge and judgment 
to take the place of routine. 

If what I have said be true we should expect 
to find, aa is the fact, that in those countries 



where agricultural science is better understood 
and better applied, a corresponding increase in 
the products of the earth. In England, Hol- 
land and most of the German States, the aver- 
age products of the soil exceed those of the 
United States, though our soils are newer and 
naturally more fertile. Industry guided by 
science has converted the rocky fields of East- 
ern Massachusetts into gardens, and every year 
witnesses harvests that are seldom surpassed in 
the more fertile fields of the newer States. 

In the different portions of the Union the ex- 
amples have been numerous of skillful and 
scientific farmers, who, purchasing waste and 
worn out fields, have by underdraining, deep 
plowing, subsoiliug and a judicious application 
of fertilizers, made their barren soils the equal 
of the best. 

Great crops are not accidents. The laws of 
nature are uniform. In agriculture, as in other 
things, like causes mu.st produce like effects. 
Wherever exist the necessary conditions great 
crops must be produced. To explain what are 
these conditions; how, at the least cost, to pre- 
serve them when present, or to produce thi m 
when absent, is the legitimate work of agricul- 
tural instruction. Let us suppose all the more 
important knowledge on this subject arranged 
in convenient and systematic form and pub- 
lished in a series of school books, numbering 
one, two, three, etc., from easy primary works 
to those more thoroughly scientific, and that 
these be made an optional part, of the school 
course. What grand results might we not rea- 
sonably expect. Within the next generation 
agriculture would assume a new form; its pro- 
cesses would in every way be improved, and in 
some cases a hundred per cent, be added to the 
products of tho soil. The ditch, underdraiu 
and subsoil plow would carry from our wet 
lands the excess of moisture now compelled to 
evaporate into the atmosphere, generating 
agues and all manner of pestilential fevers; the 
houses, barns, orchards and fences would take 
on neatness, order and beauty, and our glorious 
country become the Arcadia of the world. 

The simple operation of ditching and under- 
draining and subsoiling, so beneficial in many 
parts of the United States, is a practical ap- 
plication of scientific principles. Now is it not 
reasonable that the farmer who understands 
these principles will be more hkely to apply 
them properly than one who does not? 

Knowing Causes. 

It is said that it is enough to know the fact. 
Why trouble ourselves about the sciences? I 
answer that we are a reasoning, skeptical, phil- 
osophical people, and it is very difficult to 
convince us of facts without our first knowing 
the reason. But give us a theory — even a false 
one, if we are thoroughly convinced of its 
truth — -and we will traverse the polar regions 
in search of Symme's hole, lavish our money 
without stint on a machine that is to be a per- 
petual motion, or quietly wait the new advent 
according to the predictions of Miller. Give 
us a reason, whether in sciences, politics, or re- 
ligion, and we follow it to its legitimate results. 

Educational institutions are for the young. 
The youth should have opportunities to pre- 
pare for the life battles in which they are soon 
to engage. Let therefore, the farmer's sons, 
and daughters, too, be thoroughly educated in 
the principles of scientific agriculture. Let 
theory and practice go hand in hand. While 
the muscles are being trained in the habit and 
skill of farm work, let the mind be instructed 
in such knowledge as will make this skill the 
more valuable. 

The year that witnesses the advent of agri- 
culture as a study in the public schools, will 
mark an era in human improvement, and the 
man then of middle age will live to see accru- 
ing advantages beyond all calculation. In no- 
thing else', perhaps, will this improvement be 
so marked as in the use of fertilizers. The 
farmer who knows not what his soil contains, 
nor what the plant feeds on, is not so likely to 
supply to an impoverished soil precisely the 
plant-food it needs, as one better acquainted 
with the constituents of both soil and plant, 
and who understands tho best and most econ- 
omical means of supplying deficiencies. One 
of the greatest drawbacks to agricultural im- 
provement is the constant withdrawal of edu- 
cated young men from the farm. Regarding agri- 
culture as mere routine, ambitious young men 
tire of the exclusively muscle work, and seek 
a wider field of intellectual pursuit. These 
young men will learn that farming is an intel- 
lectual vocation, and that the fields that grow 
their crops are also fields of research. Seeing 
that intelligent labor produces double the yield 
of mere routine they will not be so readily 
tempted away from this the grandest of human 
pursuits. 

Culture Advocated. 

I do not mean that the agricultural student 
should give his attention to this subject alone, 
and to tho exclusion of all other needed inlor- 
inatiou; I would not shut him out from other 
sources of knowledge or from any means of re- 
fining and humanizing culture. Every child 
that comes into the world has, by reason of its 
humanity, an inalienable right to the growth 
of its powers, and should havo, not only during 
minority, but through life, the best opportuni- 
ties for mental and moral culture. 

With the improvement in agriculture will 
come a corresponding improvement in the 
other industries and of society itself. Endless 
indeed are the collateral advantages that would 
result. Among these the suppression of deiii- 
agogism and the silencing of corrupt politicians 
will not be the least. The general increase of 
intelligence that must result will make the 
people so jaunty a nag as to render the riding 
of it a dangerous cxpekirnent. 



The great resulting moral advantages must 
not be forgotten. It has been beautifully said 
that " The laws of nature are the elder word of 
God." The student of agricultural science is 
the student of nature, and whether studying or 
applying this " elder word, " he will feel that he 
is ever in the presence of the invisible but 
omnipotent God, to whom study and labor are 
at once a homage and a prayer. Agriculture 
in the public schools will produce high culture 
on the farms, and what is infinitely greater 
and better, it will produce high culture in the 
minds and hearts of the sons and daughters of 
the people. 

California Swamp Lands. 

Their Productions and Value when Reclaimed. 

Within the past few years the swamp and 
overflowed lands of the State have received 
considerable attention at home, but as yet but 
a faint idea is formed abroad of the wonderful 
wealth concealed beneath the tule formation 
along several of the larger lakes and river delta. 
It is much a matter of wonder to-day that 
all of these lands aie not under cultivation as 
it is that the rich lands all over the State were 
allowed to lie idle and unoccupied in early 
days. The reasons are principally the same 
in both instances— men have sought to find a 
shorter and less laborious road to wealth 
thrnngh the gold and silver mines, and have 
sc irued to embark in an enterprise that can 
liiil prove profitable. 

To give a full description of the swamp 
lands of the State would require a volume; but 
we believe a short description of the quantity, 
quahty, location and condition of this valuable 
portion of our State will be of general interest 
at home and abroad. Three million acres is 
the amount of swamp land put down by the 
Surveyor-General, and the estimate is not far 
out of the way. Let us figure a little, taking 
thirty bushels of wheat to the acre, which is 
not a high estimate, as we shall prove directly. 
This would give a total product of 90,000,000 
bushels of wheat for these lands alone. Allow- 
ing that they were all reclaimed and settled up 
by small farmers, at, say the rate of two hund- 
red acres to each family, would give us an ad- 
ditional population of 15,000 families, or about 
00,000 souls. Allowing one-third of this land 
for orchards, pastures, gardens, roads, villages 
and other purposes, it would slill leave an an- 
nual product of 00,000,000 bushels of wheat 
from the remaining two-thirds, which would be 
just 34,000,000 more than the total product of 
wheat and barley combined for the year 1866, 
and 30,000,000 bushels more than the com- 
bined product of wheat and barley in 1872. Of 
the land now cultivated in the State, more 
than two-thirds is devoted to wheat and barley, 
or about the same proportion as allotted to the 
swamp lands. In other words, the swamp 
lands of the State are fully equal in extent and 
area to the entire cultivated area of the State, 
and if reclaimed, will yield double as much. 

The tule lands of the State are situated prin- 
cipally in the Sacramento valley, commencing 
above Red Bluft", and extending down the Sacra- 
mento river on both aides alternately, to where 
it unites with the San Joaquin; also, bordering 
on several of the lakes, Tulare and Kern. The 
freshwater lands are fertile the moment they 
are reclaimed, there being no salts or alkalies to 
interfere. The qualities of these lands vary, 
as a matter of course, those higher up the river 
having a more compact soil than those near the 
delta. All the land, however, is composed of 
about the same material — decayed tule and the 
sediment deposited by the streams at high 
water. This sediment is brought from the 
mountains and gulches, being washed off by 
the rains and melting snows, and also by means 
of hydraulic streams used for mining purposes. 
The sediment alone is almost equal to manure 
as a fertilizer, and when the clayish character 
of these deposits is eradicated, and the ground 
softened and mellowed by the strata of decayed 
tule, it forms a soil at once rich and mellow, 
which cannot be surpassed by any known arti- 
ficial or natural ground. 

The first crops planted on these reclaimed 
lands was wheat. The tnles were burned off in 
the fall, and the wheat sown, then bands of 
sheep driven over it until the seed was tho- 
roughly covered. On the islands now under 
cultivation the horses are shod with a broad, 
flat shoe, which keeps them from sinking down, 
and the wagon wheels have a rim from eight 
inches to a foot wide, for the same purpose. 

In tho fore part of this chapter we based our 
estimate on thirty bushels to the acre. Now for 
the lacts. Last year wo visited all the re- 
claimed islands, and from personal knowledge 
know that the average yield of wheat on these 
lands was more than sixty bushels, while many 
fields turned out as high as ninety, and that of 
the finest quality. What will people lately 
from the East say, where the greatest item of 
expense is for manure, without the application 
of which the land would not earn its suit, where 
tho hills of corn are covered with plaster, and 
where thirty bushels is a good yield — when we 
state that we have seen a crop of grain cut off, 
and the ground immediately plowed up and 
planted to beans, which would yield a crop the 
same year of fifteen to twenty centals to the 
acre, worth at least forty dollars. We have 
seen tho ground in young orchards on these 
islands rent to Chinamen lor fifteen to twenty 
dollars an acre, and it paid them well, too. 
We have seen four crops of alfalfa cut in a 
single year, aggregating twelve tons of good 
hay, worth at the landing of the boat ten dol- 
lar's a ton, which would be $120, and this less 
$2 a ton for baling and delivering, would leave 
$90 an acre a\eM.— Sacramento Record-Union. 



36 



January 15, 1876 



pmw ®^ IfBpiiBiti. 



TSE HEADatTARTERS of the California 
State Grange are at No. 6 Liedeedorff street, in rear of 
the Grangers' Banli of California, No. 415 California 
Btreet San Franclnco. 

The Oranstrs' Business Association of California is 
St No. 361 Market St. 

Grangers' Business Association of Cal- 
ifornia. 

Notice of Annual Ueeting of Stockholders. 

The Annual Meeting of the Stockholders of the 
Orangers' Business Association of California, for the 
election of Directors, will be held at the oflice of the 
corporation, in the building at the north^eaxt corner of 
California and Davis streets, in the city and county of 
San iranolsco, ou Wednesday, the sixteenth day of 
February, 1870, at the hour of ten o'clock In the fore- 
noon of that day. 

T, J. Beooke, William Vanderbilt, 

Vice-President. Secretary. 



Kew Constitution and By-Laws. 

We have the amended form of the Constitution and 
By-Laws and Rules of Order of the State Granye: the 
Declaration of Purposes, Constitution and By-Laws of 
the National Grange, and blank form of Subordinate 
Grange. Constitution and By-Laws now printed in 
one pamphlet. Granges supplied at five cents per 
copy, post paid, from the Rural Pbebs office, San 
Itancisco. 



Obakoe DiBBcroEy.— We have concluded to postpone 
the printing of our Grange Directory until the first 
week in February, in order that it may embrace the 
records of elections in the several Granges which are 
now coming in each week. At that time we shall give 
a full list of the officers of the State Grange, Deputies 
Dames of Councils, Subordinate Granges, Masters and 
Secretaries. 



Election RETnaNS.— Secretaries will please send us, 
ss early as possible, the result of their election of offi- 
cers. Write plainly (on one tide only) in the fiilluwiiig 
form:— "Napa Grange, No. 1. Napa Cily. Election, 
Dec. 4.— J. B. Saul, M.; J.W.Ward, Jr., O.; Harry 
Haskell, Sec.;" and so on, giving a full list and also 
the names of trustees and busiuess agent. We should 
like to receive further correspondence from Secretaries 



The New Grange Headquarters. 

We noticed some time since that the Grange 
Business Association, the Grangers' Bank and 
Farmers' Loan Association bad purchased the 
large three-story brick fire-proof building at 
the corner of California and Davis streets. 

The parties took possession of the premises 
on the 1st inst., and extensive alterations are 
now in progress on the first floor to accommodate 
the various departments which are to occupy 
that portion of the premises. 

The Grangers' Bank will occupy a large 
corner room fronting upon both streets, which 
will be appropriately fitted up for such a busi- 
ness. The Insurance Company will occupy 
rooms fronting on California street, and the 
Grangers' Business Association a room fronting 
on Davis street, and rcnning back the entire 
depth of the building, which fronts forty-five 
feet ten inches on California street and ninety- 
one feet eight inches on Davis street. The 
rooms will be ready for occupation about the 
Ist of February. Brother Adams, the new 
Secretary of the State Grange, has already 
taken possession of his quarters, which will be 
found in the corner room on the third floor — a 
sightly and sunny location. The entrance to 
all the upper floors is from California street by 
a wide and easy stairway. The balance of the 
building is already occupied by first-class ten- 
ants. 

We have in preparation an illustration of the 
building, as it will appear when the new occu- 
pants take possession of the lower floor, show- 
ing signs, etc., which will probably appear the 
last week in the present month, when a more 
minute description of the building will be 
given in these columns. 

Pbockbdings of the Na'hosal Ghangk.— 
The official proceedings of the last session of 
the National Grange has been published in an 
octavo volume of 208 pages, for a copy of which 
we are indebted to Secretary Kelley. By in- 
struction of the Grange, a copy will be 
forwarded to the Master of every Subordinate 
Grange, and thus made accessible to every 
member of the Order throughout the Union. 
The document will be found valuable for 
reference, and every active;member, especially, 
of every Subordinate Grange, should take the 
earliest opportunity to make himself famihar 
with its contents. All matters of general in- 
terest to which it refers should be laid before 
the respective Granges by Masters, at the 
earliest convenient opportunity, as no doubt 
they will be. Copies for distribution in Cali- 
fornia are probably now in transit. 



Annivebsabt Celebbations.— We have re 
oeived quite a number of communications in 
relation to anniversary celebrations, harvest 
feasts and installations, for which we have no 
room this week. All thus far on hand will find 
a place in oar columns next week. Among 
others we notice that Cloverdale Grange had a 
pleasant occasion, at which Master C. H. 
Cooley delivered an address, which he was re- 
quested to tend us for publication. We suspect 
his modesty, and not any delinquency in the 
postoffice, is the cause oif the non-arrival. 



Meeting of the Executive Committee. 

The Executive Committee of the State 
Grange met at No. 6 Leidesdorfi' street on Tues- 
day last, and continued in session for three 
days for the transaction of such business as 
might come before them. 

Among other matters presented, the report 
of the experts appointed to examine the ac- 
counts of late Secretary Baxter and Treasurers 
Fisher and Carrington was received, considered 
and placed on file. The report will be pub- 
lished in full in connection with the proceed- 
ings of the late meeting of the State Grange, 
which will soon be issued in pamphlet form. 

The Committee also proposed certain amend- 
ments to the Constitution and By-Laws of Sub- 
ordinate Granges, which will be found in an- 
other column. 

Bro. Manlove, of Sacramento, presented the 
following resolution, which was adopted and 
ordered published in the Rubal Pbess: 

liesnlvcd. That the attention of Subordinate Granges 
1)0 called to the circular sent them for si^uature, and 
signed by J. Strentzel and W. A. Sanders, committee 
of the State Grange on Education, which circular con- 
tains a series of resolutions regarding a change of text 
books in the common schools. Particular attention is 
called to the first and seventh articles as being in op- 
position to the memorial of the California State Grange 
and Mechanics' Deliberative Assembly in relation to 
the State I'niversity, which memorial was approved by 
the late State Grange. 

If we rightly understand the purport of the 
above resolution, it is the desire of the Com- 
mittee that those into whose hands the circular 
referred to falls, should erase article first and 
seventh therein, and sign the petition as it 
would then stand. The objectionable articles 
probably found their way into the circular in- 
advertently, and without the knowledge that 
they ran counter to the wishes of the State 
Grange expressed in the memorial which it 
issued conjointly with the Mechanics' Delibera- 
tive Assembly. 

Must Pay Up. 

Grayson Grange, No. 31, applied to the Exec- 
utive Committee, at its late session, to have the 
dues on members who are delinquent romilted, 
and the Grange allowed to go on with its live 
members. 

After due consideration of the above, the 
Secretary of the State Grange was instructed to 
notify said Grange that it must pay up to the 
State Grange in full for its mepibership to 
date, or surrender its charter, as required by 
the Constitution and By-Laws of the State 
Grange. 

As the amount delinquent is small there will 
be no difficulty in complying with the require- 
ment, and we merely notice the circumstance 
as one of interest to all Subordinate Granges, 
in the matter of requiring prompt payment of 
dues from their membership. So long as they 
keep names on their roll they will be required 
to make full and prompt payments on all such 
names to the .State Grange, whether the mem- 
bers themselves pay up or not. 

Under these circumstances, and to secure a 
more prompt payment of dues to subordinate 
Granges in future, the Executive Committee 
have recommended certain changes in the Con- 
stitution and By-Laws of Subordinate Granges, 
which, with certain others of a more general 
character, have been suggested by a correspond- 
ent of the KuRAii Pbess. These suggested 
changes will be given in another isane. 

Installation in Santa Clara Grange and 
Harvest Feast. 

Notwithstanding the bad roads and the threat- 
ening aspect of the weather, the streets of Santa 
Clara were all astir with carriages, buggies and 
spring wagons on the morning of New Year's 
day. In and on they came, from every direc- 
tion, bravely spattering through the slush and 
mud, as if drawn together and inspired by the 
same common interest. All the bitching pla- 
ces in and about the business portion of the 
town were soon occupied, and well dressed 
men and women, with well filled baskets in 
hand, could be seen in all directions. What 
could it all mean V a passer-by might inquire; 
could it be possible that all these people had 
mistaken the day, and brought their butter and 
eggs to market, to find all the stores and busi- 
ness houses closed— except the saloons, and 
they might as well have been closed, as far as 
any patronage from this crowd was con- 
cerned. But your correspondent was posted ; 
he had read a notice in the Kubal Press that 
there was to be at ten and one-half o'clock this 
morning, an installation of officers in Santa 
Clara Grange, No. 71, and, furthermore, and 
better, the int-tallation ceremonies were to be 
followed by a harvest feast. My better half 
and I had been discussing the propriety of our 
attending, when a special invitation settled the 
mattt r, and wo resolved to go. At the ap- 
pointed hour there was assembled 

In the Hall 
a large and intelligent company of people, not 
only the members of this Grange, but I saw 
familiar faces from San Jose and other places. 
After the opening of the Grange in due form, 
the regular business of the day was suspended 
for the installation of the officers for the pres 
ent year, whose names have already appeared 
in the Rueal Pbess. 



The beautiful and appropriate formula of in- 
stallation was conducted by Past Worthy Mas- 
ter H. M. Leonard, assisted by young Brother 
W. H. Garwood, in a most interesting and 
graceful manner. 

The Lunch Room. 
After the officers elected had been duly in- 
stalled and conducted to their seats, a resolu- 
tion prevailing to that efl"ect, we were all paired 
ofi'; Worthy Master Wilcox conducting the 
Lady Ceres, heading the hungry column, we 
were marched in good order to the lunch room, 
filing round three long tables, extending the 
whole length of the room, literally loaded and 
crowded with the good things provided for the 
occasion. It seemed there was everything that 
the most fastidious epicure could desire from 
the subsfantials, to the most delicate and 
tempting viands, all in such lavish profusion 
as to afford proof positive that we were the 
guests of generous, big hearted friends. After 
thanks had been offered up to the Giver of all 
Good, by the Rev. H. H. Dabbins, we were all 
invited to take hold and help ourselves. This 
invitation had not to be pressed upon us very of- 
ten. I think it was pretty generally and promptly 
accepted, though I can only vouch, positively, 
for a little circle around the end of one of the 
tables. 

For the next half hour, more or less, I was 
so intensely interested and absorbed in mat- 
ters and things just before me, and in my 
immediate neighborhood, that I know but little 
of what was going on elsewhere. I have, how- 
ever, some distinct recollection of hearing the 
rattle of knives, forks, spoons and things, all 
around, and the clatter and hum of the voices 
of men and women, with frequent bursts of 
merry laughter. 

Miles and miles from here I had heard it re- 
ported that the ladies of S-inta Clara Grange 
could not be excelled anywhere in their splen- 
did style of getting up and serving harvest 
feasts. Well, I don't want to say everything 
here that may be construed as disparaging to 
others, as the last one is generally thought the 
best, when all are so good, as far as my ex- 
perience goes. But, just here, Messrs. Editors, 
while the pleasure of this reunion is fresh in 
my memory, this "feast of reason and flow of 
soul," and a savour of the good things of the 
table still lingers on my tongue, I would say, if 
you should ever be so fortunate as to receive 
an invitation to attend a harvest feast in Santa 
Clara Granae, you had better by all means make 
any sacrifice in the world to do so, even if 
your whole stafl' editorial had to pay full fare 
both ways, or charter a special train for the 
occasion. 

But should you ever receive such an invita- 
tion, and anything should occur rendering it 
absolutely impossible for you to attend in per- 
sen, and there is any way by which this busi- 
ness can be done by proxy — I hope you will 
remember how ready and willing I have al- 
ways been to serve you to the very best of my 
ability — and would modestly hint, that in mat- 
ters of this kind, I claim some ability and tasU; 
and I do assure you, if ever favored with such 
a commission, I will do my level best to meet 
the responsibility. 

There was another feature of this harvest 
feast worthy of special mention, and that was 
such an abundant supply of 

Strawberries on New Year's Day. 

This supply was not made up of a few scant, 
stingy dishes or little, sickly berries, just for 
the name of the thing, raised under glass 
frames by some skillful gardener; but a bushel 
or two of fine luscious fruit, grown and ripened 
untouched by frost in the open fields in mid- 
winter! Just think of it! While our Eastern 
brethren are shivering and chattering their 
teeth around their red hot base burners, with 
the mercury away down below zero, we, in our 
favored climate, are luxuriating in luscious 
"red strawberries smothered in cream," fresh 
from our own gardens! 

The very generous supply of strawberries 
for this occasion was furnished by the newly 
elected Worthy Master, I. k. Wilcox, from his 
small fruit farm near town. 

Nor is this any freak of nature peculiar to 
this season. Mr. Wilcox informs me that he 
has more or less of a late crop every year. Last 
year his shipment of strawberries to San Fran- 
cisco ran up to some time in December. 

There were other matters of interest in the 
meeting to-day of which I would like to write, 
but my letter is already too long. The whole 
affair was a perfect success, and everything 
passed off in such a manner as to reflect much 
credit on the intelligence, energy and good 
taste of the officers and members of the Grange. 

G. W. M, 

Santa Clara, Cal., Jan. 5th, 1876. 

From the Granges. 

Little Lake Grange, 

Mkssrs. Editob.s:— Our officers were installed 
January 1st by retiring Master O. Simonsen. 
After the installation was completed a recess 
was declared and an ample dinner was sj^read 
by the Matrons, of which all wore invited to par- 
take. Suffice it to say that as usual with Grange 
diuners there was abundance for all and to 
spare. After dinner the Grange was called to 
order and initiated two new members. Our 
Grange is still prospering. We are not grow- 
ing very fast — "slow but sure." 

There have boon abundant rains in this sec- 
tion, to-day being the first clear day for a long 
time. Pasturage is good and stock is looking 
well. The weather thus far has been the 
mildest known for years. Ou my ranch, five 



miles west of the valley of Little Lake, there 
have been but two frosts, one a few days after 
Christmas and one to-day. 

I could have sent you a bouquet of melon 
and tomato flowers on Christmas — this, too, 
where we sometimea have a foot of snow — and 
potato vines a foot high. A. P. Mabtin, 

Willits, Mendocino Co., Cal. ■) 
Kelseyville Grange. 

Messbs. Editors:— On the 4tii of December 
we celebrated the anniversary of the P. of H. 
with music, the reading of the declaration of 
the principles of the order, etc., after which 
we partook of a good dinner. There were 
present a goodly number of invited guests. All 
seemed to enjoy themselves, and enquire when 
we would have another feast. We had one 
sooner than we expected, as our regular meet- 
ing came on Christmas; the sisters contrived 
in some way to keep the brothers out of the se- 
cret, for at the hour of meeting we beheld a ta- 
ble loadeddown with as good a dinner as oonld 
be found anywhere, which was quite a surprise. 
After disposing of the good things, we pro- 
ceeded to elect our officers for the ensuing year. 

T. Obmiston, Sec'y. 
. Kelseyville, Jan. r>th. 

Petaluma Grange. 

Petaluma Grange had a fine turnout on the 
8th inst. If this meeting is a fair sample of 
those which are to follow, then we may be 
justified in indulging in high anticipations for 
the future. In the forenoon we discussed the 
grain sack question, also the Alaska fur monop- 
oly and the school text book question, and 
passed resolutions concerning the same which 
we thought were for the benefit of the people. 
Documents relating to the Immigrant Bureau 
were laid over to our next regular meeting. 
During the afternoon all the officers of the 
Grange were present and duly installed. Mrs. 
L. W. Walker installed the Worthy Master and 
W. W. Chapman installed the others in proper 
order. The following were appointed: Finance 
Committee, Wm. Hill, C. D. Grover, A. Goat- 
ley. Relief Committee, J. H Ormaby, N. Wis- 
well, G. D. Green, and Sisters E. A. Mock, 
L. Skillman, W. D. Mann. 

F. Pabkeb, Sec'y. 

Petaluma, January 10th, 1876. 
Waterford Grange. 

W. C. Collins, Secretary, writes: "Farmers 
are all lying still on account of so much wet 
weather, and as it is still raining the prospect 
of farmers fiaishing sowing their grain is 
gloomy at present." 

Woodville Grange. 

J. A. Slover, Master Woodville Grange, No. 
19!), writes as follows: "Our last meeting, De- 
cember 18th, passed off sociably and pleas- 
antly. We are still growing gradually. Hope 
we may have a prosperous year for the Order 
and for the field." 

Temescal Grange. 

The members are requested to meet promptly 
at one o'clock, Saturday, Jan. 15th, for work in 
the degrees. Bro. J. V. Webster, Master of 
the State Grange, will install the officers 
elect. Bro. Christian Bagge succeeds Bro. 
Webster as Master of Temescal Grange. All 
Patrons from abroad are invited. Members 
will request their friends to be present at two 
o'clock, the hour appointed for installation. A 
basket lunch will be given by the sisters, who 
will meet for preparation at twelve o'clock. 

Election of Officers. 

Alfalfa Gbamoe, No. 1, Beno, Nevada.— 
Election, Dec. 4th: A. J. Hatch, M.; H. 
M. Frost, O.; O. C.Ross, L.; A. A. Longby, 
S.; T. W. Norcross, A. S.; W. L. Ross, C; M. 
C. Lake, T.; E. C. McKenney, Sec'y; J. F. 
Stone, G. K.: Mrs. C. B. Norcross. L. A. S.; 
Mrs. H. F. Hatch. Ceree; Mrs. T. M. Smith, 
Pomona; Mrs. F. Vaoce, Flora; J. W. Boynton, 
Trustee; E.G. McKenney, Business Agent. 

Clarksville Gbanob, No. 149, Clabesville, 

El Dorado County. — Election : 

Peter R.Willot, M.; Wm. Woodward, 0.;Sam'l 
Kybunz, L. ; Charles Chapman., S.; Joseph 
Joerger, A S.; John F. York, C. ; George 
Carsten, T.; Isaac M^ltby, Sec'y; J. R. Barret, 
G. K.; Miss Charlotte Carsten, Ceres; Mrs. R. 
S. Kybuuz, Pomona; Mrs. M. E. Porter, Flora; 
Mrs. L. E. Willot, L. A. S. 

Chkscent Gban(ik,No. 223, Half Moon Bat, 
San M.iteo County. — Election, Dec. 11th: J. B . 
Gilchrist, M.; George Lovie, O.; W. 8. Down- 
ing, L. ; M. Diggs, S. ; Aimer Rider, A. S.;John 
Holmes, C; A L. McDougal, T.;A. G. Woods, 
S.; J. Marsh, G, K ; Mrs. McDougal, Ceres; 
Mrs. Mary E. Johnston, Pomona; Mrs. J. 
Compton, Flora; Mrs. Marsh, L. A. S. 

Enxebprise Grange, No. 129, Bbiobton, 
Cal.— Election, Dec. 4th: J. M. Bell, M.;A. 
M. Plummer, O.; P. S. Lowell, L.; J. J. Ben- 
net, S.; Frank Bell, A. S. ; Mrs. H. Cronkite, 
C; J. D. Morrison, T. ; Albert Root, Sec'y; 
John Sharpe, G. K.; Mrs. E. B. Plummer, 
Ceres; Miss Roaai Miller, Pomona; Miss Mattie 
Sbaipo, Flora; Miss Susie Scholefield, L. A. S. 

Fabminoton Grange. No. \.(>1, Fabminoton, 
Tehama Corr.NTY.— Election Dec. 25ih: C. F. 
Foster, M.;W. K. Jewitt, 0.;A. Beanchamp, 
L.;C. C. Chittenden, Sec'y; W. McLain, 8.; 
Jhb. Blackburn, A. S.; T. Dewrey, C; A. J. 
Chittenden, T.; V. G. McKee. G. K.; Mrs. S. 
S. McCampbell, Ceres; Mrs. M. C. Rogers, Po- 
mona ; Mrs. M. E. Spuks, Flora; Mrs. Mary 
Blackburn, L. A. S. 



January 15, 1876.] 



37 



Kelsetville Geanqe, No. 108, Kelsetville, 
Lake Co., Cal.— Election, Dec. 25th: J. H. Ren- 
fro, M.;E. B. Bole, O.; J.Tryon. L ; A. White, 
S. ;C. C. Barker, A. S.; Wm. HarriB, C. ; A. 
Marshall, T. ; T. Ormiston, Sec'y; C. A. Finer, 
G. K.;MissE. J.Harris, Ceres; Miss M. E. 
Finer, Fomona; Mrs. A. J. Chapman, Flora; 
Mrs. K. White, L. A. S.; A. Benson, Trustee. 

Keystone Gbange, No. 244, Gbangeville, 
TuLABE Co.— Election, December 4th : E. Axtell, 
M.; J. W. Grififes, O.; W. L. Fryor, L.; S. 
Barker, S.; A. Child, A. S.; David Ross, C. ; 
J. J. Cole, T.; N. E. Goldin, Sec'y; A. J. 
Burdy, G. K.; Mrs. M. E. Eoss, Ceres; Mrs. 
C. A. Dodge, Fomona; Mrs. Nancy Axtell, 
Flora; Mrs. Laura Bascom, L. A. S. 

KrwELATTAH Gbange, No. 88, Arcata, Hum- 
boldt CouNTT. — Election, Dec. 25th: G. B. 
Kneeland, M ; H. W. Arbogast, O.; Geo. Zeh- 
endner, L.; W. N. Campbell, S., ^A. F. Falor, 
A. S.;L. F. Meachan. C.;.]o3. Nellist, T ;C. H, 
Daniels, Sec'y; F. P. Deuel, G. K. ; Sister I. 
Minor, Ceres; Sister M. J. Falor, Fomona; 
Sister G. B. Kneeland, Flora; Sister -Jos. 
Nellist, L. A. S. 

LiBEBTT Gbange, No. 69. — Election, Jan. 3d: 
T. M. Tracy, M.; E. W. S. Woods, O. ; N. A. 
Knight, L.; H. W. Childs, S.; C. C. Faulk, 

A. S.; W. Carter, C: J. B. Tarnish, T.; J. 
Schomp, Sec'y; W. Alport, G. K.; Mrs. H. 
Tracy, Ceres; Mrs. M. E. Emslie, Fomona; 
Mrs. L. C. Northrup, Flora; Miss Maggie 
Carter, L. A. S.; B. A Woodson, Trustee. 

Lincoln Grange, No. 187, Lincoln, Plaoeb 
Co.— Election. Dec. 18th: A. J. Sonle, M.; 
John Crook, O.; Hollis Newton, S.; Lawrence 
Gulling, A. S.; J, Welty, L.; M. Waldron, C. ; 

B. J. Cox, T. ; C. Crook, G. K. ; J. S. Fhilbrick, 
Sec'y; Mrs. Sarah Cox, Ceres; Mrs. HoUis, 
Fomona; Miss Lucy Thomas, Flora; Miss 
Mary Eose, L. A. S. ; John Thorp, Trustee for 
two years; E. J. Sparks, Trustee for one year. 

Little Lake Gbange, No. 151, Willit's, 
Mendocino Co. — B. Mast, M.; D. Lambert, O; 

F. Mnir, S. ; Z. Gardner, A. S. ; M. K. Sawyers, 
C. ; O. Simonsen, L.; J. G. Siiell, Sec'y; M. P. 
Buck, T.; James Frost, G. K.; Mrs. P. Mast, 
Ceres; Mrs. D. Lambert, Fomona; Mrs. A. 
Simonsen, Flora; Mrs. P. Buck, L. A. 8. 

National Eanch Gbange, No. 245, National 
C'itt, Cal. —Election, Dec. 29t,h: F. A. Kimbull 
M; E. T. Blackmer, O. ; Mrs. F. M. Kimball, L. ;. 
M. B. Hammer. S. ; N. P. Eouland, A. S. ; Mrs. 
J. Walker, C. ; W. C. Kimball, T.; G. L. Kim- 
ball, Sec'y; L. Eoberts, G. K.; Lucretia Par- 
sons, Ceres; Abbie Pardee. Pomona; Mrs. L. 
Eoberts, Flora; Mrs. S. C. Kimball, L. A. S.; 
Mrs. S. A. Bryant, Trustee. 

New Castle Gbange, No. 241, New Castle, 
Placer Co., Cal.— J. H. Mitchell, M.; Wm. 
H. Brainard, O.; B. Prewitt Tabor, L.; J. H. 
Nixon, 8.; L F. Tabor, A. S.; John C. Boggs, 
C; Wm. J. Frosser, i'.; Wm. A. Donalson, 
Sec'y; J. T. Woods, G. K.; Mrs. J. H. 
Mitchell, Ceres; Mrs. J. C. Boggs, Pomona; 
Mrs. G. Griffith, Flora; Miss N. E. Nixon, 
L. A. 8. 

Oakdale Grange, No. 160, Oakdale, Stanis- 
laus County.— Election, December 18th, 1875: 
0. R. Callender, M.;S. P. Bailey, O.; David 
Mouror, L. ; G. F. LeClart, S ; C, A. Adie, 

A. 8.; F. G. Whitby, C; Robert Lovell, T.; C. 

B. Ingalls, Sec'y; G. W. Walther, G. K.; Mrs. 
M. E. Bailey, Ceres; Mrs. A. H. Rutherford, 
Pomona; Mrs. Maria Callender, Flora; Mrs. 
E. V. Ingalls, L. A. S. ; Sebastian LeClart, 
Trustee for three years. 

Plumas Grange, No. 245, Plumas, Cal. — 
Election, Deo. 18th, 1875: A. J. Spoon, M.; 
A. B. Huntly.O.; B.F. Bobo, L.; J. E. Gobie, 
S.; R. A. White, A. 8.; A. Trimble, C; J. L. 
Crow, T.; T. Black, Sec'y; W. C. Bringham, 

G. K.; Mrs. Josie A. Spoon, Ceres; Miss A. F. 
Hubbard, Fomona; Mrs. H. Kirby, Flora; Mrs. 
Jessie H. Stiner, L. A. 8. 

Plymouth Grange, No.;232, Plymouth, Cal. 
— Election, December 18th: Jonathan Sallee,M. ; 
Chester Perry, O. ; Harding Vanderpool, L. ; 
Hugh H. Bell, S. ; Isaac W. Whitacre, A. S. ;Elea- 
zer S. Potter.'T. ; Sarah L. Horton, C. ; Stephen C. 
Wheeler, Sec'y; Sarah Vanderpool, L. A. S.; 
Sarah J. Sallee, Ceres; Charity Rickey, Flora; 
P. A. McKenzie, Pomona; Chester Perry, 
James Wheeler and Hugh H. Bell, Trustees. 

Reading Gbange, No. 195, Reading, Shasta 
Co. — Election, Dec 4th: Joseph Dinsmore, 
M.; E. A. Reid, O.; John George, L.; H. C. 
Woodrum, S.; H. Wilson, A. S.; F. Michael- 
son, Sec'y; Joseph Mullen, T.; D. R. Mc- 
Laughlin, C; George Dersh, G. K.; Mrs. 
Artie Clendinen, Ceres; Mrs. E. J. Wood, Po- 
mona; Mrs. M. Close, Flora; Mrs. Anna Wood- 
rum, L. A. S. 

RosEviLLE Gbange, No. 161. — Election, De- 
cember 4th: Wm. H. Murry, M.; J. F. Cross, 
O.; Nicholas Mertes, Sec'v; Geo. R. Grant, L.; 
Geo. Williams, 8.; G. Heinish, A. 8.; Rev. 
Bro. Fredrlcks, C; John McClurg, T.; E. 
Daley, G. ; Mrs. S. Cross, Ceres; Mrs. M. 
Mertes, Pomona; Mrs. M. Neher, Flora; Mrs. 
L. Mnrry, L. A. S. 

Salida Gbanoe, No. 8, Modesto, Cal. — 
Election, Deo. 25th, 1875: J. D. Reybnrn, M.; 
L. O. Brewster, O.; B. F. Parkes, L.; W. R. 
loanberry, C; H. Miller, T.; W. H. Chance, 
S.; B.T. Elmore, A. 8.; J. P. Vincent, Sec'y; 
W. M. Harbinson. G. K. ; Mrs. M.E. Reyburn, 
Ceres; Mrs. M. F. Wilson, Pomona; Miss 
Joanna Feagin, Flora; Mrs. L, Shoemaker, L. 
A. 8. 



San Beenabdino Grange, No. 61, San Ber- 
nardino, Cal. — Election, Dec. — : Geo. A. 
Lord, M.;C. H. Mero, 0.;L. Cram, S.; J. T. 
Read, A. S.; J. C. Cameron, C; Mrs. C. A. 
Collins, T.; E. Shelton, L ; T. D. Henry, 
Sec'y; Ed. Clyde, G. K.; Mrs. D. Eathbun, 
Ceres; Mrs. M. Carter, Pomona; Miss M. J. 
Cable, Flora; Mrs. E. Shelton, L A. S. 

Saticoy Grange, No. 49, Satiooy, Ventura 
Co.— Election, Dec. Slst: E. B. Higgins.M.; 
J. B. Alvord, O.; Thos. T. Arand^-ll, L.;A. 
Woodford, S.; Ed. Williams, A. S.; W. B. Ba- 
ker, C; M. D. L. Todd, T.; Mrs. A.Baker, 
Sec'y; W. O'Hara, G. K.; Mrs. C. Haines, 
Ceres; Mrs. D. Hatten, Pomona; Miss F. Wil- 
liams, Flora; Miss I. Eicker, L. A. 8. 

Snelling Gbange, No. 105, Snelling, Mebced 
Co.— Election, Dec. 18th, 1875: G. C. Baker.M, ; 
L. G. Burns, O.; Daniel Yeiser, L. ; Peter Fee, 
S.; J. P. Trueadale, A. S. ; S. E. Smyer, C; 
A. D. Baker, T.; Erastus Kelsey, Sec'y; Chas. 
Kelsey, G. K.; Mrs. M. E. Yeiser, Ceres; Mrs. 
L. E. Fuller, Pomona; Miss M. E. Pratt, Flora; 
Mrs. M. Kelsey, L. A, S. 

Sutter Mill Grange, No. 179, Coloma, 
El Doeado Co., Cal.^ — Election, December 18th, 
1875: J. G. O'Brien, M.; F-ancis Veerkamp, 
O.; A. J. Christie, L.; A. Mosely, Sen., C; 
Wm. Stearns, S. ; Geo. W. Eamsay, A. S.; Jas. 
Crocker, T.; Henry Mahler, Sec'y; Ezra M. 
Smith, G. K.; Mrs M. J. Stearns, L. A. S.; 
Mrs. Eobt. Chalmers, Ceres; Miss Annie E. 
Hume, Pomona; Miss Aggie Mahler, Flora; 
W. D. Ottrick, Trustee. 

Walnut Creek Grange, No. 118, Lafayette, 
Contra Costa Co.— M. L. Gray, M.;G. M. 
Bryant, O.; N. Jones, L.; J. W. Jones, S.; W. 
K. Daley, A. S. ; John Baker, C. ; John Larkey, 
T.; E. M. Jones, Sec'y; C. S. Whitcomb, G. 
K.; Mrs. Larkey, Ceres; Mrs. Hughes, Po- 
mona; Miss Lizzie Hodges, Flora; Mrs. Nettie 
Jones, L. A. S. 

Waterfoed Grange, No. 57, Waterfoed, 
Stanislaus County, Cal. — Election, Dec. 25th, 
1H75: E. E. Warder, M.; James Kinkead, O.; 
G. W. Janes, L.; James Sheldon, S.; John 
Woofers, A. S.; E. H. Bently, C; J. Brown, 
T.; W. C. Colhns, Sec'y; John Search, G. K.; 
Mrs. V. Kinkead, Ceres; Miss M. Pagon, 
Pomona; Miss L. A. Collins, Flora; Miss N. 
Brawder, L. A. S.; W. K. Summer, [Jas. Shel- 
don and James Kinkead, Trustees. 

West San Joaquin Grange, No. 3, Ellis, 
San Joaquin Co.— Election, December lllh: C. 
D. Needham, M.; J. M. Kirlenger, O.; J. 
Carroll, L.; E. Saddlemire, S.; H. B. Need- 
bam, A. 8.; J. C. Allen, C; D. S. Todd, T.; 
J. Quackenbush, Sec'y; W. Haynes. G. K.; 
Mrs. Aurora Lewis, Ceres; Mrs. Olive L. 
Needham, Pomona; Mrs. Sarah A. Woodall, 
Flora; Miss Ella Isabella Bonsall, L. A. S.; 
Mr. 0. E. Needham, Agent; John Geddes, 
Trustee. 

WOODBEIDGB GeANOE, No. 84, WoODBEIDGE, 

San Joaquin Co., Cal.— ^Election, Dec. Ist: 
EzraFiske, M., H. C. Shattuck, O.; G. W. 
Bressler, L; B. 8. Saunders, 8.; Samuel 
Woodruff, A. S.; F. A. Perley, C; George H. 
Ashley, T. ;J. D. Huffman, Sec'y; Jno. Hemp- 
hill, G.K.; Miss Nellie E.Woodruff, Ceres; 
Miss Emma Skey, Fomona; Miss Eliza Greer, 
Flora; Mrs. Hannah E. Huffman, L. A. S.;E. 
J. Mcintosh, Trustee. 

WooDviLLB Grange, No. 199, Woodville, 
Tulare Co., Cal. — Election, Dec. 18th; J. A. 
Slover, M.; Eobert McKee, O.; Thos. Lewis, 
L.; J. 8. Johnson, 8.; John Stewart, A. 8.; 
T. B. Ferquay, C; T. J. Ray, T.; J. H. Grims- 
ley, Sec'y; J. P. Heusley, G. K.; Mrs. E. J. 
King, Ceres; E. E. Hensley, Pomona; J. 
Eoach, Flora; M. E. Eoach, L. A. S. 

Vallejo Geange, No. 120, Valle.to, Solano 
County. — J. F. Deming, M.; A. MoKennon.O.; 
S. S. Drake, L. ; H. A. Beckwith, S. ; M. Carroll, 
A. S.; B. B. Brown, C; A. T. Eobinson, T.; G. 
C. Pearson, Sec'y; E. Miller, G. K.; Mrs. 
Hettie Deming, Ceres; Mrs. F. A. Mosely, Po- 
mona; Mrs. Mury L. Eobinson^ Flora; Mrs. 8. 
Wilson, L. A. 8. 



In Memoriam. 

John L. Pifield, Secretary of the Gait Grange, 
sends us the following resolutions, which were 
adopted at the meeting of January 7th, 1876: 

Whkbeas, The Divine Master has seen fit to remove 
our beloved Sister, Mr.s. Annie B. MaxUeld from our 
midst to a home not made with bands, eternal in the 
heavens; therefore be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Sister Maxfield.our 
Grange has lost a true hearted member, and her hus- 
band a devoted companion. 

Resolved, That we, as a band of devoted brothers 
and sisters, extend our deepest sympathy to her afflicted 
family. 

Resolved, That we drape our charter and wear the 
usual badge of mourning for thirty days, and that 
a copy of these resolutions to spread upon the 
minutes of the Grange, and a copy forwarded to the 
family, and also to the RtmiiL Press for publication. 
John Bbewbtfb, 1 

.John McFarland, ) Com. 

EOSANNAH McINTYHE 



i^qE^ICllLTjR/^L flojES. 



Laws Desired. 

Messes. Editors:— At a meeting of Pomona 
Grange, No. 3, held in Suisun December 30th, 
the following resolutions were unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the Grangers thronshout tlie State do 
make an earnest eflbrt to induce, " through their 
agency and co-operation," the Ijcyislatiire iii>w in ses 
sion to enact laws having in view tlie folluwl iig objects 

Providing for tho allowance of one pir cent, per 
month on all taxes paid prior to January l»t, and after 
that date fixing a similar charge for a period of thirty 
or sixty days; then to add five per cent, for a further 
period of thirty days before declaring tiiem delinquent 
and commencing suit thereon. Eeqninng tho Board of 
Supervisors to submit quarterly, by publication, an ac- 
count of all receipts and disbursements for tho past 
term. And further a law whereby criminal labor may 
be utilized for the benefit of the )mblic. Also a bill 
malting warehouse receipts negotiable. Also a bill to 
increase the license of saloon keepers and furtliar de- 
fine their liabilities. 

Resolved, That our representatives be requested to 
make an earnest effort to relieve us from double taxa- 
tion through mortgages. 

Resolved, Tliat we are in favor of the enactment by 
th« present Legislature of a road law whereby each 
district in the county will have the exclusive use ol all 
road taxes raid in said district; the said taxes to be ap- 
plied CD roads in said district. 

Rtsolved, That we are in favor of the enactment by 
the present Legislature of a law providing for a general 
system of irrigation, and that we deem itof tho greatest 
Importance to the best interests of the State that such 
a law shonld be passed at the present session. 

J. E. Morris, Sec'y. 
Cordelia, Cal,, Jan. 10th, 1876. 



California. 

AliAMEDA. 

Crops Assueed. — Enterprise, Jan. 8: Dur- 
ing the close of last and early part of this week 
we have had an excellent fall of rain. In some 
respects many of our farmers will regret the 
same, bat on the whole our future prospects 
are assured, and a good grain crop is now a 
certainty. Many acres of land have been plowed 
but the rain has prevented the sowing of grain 
until the land has a little sunshine upon it. 
COLUSA. 

The Glenn Farm. — Enterprise, Jan. 1 : From 
Mr. Isaac Bayliss, of Colusa, we have the fol- 
lowing news from the Glenn farm: There will 
be in cultivation on this large farm this year 
37,000 acres, of which Isaac Bayliss will have 
8,000 acres; George Hoag, 7,000'; Pike Gupton, 
9,000, and Dr. Glenn, 13,000 acres. No season 
ever known to the section has ever presented 
more flattering promises. The volunteer is 
several inches high, and the lately sown grain 
is looking very promising. The work of winter 
seeding is going on rapidly, and by the first of 
January the preparations for the crops of 
the ensuing year will be finished. The 
feed on the ranch is first rate, and Dr. Glenn's 
large herd of cattle is doing well. The doctor 
is giving his constant and personal attention to 
a large number of beef cattle just ready for the 
markets. 
EL DOBADO. 

B.A.iiiVA-Lij.— Republican, Jan. 6: During the 
last ten days we have had but little sunshine, 
cloudy, hazy weather largely prevailing, with 
one or two days and nights of pretty sharp 
rain, and present indications are favorable to a 
continuance of the same disagreeableness. The 
rainfall for the season, up to 4th inst. , has 
been, as indicated by the gauge of the El Dor- 
ado W. & D. G. M. Co.,, 27.02 inches, being 
more than double what it was last year at the 
same date. 
KERN. 

More Alfalfa. — Calif ornian, Jan. 6: The 
preparations for planting alfalfa exceed any- 
thing ever before known in this country. 
Two car loads of seed have recently arrived, 
and probably five to ten car loads will be re- 
quired in addition to the amount raised in the 
valley. A great part of the seed produced here 
h^s been injured by rain before threshing. The 
fault is in delaying the seed crop too late in the 
season. 

A Great Storm. — Courier, Jan. 8: A terrible 
sand storm, the like of which has never been 
witnessed in this section before, visited us on 
Thursday last. The wind blew in gusts all the 
morning, with occasional lulls of brief dura- 
tion, but no sand appeared till about 2 o'clock, 
when a yellow cloud in the south admonished 
us that the sirocco was approaching. In half 
an hour it reached us. The wind blew a hurri- 
cane, and the air was filled with sand and dust 
that penetrated every crack and cranny. At 
times it was like a yellow fog, so dense that an 
object could not be discerned at a distance of a 
hundred yards, and the sky was obscured al- 
most to darkness. Fortunately these storms 
are of rare occurrence, for they are frequently 
attended with disastrous consequences. Tho 
last great storm of this character occurred four 
years ago, and much damage resulted. The 
Kanawa ranch, situated at the entrance to the 
Tejon pass, was literally ruined. The soil and 
young grass were blown out of the ground, and 
great sand drifts formed in winrows like waves 
of the sea, four or five feet deep. These winds 
originate in the Mohave desert east of the 
mountains, where they prevail with fearful vio- 
lence, and sweeping through the Tejon pass 
they carry everything before them. Much ap- 
prehension is felt in regard to the destruction 
of sheep feed on the plains south, where there 
a great many sheep now grazing. 



LOS ANQELES. 

At the Centennial.— A'xpre.ss, Jan. 8: We 
are very glad to know that Don Mateo Keller 
is going to personally superintend his own dis- 
play of Los Angeles wines at the Centennial. 
There Is no man in the State, who from ex- 
perience and capacity is better fitted to intro- 
duce the wines of California to the representa- 
tive men of the world who will be present at 
the great national exposition. 

Cheering.- Another hne visitation of rain 
renders our agricultural prospects even more 
cheering than they were before. A season of 
great plenty is doubly assured. The ground is 
ao completely saturated that even a strong 



north wind storm would effect but little injury. 
The spring rains, which we never fail to have, 
will fill up the complement of our meteorolog- 
ical wants this year, and secure ua in the largest 
crop ever raised in Los Angeles county. It is 
pleasant to note, in this connection, that the 
agricultural prospects are also good all over 
the State. Under such circumstances, the 
money wants of our coast cannot long remain 
unsupplied, and a general unlocking of the 
coffers may soon be looked for. 
MENDOCINO. 

Good foe Stock. — Dispatch, Jan. 1: This 
has been the best season for stock that Mendo- 
cino has had for many years. The general im- 
pression was that our hills would be strewn 
with dead sheep by this time. But instead of 
that, they are doing well and the majority of 
them would make good mutton now. 
MEBCED. 

Sheep Doing Well.— Stockton Independent, 
Jan. 6: L. U. Shippee, Esq., has returned 
from a trip among his various herds in Merced, 
Mariposa and Fresno counties, and reports the 
country up that way in a flourishing condition. 
Ho says the weather is unusually warm for the 
time of the year; grass is luxuriant, lambs are 
getting along finely, and most of the farmers 
are through seeding. Altogether, the prospect 
for the ensuing year is encouraging. 
MONTEREY. 

Geain Shipments. — Recorder, Jan. 8: There 
were shipped by the Southern Pacific railroad 
from Salinas City, since July, 1875, two thou- 
sand five hundred and ten and a half tons of 
wheat, equal to fifty-one thousand two hundred 
centals. July, 257 tons; August, 139% tons; 
September. 233 tons; October, 285% tons; No- 
vember, 260 tons; December, 117 tons. 
PLACER. 

Good Wheat. — Argus, Dec. 8: Mr. Chamber- 
lain, an old farmer and citizen of this county, 
living near Lincoln, tells ns that the crop pros- 
pects in that portion of our county are good. 
Indeed the wheat crop bids fair to be the 
heaviest he has known for twenty years. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Beet Sugar. — Record, Jan. 3: The Sacra- 
mento beet sugar factory last year worked up 
12,000 tons of beets, and obtained 13 1-2 per 
cent, of sugar from 7,000 tons sown and raised 
by the company. The total amount of sugar 
made is not stated, but the figures given would 
imply that the product was approximately 
3,000,000 pounds. 

Second Crop. — Bee, Jan. 8: There is an 
apple tree in the yard of E. Oppenheim, cor- 
ner of Eighth and I streets, which had for years 
been regarded as barren, but this summer it 
bore a good crop of fruit, and in the fall the 
leaves fell off as usual. Since then a second 
crop has appeared, although the tree is entirely 
destitute of foliage. These later apples are of 
good size and flavor. 

SAN BENITO. 

Timber and Fbuit Trees. — Advance, Jan. 8 : 
During the past two years a large number of 
trees have been purchased, for planting on the 
farm lands of this valley. Where nothing but a 
bare, unshaded surface met the eye in the 
past, can now be seen young and thrifty 
trees rapidly shooting out their limbs, gather- 
ing strength for the production of fruit. The 
many young orchards of the county will soon 
yield a profitable return for the money and la- 
bor expended on their cultivation. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

Sheep. — Argus, Jan. i: Sheepmen are re- 
joicing over these gentle showers. Sheep in 
our county are now doing well on the public 
pasture. We have never had better prospects 
at this season of the year. Our county is be- 
ing carpeted with young alfileria and burr 
clover, and our farmers are driving their sheep 
back from Lower California. 

Woolen Factory. — Argus, Jan. 6: We are 
strongly encouraged to hope that the building 
of a woolen factory, in or near town, will be 
commenced within the next three months. 
Negotiations are now being effected between 
inside and outside parties ot this place for the 
consummation of such a purpose. 

Large Seeding. — In our own county, we are 
informed by an intelligent and reliable gentle- 
man and farmer that there is already planted 
a ereater area of land in wheat than was ever 
planted at any season, since the valley was set- 
tled. Our Eiverside farmers are putting in al- 
most twice the number of acres in wheat to what 
there was last year, and all that is asked now is 
an escape from the rust in spring. Taking it 
altogether the outlook is promising, and the 
farmers throughout the State have cause to be 
jubilant. 
SANTA BARBARA. 

A Lovely Home. — Index, Dec. 30 : In the 
Santa Ynez mountains, about two miles north- 
easterly from Col. Hollister's home, there is a 
beautiful valley, wheriu Mr. Frederick E. Bart- 
lelt has created one of the loveliest homes that 
can be found in California. A cold mountain 
stream of crystal water breaks here and there in 
cascades in finding its way to the plain. With 
about five years' care and labor Mr. Bartlett 
has brought his valley home into a high state 
of culliviitiou. N(!vv ])atatofis can be taken 
from the ground every day in tho year ; and 
ripo tomatoes are taken from the vines, grow- 
ing in tho air, every month of the year ; and 
green corn can be taken from the stalk for 
more than six months in the year. With 
grapes and peaches, almonds, apricots, and 
apples ; with berries of various kinds, a gar- 

(Oontinued on Pare 44.) 




[January 15, 1876 



[Written for the Pbkss by Mbs. M. Staptobu.J 
Down the bro»d channel ol life I drift 

Away from the cherished years. 
And brlohtly th»y glow In (he "long ago," 
Seen through the mist o( toars. 

Ch, there are faces whose light is cast 

Far from my longing gaze. 
Whose bright eyus shine in a glory dirlno. 

With love in their tender rays. 

And my grieving spirit in vain would catch 

An olden glance of the eye, 
A loving embrace and a glance of the faco, 

From thu hearts that whispered "good bye.' 



Ah, many a weary leajjuc of land 

And many a mountain's crest 
Stretch, dark and green, their shadows between 

The f*ce» whose lips I've pressed. 

But the long and lonesome years roll on, 

And I, on this golden shore. 
Keep watch on the strand, for the bark to laud 

That shall bear my treasures t'cr. 

I and iny hope walk hand in hand, 

And feed on the foists of years, 
On the vanished dwanis and the cherished econes 

Kept green hy the rain of tears. 

Oh ! forms I've loved in the faded past; 

Soniewhure o'er land and sea; 
Do those eyes still shine with a beauty divine. 

And a longing love f..r nic? 

Woodside Papers— No. 5. 

[Written for the Press by Jennie E. Ja.mrson. I 
"Well, Susau, you've got some good bread, 
haTsn't you?" said Aunt Keziah, as the mem- 
bers of the "Woodside cottage" family sat 
down to dinner. 

"Yes, indeed; Give mo steamed graham 
bread forever," returned Mrs. Payaoo. "I 
made it just as you said, with one pint of sour 
milk, one teaspoonfiil of sodft, same of salt, 
four spoonfuls molasses, and enough graham 
flour to make a batter about as thick as I could 
stir easily. I steamed it three hours. 

"I do not think it is quite so nice as the loaf 
you made the other day, but 'experience is the 
best teacher,' and I shall soon 'get my hand 
in,' as the saying is." 

"You are right in saying that experience is 
the best teacher," said Mrs. Brown. "Or, 
perhaps we might say, experience is a teacher 
one must have, with others, if they succeed. 
Let one unused to cooking, take a popular 
recipe book and follow its teachings to the best 
of their ability. What trials, tribulations and 
failures they will have. One might pass down 
the long line of rules and recipes with a tolling 
bell, and the sound thereof should be — ex- 
pe-ri-ence, ex-pe-ri-ence, ei-peri-ence! The 
solemn sound would strike terror to the heart 
of many a young housekeeper who had neg- 
lected, as so many do, this very important part 
of a thorough education. 

"It is a terrible pity that young ladies should 
think it beneath thorn to hire out to do house- 
work. 

"There should not be a public sentiment to 
cause suoh a feeling, as it would be advanta- 
geous to many young ladies without homes to 
enter good families for a time; but they shrink 
from it, because in some pisses they are looked 
upon as inferiors. There are ladies who, we 
might almost say, step off the graduating plat- 
form into married life with but the slightest, 
if any, knowledge of cooking. Others work in 
shops and mills until they marry and go house- 
keeping. (?) Then, oh! then, what solemn 
faces! what aching heads! what burned and 
blackened hands! what ominous looking dishes! 
what searches for 'some place to put things 
that are not just fit for the table, you know!' 

"Certain old, unused wells, certain deep 
ditches, certain dingy porcines, fare sumpt- 
uously every day, all because many sweet but 
ignorant maidens 'gupss they can keep house. ' 
"They are quile positive that they can sweep, 
wash and iron; they are 'not so srure about the 
Marched things — aren't shirt bosoms awful hard 
to do up?' 'As for cooking, there's the recipe 
books; they tell a body all about it!' 

"But the;/ don't! and that's where the tolling 
bell comes in. I'eople are not careful enough 
when they write recipes. Indeed, I presume I 
should not write them myself so that others 
could take the same measurements that I do. 
Spoons and cups vary in size; then we are apt 
to forget that some who will try them know 
nothing abont cooking. Again some writers 
seem to have no judgment about writing 
recipes. I have just found one in one of your 
last papers for oat meal cake. I rejoiced 
greatly when I saw it, hoping it would tell mo 
bow to make good ones without cream. I shall 
never forget the delicious ones I used to make 



when on the farm, with rich buttermilk, salt 
and soda, mixing very thin, and baking 
quickly. But now I have no buttermilk, and 
no cream, except the very small (juantity given 
by my wee tin cow, which has a bad habit of 
looking very blue and ditconsolute in winter, 
Ijrobably because the milkman does not feed it 
properly. But here is the recipe: 'Take one 
pint of milk, apinch of .suit, and just enough 
warm water to stir it "as thick as rye griddle 
cakes. Bake twenty minutes.' 

"Take one pint of milk— so far, so good; but 
the "blind leader of the blind' does not say 
whether sweet or sour milk should boused; 
that is an important item. 

" 'A pinch of salt!' Now every one knows 
that a 'pinch' is various. It may be a fourth 
of a teaspoonful; or it may be five times that 
amount. The scribe goes on, unfolding the 
wondrous plan, by saying, 'just enough warm 
water to stir it as thick as rye griddle-cakes.' 
I never knew that warm water would thicken 
anything, but supposing it did, how is every 
one to know how thick rye griddle-cakes are? 
I'm sure I never made any, and I've cooked a 
good deal. Imagine a beginner making that 
delectable dish with a pint of .sour milk and no 
soda. I have read a recipe for good bread, 
where all the ingredients mentioned were 'one 
cup salt and flour enough to make a good bai- 
ter;' but there must have been a mistake some- 
where. 

"Recipes should be given very plainly, and 
the exact measurement should be given, if 
possible, instead of 'pinches, handfuls, a lit- 
tle.' etc., and the individual who concludes to 
sail on the sea of experiments should have, at 
least, pint and (juart measures. But, after all, 
they need experieure. They must get 'their 
hand in,' as the saying is. How often I have 
heard women say, 'I used to have excellent 
success preparing such and such kinds of foods 
but now I have no luck at all; I suppose it's 
becauFe I haven't kept my hand in. ' 

"T am very glad that you liko the graham 
bread. I have taken meals with a great many 
farmers, and I find but very few who use 
graham to any extent. In many families, brown 
bread and johnny-cake is the only coarse food 
they have. It is a wonder thai they live out 
half their days, eating fine flour bread— often 
made from poor flour, and heavy or full of 
holes; and using iiork largely for moat, with 
all sorts of fried abominations, sucb as fried 
potatoes, onions, doughnuts, etc. I sent a 
recipe for a delicious beef stew to a friend out 
West, the other day, and flattered myself I had 
conferred a favor. She wrote back, 'Ha-ha-ha! 
what did you suppose I could do with a recipe 
lor btff nU'V! We never see any beef here; 
send along your recipes for;wrA: stows.' 

"By the way, perhaps you would like to try 
the stow. Here's my recipe book. \''ou seo I 
have two; one blank, for written recipes, an- 
other, (which had been written over,) for 
printed ones, which I cut out as I find them, 
and put them in nicely with paste or mucilage. 
"A larger book might do for both kinds. You 
have no idea how handy it is. First I put 
'Bread' in large letters; and here are several 
pages filled with recipes for dififorent kinds of 
breads, buns, »olls, waillf s, etc. Then puddings, 
cakes, pies, &c. are given their appropriate 
places; the name being placed in large letters 
at the head of a page, which is numbered, and 
a corresponding number in an index on the 
first leaf enables one to find any kind of re- 
cipe quickly. I have known people who never 
used recipes, whatever made was just stirred 
up, and were never able to tell how they did it. 
But I never felt inclined to adopt that method. 
But here is the 'etsw.' I nearly always take 
the bone and the remains of a piece of baked 
beef, tbongh the recipe says 'three pounds of 
flank beef, out fine, boil in two quarts of water 
till tender, six onions, two turnips chopped not 
very fine, six potatofs sliced, salt and pepper 
to suit the taste.' The next recipe is for bean 
porridge. I do not remember that I ever saw 
any benn porridge until I was twenty years old 
but now I am very fond of it, and these com- 
mon white beans are very nutritious. Taki 
two pounds of corned beef, soak it, if very salt 
then put over the fire in four quarts of slightly 
warm water; boil until tender. Nearly one 
pint of beans, parboiled, then boiled with the 
meat eight or ten hours. I often take out 
enough of the meat fSr a meal for my small 
family, before putting in the beans. 

" Speaking about coarse food — I like graham 
rolls very much. I tised to make ' gems, ' 
but they require an egg, and I always have to 
inform the family that they are rjems, not rolls, 
when I make them now, as they are so nearly 
like the rolls which I make of one pint of sour 
milk (if some spare pieces of wheat broad are 
soaked in it I think it all the better), nearly one- 
half cup of molacses, one even teaspoonful of 
salt, same of soda, and graham meal enough to 
make it quite thick. B;ike in iron gem pans. 
With me, soda is not yet a thing of the past. 
Some say it should be, but my health is quite 
good, if I do use it. 

"There is one excellent kind of food which I 
never happened to see among farmers, though 
some may use it. It is crushed white wheat . 
At first we used the packages of ' Smith's 
crushed wheat; ' now we buy it by the quan- 
tity. I boil it slowly about an hour, taking 
two cupfuls to three pints of water, in which I 
place a heaping teaspoonful of salt. Wo eat 
with milk and sugar, warm, for breakfast. It 
is also used for puddings, custards and pies. Of 
course every one knows, or should know, that 
the best part of the wheat is taken away before 
it comes to us as fine white flour; and though 
we are trained to think that we must have fine 
white bread constantly on hand, or make fine 



flour biscuits, I think we should be willing to 
have darker broad if we can, by using it, have 
better health. Too much cannot be said in 
favor of crushed wheat. There is one thing 
that makes it necessary for children, in prefer- 
ence to fine flour. 

■'But here comes your friend, EmmaMoulton. 
She looks as smiling and happy as possible." ' 

"Well, if you will believe it," said Mrs. 
Payson, as she arose to meet Miss MouUon, 
"young Wendall was with her at the 
concert last night, and I heard to-day that Miss 
Kay has gone to Boston to spend the winter. 
Do you suppoEO we sent her away by talking 
about her the other day?" " Don't know about 
that, " replied Aunt Keziah; "Guess we'd talk 
pretty often if wo could make folks do as we 
want them to." 



Putting Things Away. 

Do women ever think how much time they 
spend in picking np and putting away? Of 
course we do not mean to intimate that it is 
wasted, or that all this labor is done unneces- 
sarily. Women have a vast amount of such 
work to perform , and few men rfalize its ex- 
tent or necessity until some accident or cir- 
cumstance brings it homo to them. 

A married man said once that lie never 
realizod the amount of work done in Ijringing 
things out and putting them away until he 
happened to sit idly watching the operation of 
setting the table— "getting tea," as it was 
called— at a neighbor's hou'<e, washing the 
dishes and clearing them away. It struck him, 
for the first time, bow much real labor had to 
be dont- in lifting and carrying between table 
and i)antry, and he determined to lessen 
such labor in his house as much as possible by 
constructing a kitchen in his house with every 
facility and convenience. He thought, with a 
sort of consternation, if one " tea " rfquires 
that amount of labor, what must the work of a 
house of a lifetime amount to? A very pretty 
problem, which wo should like to have an- 
swered. 

It is a fact, however, that " putting thiogs 
away " becomes a sort of mania with some ne.tt 
housewives, and not only gives them a vast 
amount of trouble, but sours their tempers, and 
is a source of annoyance to every member of 
the family. From a habit probably of being on 
one spot all the time, eternally seeing and do- 
ing the same things, it become a sort of mania, 
and is in fact a symptom of disease. We think 
a good plan in such a case would bo for the 
husband to insist on his wife taking a journey, 
making a vi.sit home, or spending a couple of 
weeks at a watering place. The change of 
scene, the breaking up of the monotony of her 
life, would do her a world of good. Her ideas 
would become enlarged, her thoughts travel 
out of their accustomed routine; and when she 
returned she would take up life loss as a our- 
don and more as a basket of flowers, from 
which it is possible to extract beauty and fra- 
grance.— j&x. 

OvKUWORKKD Childre.s.— A Vermont corre- 
spondent writes: "There arc many who read the 
Trihum that live on farms, and in the hurry 
and pressure in which they live, overwork thf ir 
children. I know of boys ton and twelve years, 
and even younger, called up at four and five 
o'clock in the morning to milk from six to ten 
cows, and what is much worse, they carry two 
large pails of milk quite a long distance, and 
perhaps lift it breast-high to strain, and work 
all day. Children growing should not do much 
hard work, nor work too long at a time." If 
children go to bed early and got ten full hours 
of sleep, it does not hurt them to get np oarl». 
Neither does it injure them to work as hard as 
they play, provided they are given an interest 
in their work, and do it cheerfully. Horace 
Greeley worked when he was a boy ; so did 
Henry Wilson. There is not a word to be said 
in defense of overworking children, but the 
tendencies are not in that direction. The child 
brought up to work, who forms habits of con- 
stant and persistent industry, has within him- 
self the golden key which opens all doors. It 
would be a positive advantage to many boys 
and girls who are kept continually at school, if 
their parents would let them stay at home and 
require them to do all they can be taught to do 
of housework and choring, until their appetites 
for knowledge grow vigorojis, and they are dis- 
posed to buckle down to hard study.— iVew 
Vork Tribuiie. 



A Ruined Family. 

When wc hear of a family " ruined by wick- 
edness," we express grief, but no surprise, be- 
cause everybody expects that disaster or ruin 
will naturally follow wickedness. Everybody 
recognizes wickedness as dangerous and good- 
ness as safe. And everybody out/ht to go back 
to the first cause, and see in the laws of salva- 
tion and destruction Ood's blessing and curse. 
A pious teaohor, while selling some good! 
books in his district one Christmas vacation, 
met a father who sent two boys to his school, 
Harry and Tom, and invited him to purchase. 

The man looked the books over, and finding 
" religion in them," threw them angrily back 
into the basket. " I'll have none of that trash 
in my house," he cried. 

" I'm sorry yon decide so, sir," said the 
teacher. " These books are not trash. But 
if good books are not given to boys they will 
get bad ones." 

The man grew profane, and began to abuse 
the teacher for "having religion in his school," 
as he said, " I hear j'ou open your school with 
prayer, and read the bible to your scholars, 
and make them read it. If yon keep that up 
I'll take my boys out, for I won't have their 
heads stufi"ed with such nonsense." 

Ultimately he fulfilled his threat. 

The boys were taken out of school, and 
their father's infidelity and hatred of sacred 
things soon bore fruit in them. Harry became 
drunken and turbulent, and was turned out of 
doors to shift for himself. After a career of 
crime, he served a term in the penitentiary, 
and soon after his release mot his death in a 
street brawl. 

His brother Tom grew up equally dissipated 
and wicked. He led the life of a vagabond, 
and fifteen years after his father took him out 
of school because the bible was read there, ho 
was drowned while engaged in a Sunday frolic 
on the ico. 

The third and youngest son ended his life 
in much the same way. He was drowned in a 
Sunday frolic while swimming. 

The father drank deeply when trouble came 
and conscience stung him, and closed his ca- 
reer of blasphemy and evil example in a fit of 
delirium tremens. The mother who (Heaven 
save the women the fearful mark !) had joined 
her husband in teaching her boys to despise 
religion, became a pauper, and died in the 
almshoDse of a broken heart. — Companion. 



Napolkon's Happiest Day.— When Napo- 
leon was in the hight of his prosperity, and 
surrounded by a brilliant company of the mar- 
shals and courtiers of the empire, he was asked 
what day he considered to have been the hap- 
piest of his life. When all expected he would 
name the occasion of some glorious victory, or 
some great political triumph, or some august 
celebration, or other signal recognition of his 
genius and power, he answered without a mo- 
ment's hesitation, "The happiest day of my 
life was the day of my first communion." At 
a reply so unforoReon there was a general 
silence; when he added, as if to himself, "I 
was then an innocent child." 



GiELH. — What strange creatures girls are! 
Offer them good wages to work for you, and ten 
chances te one if the old woman can spare any 
of her girls; but just propose matrimony, and 
see if they don't jump at the chance of working 
a lifetime for their victuals and clothes! 

LiKS. — It is said there are more lies told in 
the sentence, "I am glad to see you," than 
in any other sis words in tho English language. 



Teaching Children Courage. 

Courage is a vital element of Christian chiv- 
alry. Without it, indeed, neither truth nor 
fidelity to promise can be liojied for. The 
coward is sure to be afraid when truth means 
punishment, and is sure to retreat from his en- 
gjigements when they involve peril. We need 
valiant souls that have leamtd to endure and 
scorn pain, and to face danger fearlessly and 
promptly when duly requires. Some parents 
evade this vital part of training by glosses and 
deception. A mother who has taken her boy 
to the dentist to get a tooth pulled out wi'l of- 
ten say, if ho is shrinking, "Sit still, my boy, 
it won't hurt yon." Now she knows it will 
hurt him, but thinks if she can only get him 
by this device to sit still and let the demist get 
hold of the tooth, then his discovery of the 
pain will not hinder its extraction. 'This is a 
double mistake. It destroys the boy's confi- 
dence in her; for he detects her in a lie. And 
though it gets the boy this time to sit still, it 
is under the delusion that there is to be no 
pain, whereas he should be taught to face the 
pain and scorn it. This makes the difference 
between cowards and heroes. A regiment of 
poltroons could march uj) to a battery as 
cheerfully as a regiment of heroes, if they 
thought there was no enemy at the gunf. Tho 
difference is that the heroes know the danger 
and yet face it valiantly. 

Thk Happikht Pebiod of Life. — What, then, 
is the happiest period of human life? I am 
sure there is only one answer. It is now. if 
I am doing my duty, to-day is the best day I 
ever had. Yesterday had a happiness of its 
own, and up to this morning it was the best 
day of all. I would not, however, live it over 
again. I string it, as a new bead, on the ohap- 
let of praise, and turn to the better work and 
the higher thoughts of this present time. Of 
all the many days of my life, give me to-day. 
This should be our feeling always, from the 
ciadle to the hour when we are called to come 
up higher. Childhood is best for childhood, 
manhood is best for men, and old age for the 
silver-haired.— £«. 

Gkbman Logic- "I dell you how it vas. I 
drink mine lager. Den I pnts mine hand upon 
mine head, and dere I finds one pain. Den I 
put mine hand upon mine body, and dere rash 
anoder pain. Den I puts mine hand in mine 
pocket, and dere vas nottings. So I jines mit 
dor demperanoe. Now dere is no pain in mine 
head, and dor pain in mine body is all gone 
away. I put mine hand in mine pocket nnd 
dere is twenty dollars. So I stay mit der dem- 
perance. 

A Hook-and-Laddkb Compamt. — A farmer 
complains that a hook-and-ladder company has 
been organized in his neighborhood. He states 
that the ladder is used after dark for climbing 
into his ben-house, after wbioh the hooking is 
done. 

UsB what talent you possess. The woods 
would be very silent if no birds sang there but 
those that sang best. 




January 15, 1876.] 



Punctuality in All Things. 

It is aaton.shing how many people there are 
•who neglect punctuality. Thousands have 
failed in life from this cause alone. It is not 
only a serious vice in itself, but it is the fruitful 
parent of numerous other vices, so that he who 
becomes the victim of it gets involved in toils 
from which it is almost impossible to escape. 
It makes the merchiint wasteful of time; it saps 
the business reputation of the lawyer, and it 
injures the prospfcts of mechanics who might 
otherwise rise to fortune; in a word, there is 
not a profession, nor station in life, which is 
not liable to the canker of this destructive 
habit. 

In mercantile affairs, punctuality is as im- 
portant as in military. Many are tbe instances 
in which the neglect to renew an insurance 
punctnally has led to a serious loss. Hundreds 
of city merchants are now suffering in conse- 
quence of the want of punctuality among their 
Western customers in paying up accounts. 
With sound policy do the banks insist, under 
the penalty of a protest, on the punctual pay- 
ment of notes; for were they to do otherwise, 
commercial transactions would fall into inex- 
tricable confusion. Many and many a time 
has the failure of one man to meet his obliga- 
tions brought on the ruin of a score of others, 
just as the toppling down, in a line of bricks, 
of the master brick causes the tall of all the 
rest. 

Perhaps there is no class of men less punc- 
tual than mechanics. Do you want an uphol- 
sterer ? He rarely comes when be agrees. So 
with carpenters, painters and nearly all others. 
Tailors and shoemakers often do not have their 
articles home in time. The consequence is 
that thousands remain poor all their lives, who, 
if they were more faithful to their word, would 
secure a large run of custom, and so make 
their fortunes. — Exchange. 



Our Girls. 

Dr. Mary J. Studley, in her lecture entitled 
"Practical Lessons to Woman," assures 
mothers that no amount of praying would 
counteract the miseries attending the breaking 
of nature's laws; that a child's best inheritance 
is a perfect physique. Little girls should take 
more outdoor exercise; there is no rea.son ex- 
cepting the restraint of her dress, why she 
should not be allowed the same sports as her 
brothers. Three hours of school each day, and 
these not consecutively, is all she would allow 
a child. Riigarding the talk of difference be- 
tween a man's and a woman's brain, there is 
none. 

With the most careful examinations made 
under the microscope it is not possible to tell 
the one from ihe other. Therefore, with the 
physical system strong and healthy, there is 
no reason why a woman should not strive for 
and accompligb, in the world of letters, as 
much as a man. This does not apply to girls who 
are overworked in school, finishing their edu- 
cation at an age when the boy's is fairly begun; 
nor with those whose habits have been made 
irregular by the dissipations of fashionable life. 
In connection with the eyes. Dr. Studley gave 
the oft-repeated caution against dotted lace 
veils. The healthy veil is of thinnest gauze, 
which does not obstruct the vision sufficiently 
to strain the eyes, and of some color pliant to 
them, as gray, smoke or blue. — American 
Patron. 



How TO Choose a Wife. — That young lady 
will make a good wife who does not apologize 
when you find her at work in the kitchen but 
continues at her task until it is finished. When 
you hear a lady say, "I shall attend church and 
wear my old bonnet and waterproof cloak, for 
fear we shall have a rain storm," depend upon 
it she will make a good wife. When a daughter 
remarks, "Mother, I would not hire help, for I 
can assist you to do the work in tbe kitchen," 
set it down that she will make somebody a good 
wife. When you hear a young lady saying to 
her father, "Don't purchase a very expensive 
or showy dress for me, but one that will 
wear best," you may be certain she will make a 
good wife. 



Pic«NG UP THE Minutes. — A Sabbath 
school scholar earned a new suit of clothes, 
shoes and all, by digging dandelions and sell- 
ing them to the dealers in herbs. ' ' When did you 
find time, Johnny?'' I asked, for, besides being a 
very punctual and constant scholar at the day- 
school, he ran errands for Mrs. Davis. " Whan 
did you find time?" " There is almost always 
time for what we are bent upon," said Johnny. 
" You see, pick up the minutes, and they are 
excellent picking." 

Kbuembbb ! — Take heart, all who toil; all 
youths in humble situations, all in adverse 
circumstances, and those who labor unappre- 
ciated. If it be but to drive the plow, strive 
to do it well ; if it be but to wax thread, wax it 
well; if only to cut bolts, make good ones; or 
blow the bellows, keep the iron hot. It is at- 
tention to business that lifts the feet higher up 
on the ladder. 

A LiTELY girl had a bashful lover, whose 
name was Locke. She got out of patience 
with him at last, and in her anger declared 
that Shakespeare had not said half as many 
things as he ought to about Shy Locke. 

It's very convenient to be born rich, but it 
don't evidence any special powers, save the 
power of money. 




'ARTISTS OF THE BRUSH.' 



Y^^fjQ Folks' GoLiIi^fl. 



Make Some One Happy To-day. 

As Mabel was starting for fcbool grandma 
said, " Good-bye, dear; make some one happy 
to-day," and leaving a kiss on the rosy cheek, 
she went back to her knitting. 

The wood fire crackled away and blazed, 
while it sung out, "Good-bye, Mabel ; make 
some one happy to-d«y." 

"Good-bye, grandma ! good-bye, old fire !" 
And Mabel threw another kiss to each, and 
bounded off to school, dragging her sled after 
her. 

Just ahead of her was her dear friend, M«ud 
Eastlake. Mabel ran faster than ever to over- 
take her. 

But around the corner, between her and her 
friend, came Philip Saunders and his little 
sister, Dora. A good mile they had come this 
cold morning, and Dora was crying, because 
she was cold and tired, 

Mabel ran by and left them ; but some voice 
said "make some one happy." She looked on 
at her friend, sighed a little sigh, then turned 
straight around, and ran back to Philip and 
Dora. 

"This horse is too gay," she said to Philip 
"put Dora on, then take hold, and we'll be a 
span." 

"You're real good, Mabel; Dora is real tired. 
I've helped her all I can." And Philip 
lifted his little sister on. 

"Don't cry, Dora. We'll have you there in 
five mint! tes," he said as they started. 

But the tears had already been driven back 
by the prospects of a ride. 

And when, at last, Philip and Mabel drew 
up in grand style, it was a pretty, happy girl 
they lifted from the sled. Philip, too, had 
been made happy. 

"Thank you," said Philip, again, as they 
stopped. "You've made us both happy." 

"Ah," said Mabel, "that's what I did it for." 
Then she told what her grandmother had said 
to her at starting. 

"Well," said Philip, "you can count two 
you have made happy already." It's a 
good rule. I believe I'll try it, too." 

"And, grandma," said Mabel, as she told of 
this and some other things at night, "we ought 
to count it three, for it made vii happy, too. 
— Advent Chrititian Times, 



All Must Learn. 

Now, children, if you want to know how 
things are done, you will have to learn. The 
people who have experimented and found out 
how to do things in the best way, have an am- 
bition about them to make it known. So they 
furnish the newspapers and bookmen with 
their experience and knowledge. Then, you 
see, it goes broadcast all over the country, and 
you can get for a trifle what it has cost years 
of toil and large sums of money to perfect. 

If you want to keep up with the times you 
must read books and papers that deal in facta 
that can be turned to practical use — then your 
time will not have been thrown away. When 
I am traveling and stop at houses that are 
neatly painted, with good fences around them, 
and a nice garden near by, with flowers in the 
yard, and a great flock of chickens running 
about, I am almost sure to fiod on the center 
table inside the house, several first-class peri- 
odicals. 

Then, Miss Julia comes in, and we are in- 
troduced, I find that she cau tell me what 
kind of potato is best adapted to the soil on her 
father's farm, and what is good for the gipos 
in chickens, when grapes ought to be planted 
and the vines pruned, and all about the differ- 
ent varieties of flowers, and forty other things 
I don't know myself. She entertains me by 
the hour, and not once do we allude to the 
weather or the fashion, or say anything derog- 
atory to any one's character. I leave there de- 
lighted, and am convinced it is possible to talk 
interestingly and profitably without having to 
resort to the double distilled nonsense of so- 
cial life.— Ex. 



Fob the Boys. — Six classes of company 
to be avoided : Ist. Those who ridicule their 
parents or disobey their commands. '2d. Those 
who profane the Sabbath or BeOS' at religion. 
•iA. Those who use profane or filthy language. 
4th. Those who are unfaithful, play truant, 
and waste their time in idleness. f>th. Those 
who are of a quarrelsome temper, and are apt 
to get into diiliculty with others. 6th. Those 
who are addicted to lying or stealing. 



Death in the Dishcloth. 

A lady says in the Rural World, when some 
of you are sure to be down with typhoid fever; 
when neighbors are neglecting their own work 
to nurse you; when doctors are hunting in cel- 
lars and old drains for the cause, let me whis- 
per in your ear— look to your dishcloths. If 
they be black and stiff and smell like a "bone- 
yard." it is enough— throw them in the fire, 
and henceforth and forever wash your dishes 
with cloths that are white, cloths that you see 
through, and see if ever you have that disease 
again. There are sometimes other causes, but 
I have smelled a whole houseful of typhoid 
fever in one "dishrag." I had some neighbors 
once — clever, good sort of folks; one fall four 
of them were sick at one time with typhoid 
fever. The doctor ordered the vinegar barrels 
whitewashed, and threw about forty cents 
worth of carbolic acid in the swillpail and de- 
parted. I went into the kitchen to make gruel 
— I needed a dishcloth and looked about and 
found several, and such "rags!" I burned them 
all, and called the daughter of the house to get 
me a dishcloth. She looked round on the 
tables: "Why," said she, "there was about 
a dozen here this morning;" and she looked in 
the woodbox and on the mantlepiece, and felt 
in the dark corner of the cupboard. "Well," 
I said, "I saw some old, black rotten rags lying 
round and I burned them, for there is death in 
such dishcloths as these, and you must never 
use such again." 

I "took turns" at nursing that family four 
weeks, and I believe those dirty dishcloths 
were the cause of all that hard work. There- 
fore, I say to everv house-keeper, keep your 
dishcloths clean. You may wear your dresses 
without ironing, your sun-bonnets without 
elastics — but you must keep your dishcloths 
clean. You may only comb your head on Sun- 
days, you need not wear a collar, unless you go 
from home — but you must wash your dishcloth. 
You may only sweep the floor "when the sign 
gets right;" the window don't'need washing, you 
can look out at the door; that spider web on 
the front porch don't hurt anything— but, as 
vou love your lives, wash out your dishcloth. 
Let tbe foxtail get ripe in the garden (the seed is 
a foot deep any way), let the holes in the heels 
of your husband's footrags go undarned, let 
the sage go ungathered, let the children's shoes 
go two Sundays without blacking, let two hens 
set four weeks on one wooden egg— but do 
wash out your dishcloths. Eat withotit a table- 
cloth; wash your faces and let them dry; do 
without a curtain for your windows, and cake 
for your tea — but for heaven's sake, keep your 
dishcloths clean. 



Prev.\i,ent Erboks with Regard to Apo- 
plexy. — A medical authority writing to the 
New York Tribune regarding the death of 
Vice-President Wilson, corrects one or two 
very prevalent errors with respect to apoplexy. 
The symptoms of this disease, so dreaded and 
so sudden in its attacks, are due to a lack of 
proper supply of blood to the brain, and not, 
as is generally supposed, to an accumulation or 
"rush of blood to the bead." The rupture of 
the cerebral blood-vessels is due to weakness of 
its coats, which is the result of general debility 
or ill health. In the great majority of cases 
there are no premonitory symptoms. The at- 
tack may be preceded by a sense of weight or 
fullness, vertigo, flushine, etc., but these sym- 
toms are never to be relied on. The liability 
to an attack increases progressively from the 
age of twenty years and upward. Another 
popular error is that persons with short necks, 
florid faces, and full habit are peculiarly liable 
to this attack. Recent researches develop the 
f«ct that the majority of persons attacked are 
either spare or of ordinary habit_ of body. 
Phy.sicians conclude that unless one attack has 
occurred there are but few, if any, physical 
signs or premonitory symptoms which will 
warrant the prediction of an attack in any 
case. 

Cabeless Handling of Childeen. — I wish 
to enter a protest in the name of all nervous 
persons and of the injured little ones against 
the reckless way in which manv heedless per- 
sons ejpress their love for children, such as 
lifting them up by their heads, tossing and 
catching them in the air, carrying infants on 
their hands without any support to their backs, 
and otherwise endangering their limbs or 
senses. I have now in my mind the case of a 
man who was rendered a cripple for life 
through his father's carelessness in lifting him 
by the ankles, while he was a' small child, he 
(the father) having unfortunately lost his bal- 
ance and turned the child's ankles in such a 
wav that he was lamo ever afterward. Two 
different persons have tnld me that they knew 
when too late that by their thoughtless play with 
them they had seriously injured infants in- 
trusted to their care, one case resulting in 
spinal disease and the other in fits. And yet it 
is a sight daily to bo seen, that of people doing 
these things. Do give the little folks tender 
handling! — Rural New Yorker, 



Beef fob Diphtheria.— A young lady was 
recently attacked with diphtheria in a virulent 
form. Slices of fresh pork were bound on her 
neck without any j,ood results. Her father 
heard that the city doctors were using beef ex- 
tensively for the same purpose, tried it, and in 
six hours tbe beef turned green, relieving the 
sufferer.— £iK. 



Different Ways of Preparing Cabbage for 
the Table. 

An excellent cold slaw is made by shredding 
a solid head of cabbage with a thin, sharp 
knife, or a slaw cutter, then placing the cut 
cabbage in your dish, pour over it a dressing 
made by heating a pint of vinegar scalding hot, 
then beating into it quickly one beaten egg, 
with a lump of butter as large as a walnut, and 
a tablespoonful of sugar. The cabbage should 
be slightly sprinkled with salt and pepper as it 
is put in the dish. 

To fry cabbage, chop or shred quite fine, 
have a spider hot on the stove, in which is a 
small quantity of butter or meat drippings, 
season, and put in the cabbage, and cover tight, 
stirring often and taking care it does not scorch 
on the spider. Cooked in this way it is very 
sweet and nice. 

Cabbage makes a nice dish also cooked by 
dropping into salted boiling water, and when 
tender taken out, minced fine with a knife, 
then pouring over it a dressing made by taking 
a piece of butter the size of an egg, and a 
coffee cupful of boiling water; cut up the but- 
ter with a half teaspoonful of flour, and stir it 
gradually into the hot water. When it boils, 
stir in a dessert-spoonful of vinegar, and a dust 
of pepper, with a little salt. For the sauce, 
thick sweet cream is an excellent substitute. 

For hot slaw prepare the same as for • cold 
slaw, cook tender, and pour over the dressing, 
or merely season with vinegar before dishing 
up. 

Somebody has said that corned beef with 
boiled cabbage makes the best three hundred 
and sixty-five dinners a man can eat in a year. 
To realize the full measure of excellence the 
quality, curing and cooking of the beef should 
be considered, but with this, I have nothing in 
this letter to do. Perhaps some sister can give 
us directions by which we may secure perfec- 
tion in this part of the process. As to the cab- 
bage, have a solid head stripped of the outside 
leaves, except one layer, divide it into quar- 
ters by gashing down nearly through to the 
lower end of the core. Skim the floating 
grease as nearly as you can from the top of the 
water in your boiling pot of beef, and about one 
hour before dinner time drop in your cabbage 
and keep it boiling steadily and slowly until 
you are ready to dish it. Now, carefully lift it 
out with a skimmer and lay on a platter, drain- 
ing well, take off' the outside leaves left, and 
your cabbage will come out clear and free 
from grease or scum. 

A New Peocess op Making Bbead. — M. 
Cecil, a French engineer, has invented a new 
process of preparing the materials for making 
bread, which has received the approval of the 
minister of war and will hereafter be adopted 
in the French army. By this process an in- 
creased percentage of the nutritive properties 
of grain is retained, so that by avoiding the us- 
ual grinding and wetting, the grain that would 
make 115 pounds of bread in the oidinary way 
will make what is equivalent to 140 pounds. 
The new process is described as follows: The 
un ground grain is first steeped in water, 
after which it is placed in revolving cylinders, 
by which it is deprived of its outer husk, which 
contains but four or five per cent, of nutriment. 
The grains are then softened by forming them 
into a thin sponge, and keeping them for a 
space of six to eight hours at a temperature of 
seventy-.soven degrees Fahrenheit. They are 
then crushed under and made into dough with 
salt and water, as usual. 



Baked Beans. — Many people do not under 
stand how to make nice baked beans. One of the 
most serious troubles is, they don't give them 
time enough to bake. Bake them slowly all 
day Saturday, and if convenient let them stay 
in over night, baking full twenty-four hours, 
and our word tor it, yo\ir beans will come out 
in the morning smoking, with a flavor that 
will make your mouth w iter to taste them, and 
your breakfast will be th'i best you ever had. 
We sometimes see persons who only have a 
moderate liking for baked beans, who invari- 
ably bake them three or four hours, and that is 
why they do not like them any better. A day 
and a night is none too much time to bake 
these esculents, having parboiled them only a 
few moments, until the skins will crack when 
the air comes to them. 

Veobtabues. — These should never be washed 
until immediately before being prepared for 
the table. Lettuce is made almost worthless 
in flavor by dipping it in water some hours be- 
fore it is served. Potatoes suffer more than 
any other vegetable through the washing pro- 
cess. They should not be put in water till just 
ready for boiling. 

Orange Pudding.— Four sweet oranges 
peeled and picked to pieces and put in a deep 
pudding dish with two cups of sugar. Pat a 
quart of milk, the yolks of three eggs, and two 
(iHssert-spoonfuU of corn-starch on to boil. 
Take off, cool it, and pour it on the oranges. 
Then boat the whites to stiff froth, put it over 
the puddin;^ and place in the oven until it is of 
a light brown color. 

To Clean a Ncjdia. — Take a wooden bnoket, 
fill it half full of wheat flour. Then dip your 
nubia up and down in the flour until it looks 
white, shake thoroughly, when it will be as 
nice as new, and not have the drawn appear- 
ance which washing gives, 



40 



[January 15. 1876 




POBLISHED BI 



, I. OSWIT. W. B. KWBB. 0. H. BTBOHQ. J. L. BOOME 



Pkihoipal Editob... 



.W. B. EWER, A. M 



Omoc, No. 221 Sansomo street, Southeast corner of 
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to our SoiKNTiFio PBEgs, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
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Prompt Subscriptions, 

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our prospectus and terms of subscription. 

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reading than is contained in ordinary leaded matter. 

Mo Quack A.ci'vertlseniieiits Inserted 
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SAN FRANCISCO 

Saturday, January 15, 1876. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

OENERAL BDITORIALS.-The Oakland Nur- 
series; Improved Grinding Mills; Improvements on 
the Overland Railroad, 33. The Fruit Interest; A 

llPest on ilie Sweet Potato; The Debris Question, 
40- Scenery on the Yellowstone; Placer County; 

W Fruit Growers' Association; Wool Markets, 41. Pat- 

F ents and Inventions, 44. 

IIjIjUSTRATIONS.- Harrison's Grinding Mills, 
33. Second Canon of the ycUowstone, 41. 

COBRESPONDENCE.— Notes of Travel; Items 
from Santa Clara; Poland Chinas Wanted, 34- 

THii VINEYARD.- A Napa Grower's Proposi- 
tions; Bunch of Syrian Grapes, 34- 

SHEEP AND 'WOOL.— The California Clip of 
1876, 34. 

THE DAIRY.— Temperature and Cream Raising, 
3435. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. - The New 
Grange Headqiiarters; Proceedings of the National 
Grange; Anniversary Celebrations; Meeting of the 
Executive Committee; Must Pay Up; Inbtallation in 
Santa Clara Grange and Harvest Foa-st; From the 
Granges; Election of OfUcers; Laws Desired; In 
Memori.im. 36-37, 

AGRIOITLTURAIj notes trom.vsrlons conn- 
tiee in California, 37 44- 

HOME CIRCLE. — A Waif (Poetry); Woodside 
Papers — No. 5; Putting Things Away; Overworked 
Children; Napoleon's Happiest Day; Girls; A Ruined 
Family; Teaching Children CouraRe; The Happiest 
Period of Life; German Logic; A Hook-and-Ladder 
Company, 38. Punctuality in All Thingw Our 
Girls; How to Choose a Wife; Picking up tlie 
Minutes; Remember, 39. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Makc Some One 
Happy lo-Day; All Must Lcsrn; For the Boys, 39. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Deatli in the Dishcloth; Prev- 
alent Errors with Regard to Apo])lexy; Careless 
Handling of Children; Beef for Diphtheria, 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Diflferent Ways of Pre- 
paring Cabbage for the Table; A New Process of 
Making Bread; Baked Beans; Vegetables; Orange 
Pudding; To Clean a Nubia, 3^. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.-Poppy Culture; 
Lactic Acid; Hungarian Prune; Beis. 40-41. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.- Re-seating Chairs; 
Value of the Common Broom Plant as a Fiber; To 
Avoid Wet Feet; To Remove Grease Spots from 
Paper; Apparatine— A New Anti-Incrustator; New 
Locomotive Attachment; Patent Leather; How to 
Use Postal Cards; A Cane with a Candle; Plating 
Cotton with Silk, 42. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Agriculture in the Public 
Schools; Calilornia Swamp Lauds, 36. Ball's 
Sweeping Dredge; Do Great Fires Produce Gales and 
Whirlwinds? 43. 



NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

"Scribner's Monthly," Scribner & Co., Now York; "Pa- 
tron's Helper," Geo. William Jones, Des Moines. 
Iowa; The 100 Day Tomato, J. A. Foote, Terre Haute, 
Ind.; Grangers' Business Association of California, 
Meeting of Stockholders: Guadalupe Island Com- 
pany, Meeting of Stockholders. 



More information Wanted. 

Mebbkb. Editobs:— I notice an article on tbe 
culture of the pine-apple in the Pbbss, vol. 10, 
No. 24, page 377. Will you please give me 
your correspondent's name and address. I 
wish to write to him and got more information, 
I should like to try the cultivation of them in 
this valley. Where could I obtain slips, etc. ? 
An immediate reply will greatly oblige 

Yours truly, R, Couch, M. D. 

Carpinteria, Cal., Jan. 6th. 

[Dr. Couch and other readers will find some- 
thing about pine-apple culture in Mr. Sanders, 
letter which appears in this week's Press. In 
addition to this we would be pleased to hear 
our former correspondent answer the request 
for more information through the columns of 
the Prkss. — Eds. Pbess]. 



The Fruit Interest. 

There was a meeting in this city on Tuesday 
last of those interested in the production and 
sale of fruit. We print elsewhere a full report 
of the proceedings. It was a spirited meeting, 
and tbe immediate result was the permanent 
organization of "The Co-operative Fruit As- 
sociation of California." It is too early to 
judge the society which thus has birth; it must 
be judged hereafter by its d«odB. There are, 
however, comments which the birth of the 
organization makes pertinent. 

It has been clearly shown by the general fruit 
growers' experience, during the last few years, 
that measures must be taken to secure a stirer, 
safer market for the growing fruit crop of this 
State. We cannot eat it— there are not mouths 
enough. Fortunately there is a market East, 
West and South of us. How shall we secure 
the advantage of this wide market is the 
question. 

The fruit grower produces a perishable 
article. In its natural state it cannot reach all 
the points to which it can be profitably con- 
signed. Either the producer must lose heavily 
by the decay of his ripe fruit, or he must give 
it a form which is not perishable. This the 
individual and isolated fruit grower cannot do 
to the best advantage. He is precluded from 
selling his fruit at full prices to the private 
preserving establishments, because they either 
have not the capital to carry the whole surplus 
of the crop, or are minded to deduct an exces- 
sive margin for the investment; a part of which 
really belongs to the producer. The remedy 
which is suggested is this: Let the fruit growers 
co-operate, both for securing the best sales for 
their ripe fruit, and for turning at once any 
surplus which may be produced into an im- 
perishable form; carrying their property in it 
still as an investment, and in the end realizicg 
from its sale just as they do from'the fruit sold 
in its natural state. The individual grower 
cannot, as a general thing, avail himself of 
this remedy against a depressed market and 
against the process of decay in his product. 
But, by combining interests, growers can pos- 
sess themselven of facilities for safety of this 
kind. 

It is our boast, warranted by actual aocom- 
plishmenls, that California produces fruit which 
can challenge the world for superiority. This 
is our advantage at the outset. The figures 
show that tbe United States consume between 
twenty-five and thirty million dollars' worth of 
imported fruit every year. Here there is a 
market within our own national borders. But 
it needs constant and systematic eff'ort to sup- 
plant an established trade. We can supply the 
Urited States with a sabstitute for this im- 
ported fruit; but it will not be enough to state 
the ability — we must combine wi.sdom and 
strength and do it. 

It is one of the first principles of profitable 
production that the producer shall adapt his 
product to the needs and tbe tastes of con- 
sumers. He must make his product good. He 
must give it attractive form, so that it will win 
its way. Then it must please and satisfy. The 
producer must give his product a standard 
quality. It must have a certain fixed and uni- 
form e.xcellence, so that it can be bought and 
sold upon its name. When a merchant orders 
a large bill of California frujt, he should receive 
it uniform in style and quality with that which 
ho has been selling, or he cannot hold his dis- 
tributing trade. 

It is in giving proper uniform style and 
quality to the California fruit product that co- 
operation among our fruit growers can be made 
of great advantage to them. It will give their 
product a name in the markets of the world. 
It will be a surety to those in distant ports who 
introduce our goods, that they can rely upon 
always satisfying any future demand which the 
introduction of the new brand may invite. 

It appears then, that by proper cooperation 
our fruit growers can discharge a duty which 
they owe to themselves, and to all who may aid 
them toward desired ends. They can make 
their business safer and more remunerative. 
They can also give it qualities which will on- 
sure growth and endurance. They can build 
up themselves and the State. 

We arc glad for the success of the fruit in- 
terest, that the discussion of matters connected 
with it has arisen. Practical and intelligent men 
can make a co-operative society of great bonefii 
to them. All should have a voice in it. It should 
not be a creature of the few, but of the many. 
AH should partiicpate in its management, and 
in the dictation of its policy. If the great mass 
of interests involved are not well represented, 
it cannot reach its highest estate of value and 
usefulness. 



A Pest on the Sweet Potato. 

As forewarning is forearming, we call atten- 
tion of our sweet potato growing readers to the 
fact that a New Orleans entomologist announces 
the discovery of a new pest infesting the roots 
of the sweet potato. Dr. S. V. Summers 
writes to the New Orleans JJome Journal, de- 
scribing his discovery. He found a little 
weevil injuring the roots of the sweet potato, 
and after studying it thoroughly decides that it 
is an insect which has no place in the entomol- 
ogical records of the day. He calls it the 
Otidocephdlus ekgantulus, or " sweet potato root 
borer." It is a weevil rather small in size, yet 
larger than the common rice weevil and more 
elongated than the plum curcnlio; the elytra, 
or wing cases, are dark blue, very shiny; the 
head is more inclined to black, while the 
thorax, or that division between the head and 
wing-cases, is a shiny brick red ; legs reddish ; 
the larva> is a long, white, soft worm, destitute 
of legs. 

This is the word photograph of the threatened 
pest. At present its habitat is given in Louis- 
iana, but the doctor asks sweet potato growers 
everywhere to look for its appearance and send 
him specimens, if any be found, in order that 
the extent of its visitation may be determined. 
It is well to bear in mind that such a matter is 
mooted, even if our readers should find none of 
their tubers infected. It would be well also to 
examine carefully any imported seed or we 
may have enemies in onr fields ere we are 
aware. 

Dr. Summers gives a full description for the 
benefit of skilled entomologists, which we re- 
produce as follows: 

Otitlfi(xjihalus elfganlulus n. sp. Long o. 19— o, 20 
inch, 4.7.5—5. M. M. rostrum abbreviated, uigro-piceous, 
incra.esate, scarcely curved, glabrous, minutely and 
distinctly punctured, shorter than thorax, antennie 
slightly elbowed, fuscous, outer joints gradually 
dilated and paler, arises from anterior third of ros- 
trum, heail as broad as thorax at base, depressed and 
rugose above eyes, piceous Inclined to bluish, angles 
wanting, thorax rufo-testaceous, glabrous, very convex 
before, suddenly contracted po»tcriorly, lateral inar- 
gines distinct, posteur angles ill-defined, elytra convex 
with striate puucturea, punctures minute, curious 
haira, glabrous, dark blue, legs fuscous, thighs some- 
what emareinate, knees swollen and darker, tibia; 
Blender sliehtly arcuated below, middle and posterior 
tassu elongated. 

We should be pleased to hear from any of 
our readers, both practical growers and ento- 
mologists, if any such insect as we have de- 
scribed is known to them. 



On File.— "Grange Notes," by A. E.; "San 
Jose Installation," by Q. W. M.; "Kespons- 
ibility of Housekeepers, " byLoraine; "Queries 
Concerning Cheese Factory," by G. F. P.; 
"Mole Destruction," H. K.; "Farmers' Wives," 
M. E. T.; "Hungry Hollow," J. M. D.; 
"Northern Part of Santa Barbara County," J. 
W. W. 

Mbndocimo. — A. O. Carpenter informs us 
that the rainfall in Ukiah, so far this season, 
has been twenty-one ana five-eighth inches. 
The weather is clear and cool at present. 

DisPATCHEB from Brussels state that the 
military had been called out to suppress a labor 
strike. 



The Debris Question. 

We print elsewhere this week a memorial 
submitted to the Legislature last Sattirday. It 
is the outgrowth of the farmers' meeting at 
Marysville, of which we printed a report last 
week. The memorial is a vigorous document 
and deserves the study of all, for the interests 
involved touch all either directly or indirectly. 
We aim to give our readers all the information 
which can be obtained upon the subject under 
discussion, for we conceive it to be one of the 
greatest importance. 

Thus far, so far as we can learn, the opposi- 
tion to the claims of the agriculturists argue 
that the damage estimated from the deposition 
of the debris are very excessive, and endeavor 
to break down the manifesto in this way. This 
is at best a negative argument, and it has not 
been very successfully elaborated. In the 
memorial which we print to-day there are some 
new estimates of damages which seem to be 
carefully made and fortified. 

There seems to be no controverting the gen- 
eral proposition which we noted last week as 
underlying the whole question, and that is that 
one industry must not bo permitted to ruin the 
prosperity of another or override its success. 
It is neither in law nor equity, nor is it favor- 
able to the progress of the State, to permit any 
enterprise or interest to progress by pulling 
down another. 

It does not yet appear what is to bo the rem- 
edy for the conflict of interests which has arisen. 
The agriculturists have moved in the best pos- 
sible way, and that is by demanding that meas- 
ures be taken to throw light npon ttie qticstion. 
No hasty action on a matter which is so wide 
reaching would bo well advised. Eathor let 
euch steps be taken as shall result from a full 
knowledge of the evil and a clear discernment 
of its remedies. The question fshould not be 
approached in a spirit of loud controversy. 
There are two groat interests involved. In the 
equitable settlement of the differences it will 
require sober judgment to decide in what way 
each shall shoulder its own hardships and 
profit by its own successes. To this each in- 
terest is entitled and no more. And more than 
this fair men on either side will not claim. 



QJeI^IES /{\10 F\Ef»LIES. 



It is stated that there is a probability of the 
transfer of the Oregon railroads .to the Central 
I'acific railroad company. 



Infobmation indicates certainly that the 
House Eailroad Committee strongly favors Tom 
Scott's Texas Pacific measure. 



The Centennial committee in Congress have 
agreed to recommend an appropriation of 
$1,500,000 for the Centennial. 



Poppy Culture. 

Messb-s. Editobs:— Would you, or some of the 
readers of your valuable paper, be kind enough 
to give me Bome information (1) with regard 
to the cultivation of the opium poppy and the 
manufacture of opium? I learn that some 
experiments in this line have been made in 
this and other States, and should like to know 
tbe methods adopted and the results, as I de- 
sire next spring to give it a trial. Perhaps, 
also, such information might be interesting to 
others of your readers. Can you inform me 
(2) as to the price of opium in the S. F. 
market? W. A., San Jose. 

( 1 ) . In reply to our querist concerning the mode 
of cultivating the opium poppy we reproduce 
from the files of the Scientific Press the follow- 
ing paragraphs: 

Although most of the opium of commerce is 
obtained from Asia Minor and the region of 
the Ganges, the poppy grows luxuriantly in 
almost all parts of the temperate zone. It is 
indigenous almost everywhere within that limit, 
and flourishos especially in Northern Mexico, 
and could scarcely fail to grow luxuriantly in 
Central and Southern California. 

This plant, the Papaver somniferum of the 
botanists, is easily and cheaply grown, requir- 
ing but little cultivation, while the process of 
collecting the narcotic juice and converting it 
into the opium of commerce is as simple as the 
most ordinary process in common housewifery. 
Nearly all the work of planting, gathering 
and producing the drug can be done by children, 
male or female. It is a marvel that the Chi- 
nese have not long ere this turned their atten- 
tion to cultivating, rather than smnggling 
opium. The average profits in the former case 
would bo vastly greater, with no risk of failure. 
The plant matures very rapidly, and is har- 
vested within ninety or one hundred days from 
planting, and the drug may be ready for market 
within a few days after it is gathered. 

The poppy should be planted in rows about 
thirt}' inches apart, and the seed dropped, so 
as to insure a growth of the plants, about eight 
inches asunder in the rows. A light, loamy, 
sandy soil is best for its culture — one which 
can be readily and thoroughly pulverized. The 
soil should be well dressed with nitrogenous 
manures. The seed should be covered about 
one inch deep. The only after cultivation is 
to simply stir the groand two or three times 
during its growth with cultivator and hoe. The 
plant grows to a bight of from two and a half 
to four feet. In very dry soils it is possible 
that some irrigation maybe necessary; although 
experience may show to the contrary. If irri- 
gation is needed at all, it will be jnst before the 
plants come into bloom. After blooming, and 
while the juice of the capsule is being formed, 
irrigation would no doubt, be detrimentaL 

That chiefly cultivated at the East is known as 
the white poppy, so named from the whiteness 
of the seed. There is another variety known 
as the black, producing black seeds. The 
double-flowered white poppy is still another 
variety. The variety chiefly cultivated in 
Germany and France is known, from its large 
growth, as the "giant." Careful experiments 
in Germany have shown that better results are 
obtained from the giant than from either of the 
other varieties. 

('2). Concerning the price of opium in the San 
Francisco market, we learn that Smyrna opium 
is jobbing at $0.25 to $6.50 per pound. The 
opium used by the Chinese is different, and the 
trade in it is in tbe hands of the native mer- 
chants. We are informed that California opium 
is little known in the market. It is difficult 
to sell, because its standard tjuality is not deter- 
mined. The percentage of morphine not be- 
ing established, druggists are not willing to use 
the California opium in their preparations, for 
foar of making them either too weak or too 
strong. If the product should come into the 
market in sufficient quantities to warrant estab- 
lishing its definite character, there would seem 
to be nu obstacles to the trade. 

(3). We are aware that the manufacture of 
opium has been put to the test by some of our 
agriculturists. Will not some of them be kind 
enough to fivor us with the results of their ex- 
perience? 

Lactic Acid. 

Messrs. Editokb:— Lactic aoid in its dietary 
relation, is assumed to possess wholesome and 
medicinal ijualities. Its available Rupply seems 
to be confined to buttermilk— the product of 
churning. But is not the sour of skimmed 
milk — the clabber, due to lactic acid? Eich 
Bkimmed nilk sometimes seems to possess 
greater acidity than tbe buttermilk, and I think 
it has been suggested as an element for making 
vinegar. The following queries seem to be 
pertinent. (1). If the acid of Bkim milk is 
lactic, then it will answer all the purposes to 
which buttermilk is applied. (2). Is the 
sugar of sweet milk the same chemically as that 
from cane or beets? (3). Would the lactic 
process in sweet milk convert common sugar, 
added and mixed with the sweet milk, to lactic 
acid? (4). If the lactic process may be com- 
pared to the yeasting process, tbeii might we 



January 15, 1876.] 



41 



not increase our supply of lactic acid, ad 
ibitum? C. M., Petaluma. 

(1). The available supply of lactic acid is 
vot confined to buttermilk. The acid of sour 
skimmed milk is lactic acid. We reply then: 
So far as the one substance lactic acid is con- 
cerned, it can be obtained from sour milk 
as well as buttermilk; but whether sour 
milk can be used for all the purposes for 
which butter milk is employed, is another 
question. Our querist does not designate the 
special uses which he has in mind, and we can- 
not answer as to all uses to which buttermilk 
might be applied. , 

(2). The sugar of sweet milk is nof the same 
chemically as cane sugar or beet sugar. The 
chemical composition is, however, similar, and 
chemists can iuterconvert the different sugars 
by proper processes. 

(3). By the fermentation which changes 
milk sugar into lactic acid, an amount of cane 
sugar could also be converted. But for the 
artificial preparation of lactic acid there is a 
much better process. 

(4). The supply of lactic acid may be in- 
creased ad libitum, but not best in the way our 
querist supposes. Lactic acid is obtained, ac- 
cording to Miller, by dissolving eight parts of 
cane sugar in fifty parts of water; to this solu- 
tion one part of casein, or poor che se, and 
three parts of chalk must be added. If this 
mixture be set aside for a considerable time 
it gradually becomes filled with crystals of lac- 
tate of lime. The lime is subsequently re- 
moved with sulphuric acid and pure lactic acid is 
obtained. There may be more recent meth- 
ods of preparing the acid which are superior, 
but the one we have cited shows that lactic 
acid may be produced as rapidly as the demand 
calls for it. 

Hungarian Prune. 

Messrs. Editobs:— You will oblige several of 
your siibscribera here by informing them through 
the columns of your valuable paper the answers 
to the following questions often soliciied in 
regard to the Hungarian prune: (1). Is the 
tree a vigorou* and thrifty grower ? (2). Is it 
productive in bearing, or, like the German 
prune, does it shed its fruit when two-thirds 
grown ? (3). Is it a free-stone, or does it ad- 
here to the stone V (4). What color and size, 
and whether best for drying or shipping pur- 
poses ? (5). Is there any remedy for prune 
trees that shed the greater portion of their 
fruit ? for with the fruit growers here the prune 
is very unproductive, owing to the tendency of 
the fruit to drop ofi' when nearly full grown. 
By answering, you will oblige me with others. 



Coloma, Cal. 



PuuiT Grower, 



(1). We ask any of our readers who have 
had experience in growing the fruit which our 
querist names, to favor us with the teachings 
of their practice on the points advanced. The 
knowledge wtiioh we possess concerning it is 
deferred, in the hope that we shall hear of the 
doing of the tree in this region. This informa- 
tion would be more valuable to our querists. 

(5). Concerning the dropping off of the 
German prune, there are so many conditions 
involved, that we cannot proscribe a cause 
without knowing them. As a general comment, 
however, we cannot do better than quoi,e a 
remark of Mr. G. W. Hunt, who is a practical 
grower: "The German prune needs good cul- 
ture, and so far as my experience goes, will do 
best on hill or red land. Let it head low and 
cultivate thoroughly, or the fruit will drop off 
until there is only a handful left." Mr. Miller, 
who is also a prune-grower, says: "In 18G1 
or '62 we planted a number of prunes, some on 
dry lands, and some on wet, though under- 
drained — and all ou wet land soon died, and all 
on dry land are fine trees, bearing heavy crops 
of Fellenberg prunes. My experience would 
tell me, by all means plant your plum and 
prune orchards on dry land." 
Bees. 

Messrs. Editors:— (1). What kinds of hives 
are best for this State, and how made? (2). 
Why is it bees do not do as well in the north- 
ern part of the State as the south ? (3). Is the 
honey as good or is it difticult to keep the 
bees ? H. J., Yountville. 

(1.) The question of best hives is one 
about which practical bee keepers do not agree . 
Our advertising columns are open to those de- 
siring to inform the readers where to get good 
things of this kind. 

(2). The reason why bees do not do as well 
in the north as in the south, with the same 
amount of intelligent care, (if such be the fact,) 
will doubtless be found in the better bee pas- 
turage at the south. Bees cannot do well with- 
out the proper blossoms from which to draw 



their supplies, any more than stock can do 
without proper feed. The white sage at the 
south is a mine gof wealth to the bee keeper. 
The northern bee keeper must substitute some 
equally good honey source, or he will labor un- 
der a disadvantage at the outset. He must de- 
cide for himself whether this is possible by ex- 
periment. 

(3). The quality of the honey produced 
from the white sage is said to be unsurpassed 
by that drawn from any source. If a substi- 
tute for it can be grown at the north, we see 
no reason why the industry nortb and south 
should not be equally successful. 



Scenery on the Yellowstone. 

The second canon of the Yellowstone is de- 
scribed by Prof. Hayden as being carved out 
of a lofty range of mountains by the river. A 
sketch taken in this canon is ehown on this 
page. The canon was undoubtedly started in 
a fissure, but is mostly one of erosion. 

It is about three miles long. This is, of 
course, an extension of the range of mountains 
in which Emigrant gulcb is located, and it un- 
doubtedly contains mines of gold. The rooks, 
with their peculiarly distinct and contorted 
strata, as well as texture, remind one of the 
gneissic mountains in the mining districts of 
Colorado. The river rushes with considerable 
force over the loose masses of rock that have 
fallen into the channel, and presents a pictur- 
esque view to the traveler struggling along over 
the narrow trail, high up on the mountain side. 
But wherever the water forms an eddy, so that 



Fruit Growers' Association. 

A meeting of fruit growers was held at No. G 
Leidesdorff street, in this city, on Tuesday af- 
ternoon, January 11th. The meeting was called 
to order at 2 o'clock by Mr. John Lewelling, 
of St. Helena. 

The minutes of the former meeting were read 
by A. W. Thompson, secretary. 

Mr. Thompson stated that the address call- 
ing for the co-operation of fruit growers had 
been freely circulated. He said he had been to 
Sacramento and talked with members of the 
Legislature, and had been assured that the so- 
cieiy would be a proper subject for legislative 
aid if the members would get it fairly launched. 

Mr. J. M. Thompson, of Napa, moved that 
the report be received. There was no opposi- 
tion. 

Mr. Lewelling asked the secretary what ar- 
rangements had been made for the Centennial 
display. 

The secretary replied that a committee had 
been appointed. The members were enrolled 
with the idea of gaining State recognition and 
aid, as is given the State agricultural society. 
It is proposed that $50,000 be granted by the 
legislature for the Centennial display, and that 
the fruit growers, by co-operation, gain their 
share of the appropriation in making a fruit 

display. 

The secretary stated that the authors of the 
movement had agreed that no permanent or- 
ganization should be effected until 100 fruit 




SECOND CANON OF THE YELIiOWSTONE. 



it is even moderately quiet, the number of fine, 
large trout that can be taken out within a lim- 
ited period, would astonish the most exper- 
ienced fisherman. Above the canon the rocks 
return at once to their igneous character. This 
is readily shown by the difi'erence in the ap- 
pearance of the surface features. Although the 
granitic portion is higher and more massive in 
its general aspect, yet the surface is rounded 
aud much of it covered with debris that admit 
the growth of grass, while the volcanic rocks 
give a jagged ruggedness to the outline. Out- 
flows of dark brown basalt, apparently of late 
date, mingled with huge masses of breccia, can 
be seen on either side of the valley to the sum- 
mits of the mountains. The foot-hills on either 
side are certainly composed of breccia for sev- 
eral miles, which, decomposing, gives to the 
surface the appearance of the remains of an old 
furnace. Perhaps it would be better to com- 
pare it to a modern volcanic district. 



Placer County. 

Messrs. Editors: — We have been having very 
disagreeable weather here for the past few 
weeks. Rain aud fog have each made us fre- 
quent visits. We were visited upon Tuesday 
and Thursday nights of last week by heavy 
frosts which killed the tomatoes and potatoes, 
which before were to be seen in many places. 
A note in regard tojalfalfa. Mr. W. J. Prossor, 
of township No. 9, has thirty acres of alfalfa of 
two years growth ; last year he cut three crops 
from it, each crop averaging two tons to the 
acre. A fourth crop was cut and fed green to 
his cows and they were afterward allowed to 
graze upon it. Encouraged by his success 
many farmers in this section will this year sow 
alfalfa. Mr. J. W. Smyth, of Horseshoe bar, 
has an orange tree fifteen years old upon which 
were over two hundred oranges this year. 

New Castle, Jan. 5th. B. P. T. 



" The Mission creek land grab" is still the 
ruling sensation in this city. 

The Southern Pacific railroad depot at Hol- 
lister has been destroyed by fire. 



growers should be enrolled. At former meet- 
ings sixteen had given in their names. 

Mr. J. P. Whitney asked how late entries 
could be made for the Centennial. 

A member stated that the date was fixed for 
April 19 h. 

Mr. Whitney then urged the necessity for 
speedy action. He argued the advantage to the 
State would be great in representing the fruit 
industry. It would interest the whole world, 
and result in an increase in the value of Cali- 
fornia lands, by inducing a greater tide of im- 
migration. 

Mr. J. Begg, of Gilroy, stated that he had 
been engaged in preparing an exhibition of the 
California coniferio. His design was to build 
a fruit stand of cones, which should serve 
as the base upon which the fruit should be 
placed, to furnish the finest display the world 
ever saw. 

Secretary Thompson addressed the meeting 
concerning the difficulty which California fruit 
growers meet in making their industry pay. The 
production is becoming immense, and where is 
the market to be found? It appeared that there 
must be canning and arying. The Grangers' 
fruit association concluded that they would 
open their doors and invite everybody to como 
in aud aid in the work, and suggest plans for 
marketing the fruit. It is conceded that Cali- 
fornia can raise the best fruit in the world. It 
seems necessary that the fruit dryers and can- 
nors must be aided by the producers in pre- 
paring the dried fruit. The drying establish- 
ments cannot put capital enough into the 
business to carry all the fruit. The producers 
should co-operate with the dryers, and take 
their dividend when the stock was sold. If 
an arrangement of this kind was made, any 
surplus of fruit in the market could be at once 
moved to the drying establishment, and the 
market would bo relieved and prices improved. 
The fruit would be saved, and when sold the 
producer could get his pay from the dryers. 
Ttiis would be co-operation, which Mr. Thomp- 
son thinks would save the fruit interest. 

The field for the sale oi dried and canned 
fruit is large. The United States pays between 
twenty-five and thirty million dollars in gold 
for imported fruit. It is this trade which the 
association aims to supply. 



Mr. G. C. Pearson, of Solano county, remarked 
that a fruit grower can do nothing alone. The 
lack of uniformity in the product stands in the 
way of trade. He had failed, after going all over 
the State, to secure a single car load of raisins 
which would grade alike. It was the same 
with pears, apricots, nectarines, etc. He could 
not fill an order which says: "Send me a lot 
just like those you sent before." He could get 
no certain grade of fruit which the trade could 
rely upon. There was not, either, any uniform- 
ity of package. The New York trade calls for 
twenty-five pound, twelve and one-half pound 
and six and and a quarter pound boxes of 
raisins. He could not sell twenty pound 
boxes. Until the producers study the wants of 
the trade they cannot make sales. 

Mr. Whitney remarked that these questions 
were important, but the time to discuss them 
was after permanent organization was effected. 
He wished to know how this was to be done. 

Mr. Thompson believed that the organization 
would prevail if it were properly brought to the 
attention of the fruit growers. He believed 
that the fruit growers must be songht at 
their homes. The time to do this is now. The 
matter must be vigorously pushed upon the at- 
tention of the growers. 

W. W. Brier, of Centerville, thought the 
fruit growers had a little suspicion of the or- 
ganization, because it was so much of city 
origin. He thought it best to go on at once 
and organize, and the fruit growers would learn 
the objects o( the society. 

D. S. McLellan, of San Mateo, said he had 
made his fruit pay by seeking diligently and 
intelligently for a market, and he believed by 
working together the society could do the 
same. 

It was moved and seconded that instead of 
waiting for a hundred signers the organization 
proceed at once to permanent form. 

A Constitution was adopted clause by clause, 
with By-Laws. 

The following officers were elected: 

President — John Lewelling, St. Helena. 

Vice-President— George Hughes, San Francisco. 

Sacrot Ty — A. W. Thompson, San Francisco. 

Treaburer — W. W. Brier, Centerville. 

Board of Directors—.!. P. Whitney, Rockland; R. B. 
Blower, Woodland; Mr. Drake, San Francisco; .Tames 
M. Thompson, Napa; James Shinn, Centorvllle. 

Mr. Brier moved that all the members of the 
society be requested to secure the names of 
fruit growers to the roll. 

A committee of three was appointed to take 
charge of all matters in connection with the 
Centennial. The following committee was ap- 
pointed: A. W. Thompson, W. W. Brier and 
D. S. McLellan. 

A committee of three was appointed, as fol- 
lows, to see that the objects of the association 
are understood by the fruit growers : Messrs. 
C. O. Rhodes, J. B. Sweetser and D. S. Mc- 
Lellan. 

Upon motion the meeting adjourned. The 
society had at adjournment twenty-five mem- 
bers. 



Wool Markets. 



New York, Jan. 8th. — There is a very slow 
business done. The failures recently at the 
mills tend to distrust, and form a most promi- 
nent influence against the trade. Holders do 
not appear at all anxious as regards their ability 
to sustain the current market rates ou the more 
desirable lines of stock. The transactions show 
a change in the prices of California wools. 
Considering the condition of matters it has met 
with a fair demand, and full prices have been 
realized. Spring is quiet. Sales are 10,000 
pounds at 18@20 for Choice and 17 for Burry; 
32,000 pounds slightly Burry spring at 15@l"o, 
and 16,000 Spring at private terms. The esti- 
mated stock of Domestic Wool in this city Jan- 
uary 1st was 6,499,000 pounds, of which there 
were of California spring, Oregon and Nevada, 
1,332,000 pounds; California fall, 1,490,000 
pounds, California Pulled, 170,000 pounds. 

Boston, Jan. 8th. -The large sales for the three- 
months ending December 31st, coupled with 
the indisposition to extend credits so liberally 
as in the past, have tended to make the trade 
compfl,rativeIy quiet the past week. A few 
small manufacturers have failed, but as this 
was anticipated it has had little or no effect on 
the market. Sales of California have been 
comparatively light and prices are firm. There 
are orders in the market from buyers for Cali- 
fornia fleece at a little below current rates, but 
holders are not yot ready to make the neces- 
sary concessions. The sales include 125,700 
pounds spring at 2,')("'36c. ; 255,000 pounds fall 
at M(«'i!5c.; 5,000 pounds Scoured at 37(n'55c.; 
12,000 pounds Pulled on private terms. The 
estimated stock on hand January 1st was 14,- 
250,000 pounds, of which 5,667,000 pounds 
were California, against 4,323,000 pounds for 
the same time last year, while prices show a 
decline of two cents on fall aud live cents on 
spring as compared with the same time last 
year. I 

BouTWELi, wants to offer a bounty of $8 per 
ton for all large iron steamships built in the 
United States within five years. 

J. T. Bahoox has resigned as coiner in the 
mint in this city and Frank Cicot has 
been appointed in his place. 



Tub heavy rains have overflowed the low 
lands in the vicinity of Stockton. 

The Overland Monthly has suspended publi- 
cation. 



42 



[January 15, 1876 



Ball's Sweeping Dredge. 

Many of the readers of your valuable paper, 
I believe, will read with interest a atatement 
from myself relative to my enterprise, namely, 
the Ball sweeping dredge. I desire to place 
before the public some outline of what I am 
aiming to accomplisb, which is no small matter 
to the interests of our Stdte and country. 

In the summer of 1802 I crossed the plains 
and settled in Nevada county, where, under 
adverse circumstances, I accomplished but lit- 
tle, until I came to Oakland about three years 
ago. While living in Nevada county I trav- 
eled some in the great valleys of this State and 
became awakened to the importance of a gen- 
eral system of irrigation. Having seen what 
irrigation had done for the poor desert liind of 
the Mormons. I saw how much more favorable 
were the conditions as to the soil, climate and 
gapply of water for irrigating the great valleys 
of California, if a grand systematic plan could 
be had to provide water for all the land possi- 
ble. At that time I predicted Ihiit sooner or 
later the subject would become a political 
issue, and a State general system of canals for 
irrigation, transportation and water for the 
cities that were to grow, would be accomplished. 
I would like to dwell more particularly on this 
point, with reference to soma of the causes 
that have thus far retarded the State govern- 
ment from advancing the subject of its greatest 
interest — the allowing individuals and incor- 
porated companies to get possession of the 
water rights and large tracts of laud through 
the various ways of iutrigue in which they suc- 
cessfully have operated, thereby placing as it 
were a complete nightmare on the prosperity 
of our State, shutting out the poor man from 
opportunities to till the soil, and thus prolong- 
ing the time when the State should be under a 
high state of cultivation. 

Perhaps I am more erijectant than many 
others who have given much thought to the 
subject. I feel assured that most men in pre- 
dicting the future progress in the development of 
the resources of the Pacific States, come far 
short of what will be seen by those who live 
twenty years from this date — that a general 
system, utilizing all the water flowing from the 
mountains to the great valleys, for irrigation, 
transportation, manufacturing and other pur- 
poses, is the most important feature in the 
future of our State. }3eing thus awakened to 
the importance of the subject, and the certainty 
that such a scheme would be accomplished, I 
saw there would be millions of cubic yards of 
earth to remove in digging the many miles of 
can»ls and building reservoirs, therefore was 
led to see that if I could successfully introduce 
steam machinery for doing such work, I would 
do much to advance the project, also better my 
own circumstances. 

About ten years ago I invented the main 
principles of my improvements in dredging and 
excavating machinery, and during all these 
years, although in a helpless condition, I have 
been centering all my energies to accomplish 
the one object, namely, to get into practical 
use steam machinery for digging canals. But 
while thus engaged an opportunity was pre- 
sented which enabled me to experiment by 
attaching my improvements to a dredging ma- 
chine first. I have made many radical changes 
from any other dredging machine yet in use, 
and still I find opportunity for improvements. 
The results thus far attained, I mean in re- 
gard to dredging into scows, then towing to 
deep water and dumping, assure me that no 
other machinery now in use can successfully 
compete with mine. I think the dumping 
practice is wrong, and believe the taking of the 
material dredged from under water on the 
shore is a great necessity; and that by adding 
to my improvements already made, I shall sus- 
cessf ully provide the m schinery for that purpose. 

I feel sure that my improvements in ma- 
chinery have already been a t)enefit to the State, 
by causing a great reduction in the price of 
dredginer, and I hope they will soon prove to 
be of great importance to the commercial, 
farming, and many other interests of our coun- 
try, especially on this coast. In such assur- 
ances, I am sustained by many who are well 
known to the public to possess a high degree of 
intelligence, and who occupy positions giving 
them that experience which best qualifies them 
to judge correctly with regard to the future 
progress of our State and country. I have not 
yet had a tost to prove tbe value of my inven- 
tions adapted to land excavation, which I be- 
lieve of more value than the same used for 
dredging. Nearly two years ago I succeeded 
in making a temporary experiment by attaching 
some of my improvements to an old drerige. 
which proved by its work done on the Oakland 
bar thai there was value in my improvt-ment; 
but these proofs did not materially strengthen 
me to raise means to carry forth the enterprise. 

This was because of an unreasonable oppo- 
sition by parties who would have done much 
better for their o»u interests and mine, also, 
had they been willing to deal with me honor- 
ably. After being for a time hand-tied, I at 
last succeeded in finding a man able and will- 
ing to outer into a fair bargain to share with 
me to build a complete dredging machine. 
This machine is not jet as perfect as I am sure 
I can make it; but I earnestly invito all who 
feel an interest in the progress of the invention 
and especially those interested in exca- 
vating or dredging, to examine the machine 
now at work along tbe water front, San Fran- 
cisco, where can be seen whether I have any 
reasonable grounds for supposing that such 
machinery would dig the canals successfully, 
with speed and at a cheaper rate than by any 
Other means. 



The work that has been done for some time 
past has averaged over Ij.WO cubic yards per 
day of six and a half hours. 

About one-half of the time the dredger lies 
idle for want of the scows being towed away 
as fast as they are filled, as no one tug can 
tow the scows away as fast as they are filled. 
The average time of filling each scow of 105 
cubic yards is less than twelve minutes. I am 
prepared now to do dredging for less than forty 
percent, of the prices heretofore existing in 
this State, and I feel sure thit when I have 
more fully perfected my machinery I shall be 
able to dig and transfer earth from one place to 
another, in nearly every case of requirement, 
for one-fourth of the present cost by the means 
heretofore used, and al.so to facilitate such work 
in proportion that steam power does in the 
many other uses, as in manufacturing, etc. 
Therefore, I am hoping to assist in the more 
rapid development of onr country, by aiding in 
the construction of the canals of which I have 
spoken. 

I am thankful to a kind Providence that I 
have been been able to advance my enterprise 
to the extent I have, and with so great success. 
I am encouraged to persevere regardless of the 
opposition or hindrances that I may yet have 
to encounter. I am gratified to see the grow- 
ing sentiment in favor of a general system of 
irrigation, and that there is a probability of 
some definite action in its favor at the present 
session of the State Legislature. 

John A. Ball. 

O.ikland, Dec. 30th, 1875. 




Re-seating Chairs. 

Cane seated chairs are very apt to wear out 
and then, if their owners are far from the up- 
holsterer, they are thrown aside as useless. 
Any woman with a little ingenuity can repair 
them so they will be "good as new." Take 
any piece of bagging or burlaps— no matter 
how coarse — and fit them to thr chairs, cutting 
them largs enough to wrap about the rounds 
that hold the splints or canes. Now sew it on 
with the darning-needle and twine twice 
doubled, and turn up a hem, as you sew on the 
burlaps. When half fitted, stuff it with "ex- 
celsior" shavings of poplar wood; or if you 
have them, cut ofi' layers from old quilts, and 
spread them smoothly over the chairs, under 
the burlaps. The layers of cotton can be 
tacked together before they are put in, and 
then they can be laid more smoothly upon the 
old canes. Fine hay will also answer for 
stuffing when nothing better can be procured. 
Now sew down the other two sides, and take 
pieces of carpeting, or of enameled cloth, or 
colored rep, or all wool dress goods, and tack 
them closely down with large silvered or brass 
headed nails, which come for the purpose, and 
behold ! your chairs are far handsomer and 
more comfortable than before. The materi- 
als have, possibly, cost you but little, for many 
an attic would furnish them all but the nails, 
which must be procured at the upholsterer's. 
Gimp to match the ground color of the cushion, 
or even worsted braid, is desirable to place 
along the edges of the coveting, and drive the 
nails directly through it. This makes a hand- 
somer finish to the cushion. — Eixhaiuje. 

Value of the Common Bboom Plant as a 
FiBEB. — The common broom plant is an- 
nounced as furnishing a fiber equal, and in 
some respects superior, to that of hemp and 
flax. In view of the great extent to which this 
plant occurs wild in Southern Europe, and the 
ease with which it is cultivated, such applica- 
tions, not indeed new, but only more rt- 
cently revived, promise important results. Its 
fiber can be very minutely divided, and as it 
retains heat, it can supply the place of wool. 
It receives the most delicate dyes as well as an 
animal fiber, and successfully resists the ac- 
tion of acids and salt water without undergoing 
any change or losing its tenacity. Its strength 
is one-third greater than that of hemp, while it 
is thirteen per cent, lighter. It can be fur- 
nished, delivered at the factories, for about C'2 
per ton. The fiber may be obtained by soaking 
the stems for a few days in warm water, or 
else by means of a chemical solution of little 
cost. 

To Avoid Wet Feet. — Here ie another way 
to prevent water from getting through shoes. 
The composition also makes a good harness 
dressine. Take neatsfoot oil, one and one- 
half pints ; beeswax, one ounce; spirits of tur- 
pentine, four ounces; and stir until cold. 
Spread and rub this composition over the 
leather while it is damp; leather will absorb 
oil and grease better when damp than when 
dry. For the soles, take pine tar and rub it in 
before the fire until the soles will absorb no 
more. Three or four applications will be 
needed. The durability of the soles will bo 
much increased. If this preparation will do 
what is elaimed for it, it will be invaluable to 
miners, who are now compelled to suffer from 
wet feet, or endure the almost equal danger 
and inconvenience from the constant use oY 
rubber boots in wet weather. 



Apparatine— A New Anti-lncrustator. 

A new anti-incruslator has lately been intro- 
duced under the name of apparatine, which is 
prepared by stirring up 16 parts of potato starch 
in 7G parts of water, and then adding eight 
parts of potash or soda lye, at 25Cj Baume, the 
whole to be thoroughly mixed together. In a 
short time the mixture forms a thick jelly, and 
it is then beaten up vigorously for a time, when 
it forms a colorless, transparent substance, 
slightly alkaline to the taste, and of a litrong 
glue-like consistency. It dries slowly in the 
air, without decomposition, and when perfectly 
dry resembles horn, but is more tle.xible. 
When introduced in small quantity into steam 
boilers it prevents their incrustation. It is also 
capable of nearly all the applications of ordi- 
nary gelatine, and is especially adapted for siz- 
iiiij textile goods of all kinds, imparting to them 
11 hitherto unattained smoothness. When once 
apldii d to goods and dried it is perfectly insol- 
uble, as three or four washings in hot water 
have proved to have no effect upon it. It can 
also be used as a thickening in calico printing. 
Several of the technical journals speak of 
this substance aa a very important addition to 
tbe resources of the manufacturer and dyer. 
Care must bt taken to retain it in air tight 
vessels until it is used, as it is not easily ren- 
dered soluble again when it once becomes hard. 

New Ijocomotive Attachment. — Among the 
recent novel American inventions is one which 
is described as consisting of a telescopic ar- 
rangement of tubes projecting from the front 
of a locomotive engine, and so arranged that 
when pushed in by contact with any object — a 
cow on the track, for instance — a valve is 
opened, and a series of projectiles are thrown 
out, which quickly remove the obstruction. 
The Eni/ineer, commenting on this product of 
American genius, suwgests as an improvement 
that the tubes be replaced by a projecting Ki)ar, 
to the end of which a torpedo might be attached, 
which may be exploded by electricity under the 
beast, and so accelerate its movement! 



Patent Leatheb. — Newark, N. J., produces 
most of the patent-leather made in this country, 
and we import none of this kind of goods ex- 
cept patent calf-skins. Onr manufacturers have 
pushed their goods into the foreign markets, 
and have succeeded in competing with foreign- 
ers in their own countries. This branch of 
business has hardly felt the dull times, owing 
to the fact that it depends so largely on the 
foreign market. The manufacture was begun 
in Newark, in 1813. 



To Remove Grbase Spots from' Papeb. — 
Warm tbe paper and cover it on both sides 
with dry, finely ground pipe clay, and place it 
under a slight pressure for a few hours. Then 
dust off the clay, and remove the fine dnst that 
still adheres by means of a good piece of India 
rnbber. 



How TO Use Postal Cards. — Anything 
whatever, except an address, written or printed 
on the side intended for the address renders 

Costal cards unmailable, and the same cannot 
a legally forwarded unless prepaid at the let- 
ter rate — three cents. But if, by inadvertence, 
it reaches its destination without such prepay- 
ment, it is chargeable with double the letter 
rates, minus tbe one cent originally paid for tbe 
postal card. 

A Cane with a Candle. — A very simple walk- 
ing cane, with a candle enclosed, which might 
be convenient for nse in dark passages, or even 
for reading in railroad cars, has been invented 
by a German. The top portion consists of a 
hollow cylinder screwed on, and containing a 
spring to press upward as fast as consumed, a 
candle in it. It is closed by a screw cap, which 
forms a convenient top. 



Platino Cotton with Silk. — A method of 
covering cotton with silk has been devised. 
The silk is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, or 
un ammonial solution of copper or nickel. 
Water is added until the solution begins to 
cloud, when the cotton, previously mordanted, 
is immersed in it for a few minutes. When 
taken out it will be found to be plated with 
silk. 



Do Great Fikes Produce Gales and Whirl- 
winds? — There has been much said in the 
newspapers of the high wind which prevailed 
at the time of the Virginia City fire, and we 
have yet to learn whether the wind was blow- 
ing when the fire began or whether it was oc- 
casioned by the flre. It is generally supposed 
that the great Chicago fire broke out during 
the prevalence of a gale of wind, but snch is 
not the fact. On Saturday preceding the fire 
there was a terrific gale blowing from the 
west, but it had spent its force before Sunday 
morning, and the afternoon and evening of that 
day a perfect calm prevailed. And it is a remark- 
able fact that, during the early hours of Monday 
morning, there was but little wind ten blocks 
west of the great path of fire through which a 
hurricane seemed to be sweeping. This state- 
ment can be verified by scores of witnesses who 
lived west of the river, and we have never 
bad an explanation of the phenomenon. The 
fire itself created the wind which fed and fan- 
ned it, and drove it through the heart of the city 
with such appalling speed. 

However much we may endeavor to comfort 
ourselves with the thought that a great fire in 
New York wonld not be exposed to such winds as 
came from off lake and prairie, it may neverthe- 
less be true that a vacuum caused bj- large 
currents of ascending flames would, even here, 
produce just such another tornado as prevailed 
iluring the Chicago fire, before which New 
York's proud structures would turn to ashes. 
Indeed we see no reason why tbe lesson of 
Chicago may not yet be repeated in New York, 
and indeed there is none. — American Artisan. I 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

For INTO. 

BETTER AND^ BETTER. 

Wliile we OBonet promise to labor any more faith- 
fully OP larneBtly for our readers iu the future than we 
have in the p««t. we «hall eud.«vur to make the PBKsa 
MORE COMPLETE IX ALL ITS I)EP.\RTMENT8. 

Its Editorials, 

Will l)C written by able and couscii^ntious writers, and 
with such judRment aud caro ag to render the journal 
of the higtiPKt usefulness to its readers, and to the per- 
maueat welfare of the u.w and progressive couiiuunit}' 

its culuinuH espi-oiallv represent. 

New Editorial Talent 

Has been cngaspd to work in co-operation with the 
senior i^ditor of the Uukai. and other assiatautH, in 
extending forward some of its important branches. 

The Live Stock 

Departments— Including the horse, horned stock, 
shiep, goat, swine and poultry lnterest.s— will receive 
constant attention, and our researches for reliable in- 
formation, which shall be of practical use to onr Occi- 
dental readers, shall not bo limitcil to any natrow 
sphere. 

The Dairying Trade 

Of this coast Is yet in email dimension to wh»t it 
might and sbonld be— to what it is destined soon to 
be. Intelligent experience; careful experiments; the 
dissemination of demonstrated facts in regard to the 
best breeds of stock; information of the beat grasses 
for pasturage for all seasons; tbe best machines and 
methods for manufacturmg; hints for marketing, etc., 
will be some of tke subjects to be treated in an eamCKt 
way in our columns, that the Rcbal Press may well do 
its share in advancing one of the most promising in- 
dustries of the coast. 

Our Correspondents 

Number some of the ablest domestic wrlteni in the 
Union, aud we are proud to say we would not exchange 
their oo-operativo pens for those of any other corps 
of newspaper correspondents. They are not only 
friends at heart of our pajier, but of the true Cause of 
progressive manhood aud womanhood everywhere. Our 
fiouroes of 

Fresh Information 

Are not equalled by those of any other agricultural 
journal in the United States, and making the best use 
possible of our facilities, we arc determined that every 
Issue of the Ritual Pkess for 187C shall teem with 
a choice and well dressed variety of desirable Informa- 
tion. The pursuit of 

Floriculture and Horticulture 

On the Pacific slope presents a field of delightful study 
more prolific in novelty and fiuitful in profits than 
awaits the student aud laborer in any other portion of 
the (riobe. We trust to cxchanee valuable hint* with 
our florists, vineyardists and fruit (jrowors throughout 
the Pacific States. 

Our Home Cmci.E department will contain none other 
than 

Chaste Literature 

In pleasing variety, calculated to amuse, instruct and 
elevate both the young and old boys and girls, who 
may turn to Its columns for pastime and self-improve- 
ment. 

Our Illustrations 

Will be numerous and calculat. d to please tbe eye and 
help the mind to see quickly and correctly many im- 
portant objects that miL'ht otherwiho pass their knowl- 
edge'. Some of them will enable farmers to see and 
contrast for thcmselvt-s many kinds of new and impor- 
tant machines and implements. This Illustrated fea- 
ture of our paper, although expensive to its publishers, 
is an important one to rural readers — espxcially in a 
new and rapidly developing country. 

The Mind and Health 

Of the readers tf the Rural will be cared for in our 
OooD Health, Usefil Inkokiiatiok and Domestic 
Economy colnmns. Our Gknkbal X«wb Items, New 
Inventions, Scientific and Mkchaxicai. Misckllanx 
articles will be continued throughout the year. 

Agricultural Notes. 

Under this head will be reported weekly, carefully 
selected and condensed items concerning the agrlrnltu 
ml improvements and progioss of the various counties 
and districts of the wide field we represent. The 

Information of the Resources 

Of this coast, set forth In the various departmenta of 
our paper, is not only of important benefit to its read- 
ers, but to every property holder on the coast, through 
tbe Influence it exei'ts in stimulating enterprise at home 
and healthy Immigration from abroad. There are but 
few persons interested in agricultural pursuits here 
who are not benefited annually by onr publication 
above the amouut of its subs<riptiiin price. 

Market Reports. 

In its commercial department, the Rural Pkess will 
spare no effort to furnish the agriculturist an accurate 
and trustworthy schedule of the prices whlck various 
pri^Kluctions are gaining in the market. We regard 
this department ot our paper as worthy of the most 
careful and discriminating labor. In our review of the 
markets wo shall ipresent all attainable information 
concerning the tendency of production of various sup- 
plies and the features of the trade in tbem. We shall 
affonl all the evidence which can be secured for form- 
ing true judtrment of the features of agricultural trade 
and commerce. Although this is a dlthcult department 
we shall especially strive to give the best weekly .do- 
mestic protluce reports in the city. 

The Best is Cheapest. 

We might fill our advertising columns with high-priced 

Quack and Swindling Advertisements, 

And our reading columns with paid puffs, and thereby 
be enabled to turnish a large paper at a remarkably low 
price, but lee iviil not do it We believe our subscribers 
prefer a good paper at a reasonable price to the so- 
called cheap papers that trifle with their confidence. 
Time is precious, and patrons will find that read- 
ing the cheapest which is most suitably prepared for 
their special avocation and locality. 

The Friends of Our Paper 

Have done much since its first iss.icin January, 1870 
to make the RiniAL Pbkss of the Pacific coast what it Is 
today. Thanking them for past kindnesses, we invite 
all our renders to make known its merits to those who 
are not yet its reading or advertising patrons. 

A Farmers Paper Throughout. 

We repeat that the Pacihc Rt hal PKf>s will eon 
tlnue to be a faithful advocate of the b^'st aud highest 
interests of agriculturists on this coast— according full 
Justice to other kindred industries in conjuni-.tion 
with which agriculture alone can permanently thrive. 

A Handy Map 

Of California and the principal portion of Nevada will 
he furnished free to all subscribers who pay one year 
in advance, during the year 1876. The map l8 plain, 
printed on tinted paper, about 16x20 inches, showing 
townships in Cslifornia, and the counties, railroads 
and principal towus lii California and Nevada. 

We Prepay the Postage 

On all papers sent to subscribers in the United Btatt^s, 
SunsciilPTiON Rates, payable in advance: One year, 
$4. Sample copies free to those who will assist In ob- 
taining subscril>ers. 

SEWBT & CO., Publishers, 

No. 'i'ii Sansome street, 8, F. 



January 15, 1876.] 



43 



)f^EEOEE\S yiE^ECJOI^Y' 



PnB0HA8EB8 OF STOCK WILL FIND Il« THIS DiBECTOBY 

THE Names of some of the most reliable Bbeedebb. 
OUB Rates.- Six lines or less inserted in this directory at 
50 eta a line per month, payable quarterly. 



cmiE. 



B. ASHBUBNER, Baden Station, San Mateo Oo., 
Cal., breeder of Short-horn cattle. Pure Bred Bulls 
for sale, from cowa of choice milking strains. 



J. BREWSTER, Gait Station, Sacramento Oo., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 



POWERS & STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., breed- 
ers of A. J. C. C. Registered Jersey Cattle. Cows and 
Calves for sale at low rates. Address Luther C. 
Powers. 



A. MAIXiIiAIRD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 304 Davis street, San Fran- 
cisco, (or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) : 
Breeders of Short-Horns and their Grades. 

R. G. SNEATH, Menlo Park, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages— at 
$40 to $150. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



H. F. BUCKLEY, Hopeton, Cal. Thoroughbred 

also 5i and ii Cotswold griido Hheep. 



SEVERANCE & PEET, Niles, Alameda Co., 
Gal., breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino 
Sheep. 

A. G. STONESIFER, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co., 
Oal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep. 



Ij. XJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Shoox), Durham Cattle 
and Essex Swine. 



B. F. W ATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thor- 
oughbred SpaniHh Merino Sheep. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown; 
Shoej). Bucks and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each 
LambB, %\b each. 



POULTRY. 



M. EYRE, Napa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Geese 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Ferrets. 



GEO. B. BAYL.EY, Cor. IBth and Castro greets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale. 

ALBERT E. BXTRBANK, 43 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS. Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, 8. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahmas, B. B. Red Game Bantams and 
Aylesbury Ducks. Also Eggs. 

WILLIAM KNOWLES, P. O. Box 337, Oskland, 
Cal., has for sale Eggs for llatching, carefully pack- 
ed, from Brown Leghorns at $4 per doz. Houdans, 
White Leghorns and Butt' Cochins at $3 per doz; two 
doz. for $5 Sent C. O. D. to any address. 



Miscellaneous Notices. 

HoUoway's Sure Death 

— TO — 

GOPHERS, SQUIRRELS AND RATS. 



This preparation, compounded by a most skillful 
chemist, is the most efficient poison for the extermina- 
tion of Gophers and Squirrels. It is cheaper than 
strychnine, and in using it, saves a great deal of time 
and unpleasant work. Price, 76 cents per pound. For 
sale everywhere. 

ABRAMS & CARROLL, 

Wholesale Deuogists, 

Sole Aoekts. 



NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Clay and 114 Commercial Sts., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

B-A.G-S of All Kinds, 
TEIVTS, All Sizes and Descriptions. 
HOWE for Hydraulic Use. 
C-A.IWA.S, All Numbers. 
TWIIVE for Sewing, Etc. 



COMiM-ERCIAL HOTEL, 

Btontsromery Avenue, Kearny and Pacific 
Streets, San Francisco. Cal. 

Two blocks west of the Post-office— Street Cars from all 
the Steamers and Railroad Depots, and 

FREE COACH AND CARRIAGES TO THE HOTEL. 
HORNBLOWER & SAXE, Proprietors- 
Hotel is brick, four stories, contains 175 large rooms, 
all perfectly llghttd and ventilated, bathing rooms, 
hot and cold water and clooets on every floor, street 
frontage 321 feet, three flights of stairs, and one Patent 
Hydraulic Elevator. Hotel and furnishinp; all new- 
cost nearly $245,000. Will be kept First-class, at $2.00 
per day, and less by the week or month. 



BOOK BINDER, PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTDEER. 

601 Clay Street, S. F. 

Bluik Books Baled, Printed, and Bound to Order 



Averill Chemical Paint, 



MANtJFAOTUKED BY THE 



Oal. Olatemical Paint Co. 



PURE WHITE, AND ANT SHADE OR COLOR. 

This Paint is prepared in liquid form, READY FOR 
APPLICATION — requiring no thinner or dryer, and will 
not spoil by standing any length of time. 

It is Cheaper, more durable, more Elaatic, and pro- 
duces a more Beautiful Finish than the best of any 
other Paint. 

It will not Fade, Chalk, Crack, or Peel off, and will 
last twice as long as any other Paint. 

In ordering White, state whether for Outside or In- 
side use, as we manufacture an Inside White (Flat) for 
inside use, which will not turn yellow, and produces 
a finish superior to any other White known. 

Put up in !^, ^,1,2 and 5 gallon packages, and vn 
Barrels. Sold by tlie Gallon. 

For further information send for Sample Card and 
Price List, or apply to the office. 

OFFICE and DEPOT: FACTORY: 

117 Pine Street, near Front. Cor. 4th & Townsend Sts. 



3v9-eow-bp-ly 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



LEA. &, PEFtRINS' 

-CELEBRATED— 

Worcestershire Sauce 



Declared by Connoisseurs to be the only 
good SAUCE. 




Caution Against Fraud. 



The success of this most delicious and 
unrivalled Condiment having caused cer- 
tain dealers lo apply the name of "Worces- 
tershire Sauce" to their own inferior com- 
pounds, the public is hereby informed that 
the only way to secure the genuine is to ask 
for LEA & PERKINS' SAUCE, and see that 
their names arc upon the wrapper, labels, 
(stopper and bottle. 

Some of the foreign markets having 
been supplied with a spurious Worcester- 
shire Sauce, upon the wrapper and labels of 
which the names of Lea& Perrins have been forged, L. 
h P. give notice that they have furnished their corre- 
spondents with power of attorney to take insiant pro- 
ceedings aguinst manufacturers and vendors of such, 
or any other imitations by which their right may be 
infringed. To bo obtained of 

MESSRS. CROSS & CO., 

San Francisco. 



SEED WHEAT. 

For sale in lots to suit. Seed Wheat, raised from gen- 
uine imported Australian, French and English Wheat 
of best quality. Apply to 

J. "W. H. CAMPBELL, 
433 California Street, S. F. 
(Merchants' Exchange.) 



AMMONIA! 

For Washing: and Cleaning* Purposes. 



For Sal© ly-y all Grocers. 

This article 13 universnlly used in Europe, and,, receoty 
iDtroduceU tor geoeral family use in San Francisco and 
neighhorhood, ie already in great demand. It la now the 
intention of tbe manufacturers to introduce it all ever the 
Pacific Ccast, at prices which will bring it within the reach 
of every houBehold. 

It is unequalled for cleansing Woolen Fabrics, Cutlery, 
(-arpets •r Crockery ; for Scrubbing Floors, Wa."*hing Pa.int, 
Removint; Grease Spots, Shampooing or Bathing. 

It renders water soft, and imparts a delighUui sense of 
cooIneft.s after washing. 

DIRECTIONS.- For Laundry, use two to four tabic- 
spooonfuls lo a washtub of water. For bathing, use one 
tablespoonfiil in the bath tul). For removing grease spot.^, 
apply witb a brush, undiluted, and wash with water after- 
ward. For stimulating the growth of plants, use a iew 
drops in every pint of water used in wjitenng. 

PRICE. -Per Pint Bottle, 2.5 cents; per quart Quart Bot- 
tle, 40 cents; per Hall Gallon, T-i cents. 

Also, SULPHATE OF AMMoNlA for chemical pur- 
pose, fertilizintr, and the prC'par;ition of artificial mnnures. 
AMMONIACAL PREPARATION, for the prevention and 
removal ot boiler scale. CRUDE AMMoNlA, for general 
manafacturin^. and PURt<; LIQUOR and AQUA AMMO- 
NIA for chemical and pharmaccntical purposes. 

a^-Manufactureil by the 

SAN FRANCISCO GAS-LIGHT CO. 

eowbp 



MICROSCOPES AGAIN. 

Just arrived, another lot of Microscopes, only more kinds 
and more of them, as follows: 

No. i. A handy little brass mounted Microscope, very 
powerful for ilie size; just the thing for everybody to 
have in their waistcoat pocket, to increase their field of 
vision from tweniy-five to fiftv times, whether a tinv 
flower or blasted grain; it is good for either. Sent for 
one dollar, postage stamps or currency. 

No. 2. A two Miory Mtcrosoope, not in size but simply hav- 
ing an undt-r story, put m to raise up the upper 8tor3^ 
which is enclosed in glass. The top can be taken oflF 
omlaj^mall objci^t, like a flea or fly. can be dropped in. 
About as powerful as No. I. Sent free to any address 
for one dollar, postage stamps or currency. 

No. ;i. Much larger, and is also enclosed in glass. Too 
large fcr the pockt^t. These last have from ten to on*' 
hundred, more or less, mounted objects, consisting of 
bugs, shells, grain, moss, etc. The top of this al-io comes 
otr and a Ilea can be dropijcd m , which will make it very 
large, showing its rings, looking Honn-whai like an arma- 
dillo loose in a fairy palace. Sent free to any address for 
two dollars, pontage stamps or currency , Address 

CHAS. P. KIMBALL. 

613 Hayes Street. San Francisco. 

FOR. JS^ALE. 

A fine young draft stallion, price $1,000 cash, or on 
time with approved Hecurlty. For particularH and ped- 
igree, inquire of J. M. DUDLEY, 

Dixon, Solano County, Oal. 



Just Published. 



THE PUBLIC LANDS 



OP CALIFORNIA 



U. S. LAND LAWS, 



With a Map of California and Nevada. 



A BOOK OF INFORMATION, 



Especially valuable to Immigrants and Pre- 
emptors, and interesting to the public gener 
ally. 



Contains a general statement of amount of 
Public Lands now open to pre-emption; Rail 
road Lands, and where they are flituated, how 
reached ; and general instructions for locating 
and holding. 



Contains, also, facts of general interest to all 
in regard to the chief industries of California. 
Compiled by H. M. Van Arman, 



PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY DEWEY & 
CO., PUBLISHERS OP THE PACIFIC RU- 
RAL PRESS, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

[Pbicb 50 Cents, Post Paid.] 

California Farmers' Mutual Fire 
Insurance Association. 

No. 6 Leidesdorff St., Rear of Grangers' Bank. 
CAPITAL, $200,000, GOLD. 

OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES: 

I. O. GARDNER ..V. Pies't 

A. W. THOVtPSON Alt'y 

CHAS. IjAIRD, Salinas 

A. D. I.OGAN OolUHa 

G. W. COLBV Butto Oo 

O. J. ORESf^EY. ..Oakland 
E. W. STEELE, S. L. Obispo 

FERD. K. RULE, Secretary. 

First Annual Statement for Year Ending- 
SeDtember-SOth, 1875. 

TOTAL RISK'.; WRITTEN 8rt.03f;.;{'y8.00 

TOTAL PREMIUMb e3,30e.40 

LOSSES PAID 646. OO 

No. of Policies Issl^ed During the Year, 1.435. 

This association is organised for the purpose of afford- 
ing the farmers of this State the means of &afely ii>suring 
against loss by lire, at actual cost of insurance, without 
being connected with city risks. 



J. D. BLANOHAR, Pres'l 
G. P. KELLOGG, Treasurer 

I.e. STEELE San Matoo 

A. WOLF Stockton 

W. H. BAXTER S. F 

J. O. MERRY FIELD, Dixon 
A. B. NALLY. . . .Santa Rosii 



FAKMtER,*' TJIVI03V- 

SnCOEBSOB TO A. Pfisteb & Co., 

Cor. Second and Santa Clara Sts., San Jose. 

CAPITAL, -...-.--- $100,000. 

WM. ERK.SON PRESIDENT 

U. E. HILLS MANAGER 

Directors:— Wm Erkson, L. F. Chipman. Horace Little 
J. P. I)udley. David t'aiapbell, James Singleton, Thomas 
E. Snell, 0, T. hettle, E. A. Braley. 

Will do a General .Viercantiie Business, also receive De- 
posits, on which such interest will be allowed as may be 
agreed upon, and make Loans upon apiiroved eecuritv. 



Dewey & Co. {8A,i^.8»} Patent Agt's. 



THE AlL,r>E]V 

FRUIT PRESERVING COMPANY, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 

OFFICE, 426 MONTaOBLERY ST., S, F. 

Our Improved apparatus will do one-third more work 
than that erected last season, while our prices have 
been materially reduced. A portion of the purchase 
money may be paid in the products of the Alden fac- 
tories. We guarantee against infringements. The 
Alden is the oldest, the best and the cheapest process 
known for preserving fruits, vegetables, meats, etc. 

It would be unwise to purchase the new and untried 
dryers before they have demonstrated their superiority 
by at least one year's regular work. Send (or our cir- 
culars. 



THOROUGHBRED JERSEY CATTLE. 



FOR SALE, twelve bull calves of 1876— three yearling 
bulls— Also cows and heifers bred from the best Im- 
ported stock. Address, 

A. 1IAII.LIARI}, 

San Rafael, Marin County, Cal. 



50 



ViNltiiiir Carrtu, with your nnme finely 
print' il, sent for 2."io. Wv liavo lOO styles. 
Ag-enta W^Mittetl. 9 samples sent for 
stniiip. A. II. Fiilltr & Co., Itrockton, Muss.' 



Commission Merchants. 



T. O'CONNOR & CO., 

SEED AND PRODUCE 
Commission House, 

lUPOBTERS OK 

Seeds and Semi-Tropical Trees 
Plants and Fruits, Etc 

500,000 Australian Blue Gum at $'25 to $40 per M, in 
boxes; 250.000 Monterey Cypress at $25 t« $40 per M, 
in boxes; also a consiRnment of Australiau Blue Ouin 
Seed, warranted 1874, per steamship Cily of MMoui-ne, 
at 76 cents per oz., or $10 per lb. 

Navil (or Seedless) Orange Trees, 1 

Lisbon Lemon Trees, [ 

Passion Fruit-Bearing Vine and Seed, S Australian. 

Norfolk Island Pine (Elcuria) Seed or | 

Plants. J 

Orangre Trees. — Wilson's Seedlings, Kona, Malta 
Blood and St. Mlkel's. 

Chuchapela, Pernambuco and Sweet AcapuIco; also 
Vegetable, Grass, Field and Flower Heeds. Australian 
and Sicily Lemon Seed in barrels. Orange and Mexican 
Lime Seed in barrels. For sale by 

T. O'CONNOR & CO., 

426 Sansome street, near Olay, S. F. 



B, s. ctiuMiaoa. 
1868. 



H. O, B ALSTON. 

1876. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 

House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast corner of Washing 
ton, San Francisco. 

Oar business being exclusively Ccumisslon, we have 

interests that will conflict with those ot the prcdnoer. 

4v23-lr 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits: also for the sale of Butter, Eg^s 
(Cheese, Hop-^, Green and Dried Fruits, etc., 75 Warron 
street, New York. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; EHwanger A Barry, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; O. W. Reed. Sacramento, Cal.; A 
Lusk A Co.. Pacific Fruit Market. Kan Francisco. Oal. 




CALVERT'S 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 

T. W. .JACKSON, San Francisco, 

Sole Aftent for Oalifomla 

and Nevada. 



ItUPXXJRE. 



Use no More Metallic Trusses. No more suflerinK 
from iron hoops or steel springs. DE. ROWE'S PAT- 
ENT ELASTIC TRUSS is worn with ease and comfort 
night and day, and will and has perf<.rmed radical 
cnrcs when all others have failed. Reader, if you are 
ruptured, try one of DR. ROWE'S comfortable elastic 
appliances; you will never regret it. 

RO"WE ELASTIC TRUSS CO., 
tf 609 Sacramento Street, 8. F. 

HOOPER'S SOUTH END WAREHOUSES, 

FIRST-CLASS FIREVPROOF BRICK BUILDING, 

COR. JAPAN & TOWNSEND STREETS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, OAL. 

Goods taken into the Warehouse from the dock and 
the cars of the 0. P. R. R. and S. P. R. R. free of ei- 
peuse, at current rates of st^raKO. Advances and 
Insurance efl'ected at Lowest Rates. 

JOHN JENNINGS, Proprietor. 



LEA & PERRINS' 

celf.iihatkii 

WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE, 

DECLARED BY CONNOISSEliRS TO BK 

THE ONLY GOOD SAUCE. 

In consequence 0/ Spurious Imitations of 

Lea & Perrins Sauce, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, 
LEA y PERRINS have adopted 

A New Label, 

bearing their Signature, thus — - 



yt^nt^i^t^ 



which 7vill be placed on every bottle of 

Worcestershire Sauce, 

after this dale, and without which none 

is genuine. 

November 1874. 

*^* This does not apply to shipments 

made prior to the date given. 

Ask for LEA y PERRINS' Sauce, 
and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle 
and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the 
Proprietors, Worcester; Crossel^ Blackwell, 
London, iSc, l^c. ; and by Grocers and 
Oilmen throughout the World. 



44 



Jfe^ m «l^«@U^Jiy« «l> «tv; ijl> '£> Q « 



[January 15, X876 



(Coatinned from Page 37-) 



den producing the choicest vegetables the year 
around, ai d irout in the Btreum for the catch- 
ing, makes Ulen Loche one of the most favored 
spots on earth. 

A Fine YiELD.^JVfss, Jan. 8: The price of 
land is regarded as very high in the vicinity of 
Santa Barbara, but it pays a good interest on a 
much higher price, if the success of Mr. Brock 
in raising sweet potatoes be a fair criterion. 
He raised tifiy tons on three acres, the past 
season and left ronm for his young fruit trees 
besides. He is selling the potatoes for $2.50 
per hundred, or $50 per ton, making the crop 
■worth $800 an acre, which is ten per cent, on 
$8,000 an acre. 
SANTA CLARA. 

AoRicTJLTUBAL SociKTT. — Chronicle, Jan. 1 : 
The annual meeting of the Santa Clara Valley 
agricultural society was held in San Jose, on 
Thursday, at the City Market hall. There was a 
very large attendance of the lif e members, 
there being seventy-eight present. The reports 
of the officers show that after paying over $12,- 
000 in premiums last year there remains a bal- 
ance ol $451.85 in the treasury, which makes 
the funds on hand amount to $2,450, besides a 
well improved park, worth at least $100,000. 
The officers elected today were: President, J. 
P. Sargent; vice-presidents, L. J.Hanchett and 
Moses Schallenberger; secretary, D. J. Porter; 
treasurer, John H. Moore; directors, Truman 
Andrews and Mrs. L. J. Watkins; delegates to 
the State agricultural society, Wm. C. Wilson, 
C. T. Kyland, J. P. Sarpent and Mrs. S. L. 
Kdox. The election of officers was a decided 
victory for the horse interest. The horticul- 
tural, cattle, agricultural and mechanical in- 
terests were totally ignored. We may, there- 
fore, expect the best of races at the next fair, if 
nothing else. President Wilson was the re- 
cipient of a vote of thanks for his eleven years' 
service as president of the fociety. Rain is 
steadily falling. Farmers are jubilant and all 
are happy. 
SISKIYOU. 

Blooded Hoeses. — Union, Jan. 1: On Wed- 
nesday Mr. W. C. Myer, of Ashland, Oregon, 
arrived in Yreka on his way home from the 
E>i6t, with a ban! of tine horses. They are all 
of them of the celebrated Porcheron stock. Mr. 
Myers has devoted his attention to his stock 
for some time and has previously imported 
several stallions to Oregon. He went East for 
the purpose of purchasing these animals towards 
keeping up his stock of them on his farm near 
Ashland. 
BOLANO. 

PnosPECTs — Banner, Jan. 8: The crop pros- 
pects throughout Northern Solano are verj' 
cheericg. Summer fallowed wheat is growing 
finely, and there are appreliensiona that it will 
grow too raiik and fail down. The great bulk 
of winter sowed grain is also in the ground, 
though there are a few farmers who are not yet 
through plowing. The opinion seems to be 
gaining ground that this is to be one of our 
favorable years, and if so, the crop in this 
county will be much larger than that of any 
previous year, as almost every acre of tillable 
and is -under cultivation. 

SONOMA. 

PrMPKiNs. — Democrat. Jan. 8: We noticed last 
week that Mr. Wesley Mock had raised a pump- 
kin on his ground^ in Santa Rosa, during the 
past season, which weighed 15U pounds. That 
was pretty good for a city raised pumpkin, but 
Mr. O. A. Taylor has raised some on his ranch, 
on Mark West creek, which lay it slightly in 
the shade. One of his weighed 118 pounds, 
another 16;i, and another 108 pounds. 

Fruit Gbowino. — About three years ago Mr. 
Julliard came to Santa Bosa and bought 
thirteen acres of land, then a wheat field . Since 
that time he has erected a fine residence, set 
out a great variety of fruit and shade trees, and 
the consequence is he has an abundance of 
nearly all kinds of fruit, such as currants, 
raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, ajiricots, 
almonds, cherries, and figs, and he tells us he 
will soon have oranges and lemons. We have 
been told, and have always taken it for granted, 
that currants could not be propagated success- 
fully in this valley, but Mr. Julliard has proven 
the fallacy of that idea, for he raises some as 
fine currants as can be found on this coast, and 
in large quantities. It is quite interesting to 
go through his grounds and see the different 
varieties of fruit ncider successful cultivation, 
and other improvements he has made in so 
short a space of time. 

The Ceoi' Pbospect.— The dry-plowed land 
throughout the county sowed in wheat before 
the rain, is looking splendid. On Eugene Mc- 
Peabe's place it is six inches high, and else- 
where on Santa Bosa creek it looks as well. 
It has already stooled oat, and completely 
covers the ground. On the Bancroft place the 
barley and wheat look as well as was ever 
before seen in this county. The ground is just 
now too wet to plow. There is a good deal of 
land ready lor sowing as soon as the rain ceases. 
The feed on the sheep and cattle ranges is 
better than ever before known at this season of 
the year, or at all events, since 1852. Sheep 
are fat, and cattle on open ranges are fast im- 
proving. The hay crop will be better than for 
many years past, and the promise of a rich and 
bouutilul harvest was never better than now. 
The tillers of the soil in Sonoma county hive 
much to be thunkful for. 

The Wr.vE Crop.— ^rgus, Dec. 31 : Sonoma 
ranks second among the counties of the State 
in the production of wine, Los Angeles being 
first, and Napa third. The product in this 



county last year was probably not far from 
1.800,000 gallons, and in the State about 8,500,- 
000. No reliance whatever can be placed in 
the tables of statistics published in the Sur- 
veyor General's report, which represent the 
wine product of the State in 1871 to have been 
3,893,775 gallons, and of Sonoma county 440,- 
000. There are at present thousands of acres 
of land in Sonoma county excellently adapted 
to grape culture, that can be purchased at $5 
to $25 per acre. The time is not distant when 
a considerable portion of these lands, which 
are of little value for other purposes, will be 
reclaimed and converted into vineyards, which 
will yield handsome profits to those who have 
the industry and perseverance to undertake 
their development. 
STJTTER. 

Pro.spkcts. — Jl<inmr, Jan. 8: Since our last 
issue we have conversed with many farmers 
from different portions of the county, (who 
have been on a call to the Tax-Collector's office, ) 
and from all we hear the most cheering account ' 
of the condition of the growing crops. Tiie 
farmers are all through seeding, unless it is on 
the bottom lands, where it is yet too early. 
Summer-fallow and volunteer is completely 
CDvering the ground, and later plowing and 
sowing is doing well. Feed is also very for- 
ward for the seatOD, being eqnal to the first of 
March, ordinarily. Stock of all kinds is doing 
well, and the farmers are happy over the out- 
look for 1876. 
TULARE. 

E.iiNFALL. — Delta, Jan. fi: The rainfall in 
the foothills has been nearly double what it has 
been on the plains. A few miles east of Visalia, 
a rancher who kC' ps the rain every season in a 
common square kerosene tin can, tell.i us that 
before the last rain, woen we reported four 
inches, he had five and a half in his gauge, 
which had, of course, been open to evapora- 
tion. 
YOLO. 

AViiEAT. — Mail, Jan. G: The yield of wheat 
in Yolo county the past year amounted to about 
50,000 tons. The exact figures we cannot give, 
but from the best data on band the above fig- 
ures are about correct. The grain was of a very 
fine quality in all parts of the county— much 
tiner than common, which added greatly to the 
value of the crop. This season the farmers 
have great expectations for the coming year, 
and are con.sequently increasing the area by 
cultivating every acre they can. The seasoin 
has been very favorable, and their efforts have 
been put forward to the fullest extent. There 
is quite a large amount of wheat in store at 
different points in the county, and shipments 
have not been so large as in previous years up 
to this time. The low price offered at the be- 
ginning of harvest was not much of an induce- 
ment for farmers to sell, and when the market 
took an upward shoot so suddenly they im- 
agined there would be no stopping the excite- 
ment, and many of them who were able to hold 
calmly waited to see what the excitement would 
amount to. They are waiting yet, and will 
probably do so for some time to come. 
YUBA. 

InBioATtoN Experiments. — Tidinj/s, Jan. 8: 
The Excelsior water company "of Smartsville 
has recently purchased several farms on the 
Yuba, above Marysville, for the purpose of ir- 
rigation, it having been demonstrated that 
muddy water, such as this company take from 
the Yuba, is the very best for that purpose. 
Four crops of red clov- r and five of alfalfa can 
be cut each season. The company also propose 
to enter largely into the cultivation of oranges, 
emons and nuts, for which the mild climate of 
the foothills is so admirably adapted. 

The Mining Debris Question. 

The most important business in the Legisla- 
ture on Saturday was the presentation by 
Assemblyman Berry, from Sutter, of a pre- 
amble and set of resolutions on the question of 
mining versus agricnlture, which has lately 
given rise to some controversy between im- 
portant sections of the State. Following are 
the preamble and resolutions: 

To the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States, in Congress assembled: 

First— Your memorialists, the Legislature of 
the State of California, respectfully represent 
to your honorable body, that the system of hy- 
draulic mining, as now prosecuted upon the 
headwaters of tbe Sacramento river, the Feather 
river, the Yuba river, the Bear river, the Ameri- 
can river and numerous other smaller streams, 
all of which flow into the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco, is having the direct effect of covericg up 
all the rich alluvial lands of the upper Sacra- 
mento valley to a depth of from one to twenty 
feet with an unproductive debris, thereby de- 
stroying many millions of dollars in property, 
and rendering desolate the homes of hundreds 
of actual settlers. 

Second— AVe would further represent that at 
this time, from the immensely improved appli- 
ances in use for said hydraulic mining, and 
the construction of immense reservoirs and 
numerous ditches rendering water for such 
mining purposes cheap, hundreds of miles of 
gravel silt and beds are now being and will be 
washed down upon our valleys that heretofore 
would not pay for mining. In fact, this pro- 
cess of mining is yet in its infancy, having 
been in operation but about fifteen years. It 
is thought by those competent to judge that in 
the next twenty years it will increase manifold. 

Third — We would further respectfully repre- 
sent that most of the above named streams 
have already been filled to their highest banks 



with gravel, sand and mountain debris, and 
that all the cereal-producing lands in the upper 
portion of these valleys are already destroyed, 
and that many of our beautiful cities and towns 
are almost aunually inundated; that our Capi- 
tal city and magnificent State House are threat- 
ened with speedy destruction, and that unless 
the threatening danger is speedily averted the 
most inviting and productive valleys on the 
continent will be rendered wholly uninhabi- 
table. 

Fourth — We would further represent that 
upon the Yuba river there have already been 
destroyed and abiudoned tweuty-four sections 
of land, which to day in its primitive condition 
would be worth more than $2,000,000; 
thirt}'-six sections on B«ar river, worth $1,000,- 
000; sixteen sections on Sacramento river, worth 
$750,000; eight sections on Feather river, 
$500,000; ten on American rivtr, worth $G00,- 
000; twenty-two on other smaller streams, 
$1,000,000; total, $0,3.50,000. Thisis adeslrac- 
tion of lands alone; the improvements that 
have been destroyed and the personal property 
that has been driven away from those lands, 
would amount to as much more, to say notbiog 
of the depreciation of adjacent property, and 
the general retardation of the prosperity and 
business enterprise of our State. 

Fifth — We would further represent that our 
farmers in the locality of these streams have 
for a number of years past been building and 
constructing a succession of levees and em- 
bankments along the margin of the low lands 
adjacent to those streams at a cost of more 
than two million dollars, and that the inhabit- 
ants of Sacramento have filled in and raised 
the business portion of said city to a hight of 
fifteen feet, and have surrounded the entire 
city with an embankment of tbe same hight. 
This work cost more than one million dollars. 
That the city of Marysville has expended hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars in surrounding 
herself with a series of embankments, notwith- 
standing which, less tban twelve mouths ago, 
she was inundated, and suffered the loss of 
more than a million of dollars, and to-day the 
bed of the Ynba river is at a higher elevation 
than her streets, and its waters are kept off 
them only by a narrow embankment of earth; 
and that other towns and villages have already 
and are yet expending vast sums of money in 
resisting the encroachments of the water and 
debris; and that the inhabitants of the above 
cities, towns, villages and localities have been 
and are now taxed to their utmost tension, 
hoping to preserve to themselves and families 
that portion of our villages not yet entirely and 
irrevocably destroyed. The result of all their 
efforts has been temporary, precarious and in- 
secure protection, an exhausted treasury, and 
total destruction in tbe near future. Experi- 
ence has taught them, and demonstrated most 
clearly that tbey cannot remove the debris from 
the rivers and water courses and raise embank- 
ments as fast as the process of hydraulic min- 
ing fills them up. They find themselves help- 
less, and, without aid, cannot much longer es- 
cape destruction. 

Sixth — We would sill further represent that 
our navigable rivers, the Sacramento and the 
Feather, upon which we are dependent for 
cheap fares and freights, are about destroyed— 
so much so that they can only be used in high 
stages of water, thus depriving us of the high- 
ways furnished by nature, which are indis- 
pensable to our prosperity, and forcing us to 
adopt more costly means of transportation. 

Seventh — We would further represent to your 
honorable body that the bay of San Francisco, 
the finest harbor in the world, is menaced. T. 
J. Arnold, engineer of the State Board of Har- 
bor Commissioners, has estimated that debris 
is being washed into the bay in sufflaient quan- 
tity to cover annually one square mile to a 
depth of forty-one feet, and that it will take 
but fifteen years to fill Suisun bay, and but 
tbirty-one years to complete the destruction of 
San Pablo bay, after which the bay of San Fran- 
cisco proper is the only receptacle left for the 
entire debris washed from the mines. 

The above estimates are founded upon the dis- 
charge of debris that is actually now occurring. 
When we consider the wonderful improvements 
already made and likely yet to be made in the 
process of hydraulic mining, we realize that 
tbe mountains are literally moving down into 
our valleys, rivers and bays. Wherefore your 
memorialists pray that the foregoing statement 
of facts may receive at jour bauds that atten- 
tion its importance demands. Believing that 
no one industry should be fostered to the utter 
annihilation of other and paramount interests, 
therefore be it 

Jlaolved. By the Assembly, the Senate concurring 
First, that onr Senators in CongreEB are Instmcted and 
our Representatives requested to place this memorial 
before Congri bk and to preK» the matters therein men- 
tioned respectfully upon their attention. 

Jiesnived, Second, that our Senators be inetructcd and 
our KeproeentativeB requcHted to favor the amendiiiont 
of the present laws bo that no mineral lands shall be 
disposed of by Congress for the purpose of hydraulic 
mining, only upon such conditions as shall prevent 
injury and damage to the valley lands, rivers and 
bays of our State. 

Resolved, Third, That our Senators be Instructed and 
our Representatives requested to urge upon Congress 
the adoption of such measures and the passage of 8\ich 
laws as shall prevent the doxtruction of onr rivers and 
Ijays, and keep them open to that free navigation which 
is icdispeusable to our prosperity as a State. 

Keaolwd, Fourth, That our Senators be instructed 
and our Representatives requested to urge upon Con- 
gress th^ propriety of sending to tblscoast acompetent 
engineer for the purpose of collecting information as 
to ihe extent of hydraulic mining, and the amount of 
damage done and likely to be done thereby to our val- 
ley lands, rivers and bays, and obtain such other in- 
formation as may be pertinent to tbe subject, for tii« 
purpose of laying the same before Congress at a sub- 
sequent session. 

Kfsolned, Fifth, that his Excellency Governor Irwin 
be respectfully requested to forward without delay a 



copy of this memorial and these resolutions to each of 
our Senators and Repreientatlres In Congress. 

Carpenter— I move the reference of this 
memorial to the Committees ou Mining and 
Agriculture, and that, for the purpose of its 
consideration, they be made and constituted a 
select committee. 

Berry seconded the motion, which was 
adopted. 

Wine and Brandt.— The press dispatches 
from Washington, dated Jan. 10th, bring an ab- 
stract of a memorial presented in the Senate by 
Mr. Sargent, setting forth various facts in re- 
gard to the culture of the grapevine and the 
manufacture of brandy, and asking relief. Re- 
ferred to the Committee ou Finance. In pre- 
senting the memorials, Mr. Sargent said that, 
in France, 1,500,000,000 gallons of wine were 
produced annually, valued at $300,000,000. 
Five million people were engaged in grape cul- 
ture, and it bad been stated that two vintages 
paid the indemnity exacted from France by 
Germany. California had about the same area 
of land as France and one-half of it was suita- 
ble for grape culture ; at present there were 
30,000,000 vines in the State. He stated tbat 
there was a prejudice against California wine, 
and frequently a higher price was paid for an 
inferior foreign article. The result was that 
grapes in that State was frequently fed to hogs, 
and the only remedy to be applied at present 
was a relaxation of rules in reference to the 
taxation of brandy. The memorialists desire 
that there should be a species ol Government 
wareho ises provided, in which wine could be 
stored and tax paid to the Government at 
the time the wine or brandy went to market. 
The Government now paid bounties to fisher- 
men, discriminated in the tariff in favor of 
ship building, etc., to all of which he had no 
objection, but he hoped that the same policy 
would be extended to the interest of California. 
He hoped the matter would be considered by 
the Finance Committee, for though he knew 
that no bill in regard to the subject could origi- 
nate in the Senate, the matter could come np 
on a revenue bill from the Honse, and he 
would then ask to be heard farther on the 
subject. 



Patents & Inventions. 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Paolfto Coast Inventors. 

Fboh OmoiAL Repobts roa thi Hinino aim Soikm- 

nno Pbess, DEWE; Jt CO., Poblisbebs aih> 

U. 8. AND FouuoN Patiict Aoxhts.J 

by Special Dispatch, Dated Waahlnston, 
D. O., Jan 11th, 187e. 

Fob Week Ending Decembeb 28th, 1875." 
Padlock.— Geo. R. Cutbirth, 8. P., Cal. 
Boots and Shoes. — William Biddle, Corvallis, 

Oregon. 
Pbockss of Leveling Land. — Thomas B. Lowe, 

Centerville, Cal. 

"The patents are not ready for delivery by the 

Patent OfSce until some U days after the date of issne. 
NoTi. — Ooplea of 0. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by DCW8T k Co., la the shortest time poulbla (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest ratss. All patent 
baslness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
perfect security and in the shortest nosnible time. 

"Faith and Confidence " 

Ln-EBMOBE, Oct. Ist, 1875. 

Messrs. Dkwey & Co., Fatent Solicitors: amtlemm— 
Yours of the 29th alt. containiuK my patent to Ele- 
vated R. R. duly received, and I hereby return my sin- 
cere thanks to the Mimino ajid Scikntific Press Fatent 
Agency for your promptnesa ami honesty in regard to 
our busino'B connections. I have received a flood of 
circulars from Eastern firms, desiring to deal with me, 
but I have declined any communlcati<m witb them and 
prefer, as soon as circumstances will permit, to nego- 
tiate with and patronize a home Institution; one in 
which I have faith and confidence— Dewey k Co. 

Again thanking you for your promptness in securln); 
my patent, I remain, obediently ."oura, 

Wh. H. Hariuson. 



SimscBiBEBS are requested to examine the printed 
address on their papers. If mistakes occur ai any time 
please report them to this office. The last figures (at 
the extreme right) represent the year that your sub- 
scription is paid to. Next to these the day and month 
is represented. For instance, your subscription being 
paid to .Tuly 1th, 187 1>, it would be represented, viz: 
jl 4 76; or iJ176. 

OivE Yom FUix ADDRESS when yon communicate on 
business to this ofhce, especially in returning news- 
papers. Tbe fact that your name is on our snlracription 
list is of no assistance to us. Without sending your 
post office address we should have to look over 
thousands ofnames to find yours. 



The Scandinavian and German Immigra- 
tion and Employment Office, 

610 Uerchant :Street, near City Hall, S. T. 

Since July, 1875, consolidated witb the old Califor- 
nia Labor Exchange, established in ISfis. Located in 
the buHiuess center of San Francisco, witb agents in 
the East and the mother countries of Europe, and mas- 
tering all tbe principal European languages, we have 
unsurpassed facilities for complying with any demand 
on UH for male and female help in any capacity and of 
any nationality, at reasonable terms. A lady attends 
to the female department. Scandinavian, German, 
French and American help our specialty. We can fur- 
nish farmers witb any number of Scandinavian and 
German help, if timely notice is given. Hotels and 
private families supplied with French and Oernian 
waiters. When female help is wanted In tbe country, 
the remittance of the passage money in advano« li 
indispensable. Tour orders will be filled promptly and 
conscientiously it addressed to 

V. de BRETTBVILLE & CO.. 
[P. O. Box U3C.] San Franoiaco, Oal. 



January 15, 1876.] 



S. F. Wi^f^KET R^^Epoi^T- 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, January 12, 1876. 

The general tone of trade during tho last week has 
been quiet. The very bad condition of the roads re- 
strains shipments and holds country purchasers at 
home. 

During the week there has been a trifling fluctu. 
atlon in the foreign quotations for Wheat, but there 
appears to be no noticeable effect on the local trade. 
There is now about 5 cents difference generally be- 
tween buyers' and sellers' views. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation to the Pro. 
duce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded in the following tablet 

Banere of Cable Prices. 



Thursday . . 

Friday 

Saturday. . . 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 



AVEBAGE. 



108 4(i®103 
10s 5d@10< 
lOs tdiaWs 
lO-i 2dra>10s 
10s SdWlOs 
10s 3d(a(108 



Clue. 



lOs 10d®H8 2d 
10s 8d@lls 
lOs 8d@ll3 
10s S(l@lls 
llis 8(lfg/lls 
10s 8d(§)lls 



2d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with game date in former years as follows: 
Average. Club. 

1874 138lOd@14s Id lis — @15s— 

1875 9s 7d@108 — 10s — @108 6d 

1876 lOs 3d@10s 8d 10s 8d@lls— 

There was posted upon the bulletin of the Produce 
Exchange to-day the following partial showing of the 
amount of Grain still on hand in this State: 

Account of Stock, January 1st. 
The Directors are unable to f;ive as yet a complete 
account of the stock of Breadstuffs and FeedJGrain in 
the State, owing to tho slowness with which returns 
come in. But to satisfy the anxiety of members, they 
present below th > the footings of what they have re- 
ceived. These figures will be somewhat increased, 
and when completed will be printed in detail. Accouut 
of stock so far received is as follows-. 

Flour, bbls 57,786= 6,778 tons. 

Wheat, ctls 2,690,858 =134, .5-12 tons. 

Barley, ctls 782,446= 39,122 tons. 

Oats, ctls 44,257= 2,212 tons. 

W. H. Walker, Sec'y. 
There Still remain a number of points to hear from, 
and it is expected that the stock of Wheat will reach 
the even three million centals, and Barley one million 
centals. 

The announcement of the amount of Grain on hand 
has stiffened shipmasters' views a little, and freight 
rates asked are now quotable at 47s to 50s, but there is 
little doing. 

It appears from tho figures of the imports of Wheat 
Into the United Kingdom that the receipts have con- 
siderably exceeded the amounts of the last two years. 
From January 1st to December 1st, 1875, the British 
imports of Wheat were 47,423,03^ ctls. During the 
same time of 1874 they were 39,108,36(1 ctls, and in 187a, 
39,243,360 ctls. The excess of 1875 may be richlly sup. 
posed to have exerted its influence upon tho low range 
of quotations which we Lave been receiving. 

Concerning the European Grain trade the Afaric Lane 
Express review telegraphed on January 11th is as fol- 
lows: 

"In the Paris market the reports of the reappearance 
of frost arrested the downward tendency of prices, but 
the trade is stagnant; while in several provincial mar- 
kets the quotations are a shilling lower. Some places 
In Holland, Belgium and Germany have been in sym- 
pathy, but nowh ro has there been a material reduc- 
tion. St. Petersburg is unchanged, and Odessa is 
closed; so shipments from both places must cease for 
some time. In Adelaide, Australia, whence we were 
led to expect large shipments, prices have suddenly 
risen five shillings per quarter, and there is great dif- 
ficulty in securing wholesale quantities." 

In domestic produce the trade has been without 
special features. The following table shows the bay 
receipts of domestic produce for the week ending at 
noon to-day, as compared with the receipts of the week 
before: 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 



Abtioles. 


Week Ending 


Week Ending 


January 5. 


January 12. 


Flonr, quarter sacks. 


41.210 


7,244 


Wheat, centals 


&3,636 


91,856 


Barley, centals 


5,478 


9,839 


Beans, sacks 


349 


1,143 


Potatoes, sacks 


2,456 


13,631 


Onions, sacks 


791 


923 


Wool, bales 


152 


173 


Hops, bales 




115 


Hay, bales 


,5,920 


1,767 



Bags— In Grain Bags there is no change in the quo- 
tations. There has been a little speculative trade. We 
hear that large amounts are freely offered for June 
delivery at 10?ic, while others hold them at ll@li;<;c. 
We note a sale of 1,000,000 hand sewed Wheat Bags at 
10® 10 ill c, longtime. 

Barley— Barley does not meet great trade and gen- 
eral prices are unchanged. Wo note the following 
sales: 636 SkS Coast Chevalier, $1.17^; 400 do, $1.15; 
104 sks specially choice Chevalier, $1.65; l,6uo sks 
Coast Feed, $1.16®1.20; 3,000 ctls choice Bay Brewing 
on cars for the East, $1.32 H'; 300 sks Coast Feed, old 
crop, $1.10; lioo sks choice Bay for the East, $1.35; 300 
sks fair Bay Brewing, $1.28; 3.000 do good do, $1.30; 
3,000 do choice do, $1.36. 

Beans — Beans are unchanged generally. Pmk 
Beans are selling a little lower. 

Com— Corn ranges at former quotations. We note 
sales as follows: 500 sks large White and Yellow, fair 
quality, $1; 300 sks choice Yellow, $1.05; 500 sks small 
round Yellow, $1.25. 

Dairy Produce— Butter is quotable 2 >ic lower on 
all grades. Eggs are 10(4)12 Mc lower. Cheese is one 
point lower for new make. 

Feed— Hay is more plentiful and is quotable $1 
lower per ton . Oats are very scarce and the price had 
advanced for flue Oats to ?2.25 per M. Wo note the 




45 



following sales of Oats: 200 sks choice Feed, $2.16. 
Choice Oregon were in one instance held for $2.50 per 
ctl, while a small lot of 118 sks choice Petal uma brought 
$1.30. Sales of 240 sks Coast, $2.17 }i ; 500 do Petaluma, 
in three lots, $2.12}4@2.25; 200 sks choice Oregon, 
$2.26; 200 sks good Feed, $2,173^. 

Fresh Meat— First quality Beef is quoted Ic higher 
lor best selections. There is some spring Lamb arriv- 
ing which is quotable at 15c ^ lb wholesale. 

Smoked Meats— Eastern Hams have arrived in 
good quantities and prices are easier. 
Fruit— There is nothing new to note. 
Hops— Hops are dull and are selling at buyers' 
prices. There have been receipts of Washington Terri- 
tory Hops which have sold at 10@lo;ic. There is 
little quotable above 12c. One sale is noted of 15 bales 
choice Napa to a brewer for 15c. Emmett Wells' Circu- 
lar describes the New York trade as follows: 

" A large business has been done for a holiday week. 
The receipts foot up nearly 3,000 bales, while over 
1,200 bales have been shipped to England. Prices are 
strong; a fraction over 15c has been paid for extra 
choice lots, but we hardly feel warranted in advancing 
our quotations at this time, though 16c may be reached 
before the issue of our next report, as the market to- 
day closes very strong and shows indications of an 
early advance. Our reminder in last week's Circular 
of a growing scarcity of fine Hops has set shippers to 
thinking, and anything now oftered good enough for 
shipping is freely tanen at full prices. California 
Hops are quoted at 17@20c. 

' Potatoes— Potatoes are arriving in large quanti- 
ties, but prices are well maintained and even advanced 
for fine selection. Sales are reported of 600 sks choice 
Petaluma at $1.65@1.65 per ctl; 300 sks Sacramento 
Elver, $1.15; 100 sks Petaluma, $1.50; 400 sks Peta- 
luma and Tomales, $1.60@1.65. The market fluctu- 
ated considerably during the week, but $1 50 is an 
outside price now for fine stock from favorite locali- 
ties. 

Onions— Onions are unchanged. We note sales of 
100 sks Union City, $1.05; .5C0 sks do, $1.10. 

Poultry and Game— There has been an excited 
time in Chickens. Durinc the last days of last week 
$10 perdozen was paid for Hens. The supply has now 
increased, but prices are a little improved over our 
last. Venison is now unlawful food. Antelopes are 
arriving from beyond the mountains. 

Seeds — There is no notable change in the Seed 
market. 

Wheat— There has been quite a range in prices 
during the week. Sales are reported as low as $1.83'i 
and as high as$l.97M per ctl for a fancy extreme price. 
We note the following sales: 75 tons Milling at $1.97,v;; 
150 tons do at $1.92Ji; 200 tons Shipping at $1.85; 4,000 
sks Shipping at $1.82!<;; 800 sks Milling at $1.87J!;; 
1,200 sks Oregon at $1.90; 2,000 ctls Shipping at .51.85 ; 
8,000 do, to be delivered at Vallejo, $1.82;ti@1.85; 800 
sks good, $1.85; 500 do do, $1.87 M. 
Wool— There is nothing to note ic Wool this week. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

I WHOLESALE.) 

Wednesday m.. January 12, 1876. 



VKA-MS. 

Bayo,*o;l — (82 75 

Butter 1 25(5 

I'ca — 'ffl 

Pmk 1 !W'<^ 

Sm'l wh 1 711,05 

BRUUM COKN 
Common,^ lb.. 2 fS) 
Choice, do ... 4 ® 
COTTON. 

Cotton, ^ lb IS @ - 

l>AJJllf rKOIlCCK, 

F.T<;. 

butter. 
Cal. Fresh Roll 

perm 2VA@ 

Point Reyes — ® 

Firkin aO (O) 

W st'n Eeserve. 17 @ 

New York 'i'i!4(a 

cheese. 
Oheese.Oal.,uew U ® 

doOld 14 a 

Eastern 16 U 2U 

EGGS. 

Cal. fresh fi doz — @ .50 

Ducts' — Co) i'> 

Oregon 40 ® 45 

FISES. 

Bran, per ion 

Corn Meal 29 00 

Hay \f> 110 

Middlings 32 -tO 

Oil cake meal... 

Straw, ^ bale...— 65 

FLOUR. 
Extra "# bbl....5 75 (86 I2'4 

Superfine 4 75 mh III) 

FREMII MKAT 
Beef 1st qnality S). 9 (0 

Second do — 

Third do 

Sprint; Lamb 

Mutton 

Pork, undressed 

do. dressed.. .. 

Veal 

Milk Calves 

Bariey.ieed ctl 1 20 i^ 

do brewing. 1 :iO (4 1 3.S 

Chevalier 1 30 (at I ■'HI 

Corn, White... 1 U5 (a» 1 10 

ilo Yellow.... 1 05 (a 1 15 

Uats 2 00 @ i 2.5 

Rye 1 h\) ro) 1 .M 

Wheat Bhippingl i)ii 'a) 

do milling.. I :I5 ^ 

Hides, dry 15 Coa IB'i 

do wet salted 7 di lli 

HONEV, ETC. 

Beeswax. per lb.. 2.'i (a) 27)4 

Honey in comb.. 18 (0 22'- 

do Strained.... 6 rg Vi'^ 

HOPS. 

New crop 10 (^ 15 

N LIT»t-Jobl>ln|c. 



1 fli' 

2 .W 

1 s: 

5 

18 



32 

3i 

32.'^ 
22.1^ 
30 

16 
17 



.322 .W 
mi> 00 
•i\S Oil 

@37 50 
'ci- 75 




Alm'dstt'rd sh'l 111 8 ig 



do. soft sh'l. 

Brazil do 

Cal. Walnuts... 
Chile Walnuts. 
Peanuts per lb. 



(^ 



Filberts 15 O 16 



Pecanuts 17 (5) 18 

osriosfs. 

Union City ctl. - O 1 \2^ 

Stockt n. •'iO (5) 1 00 

POTAT«»E»t. 

Petaluma 141 @ 1 .50 

Salt Lake 1 65 g 1 70 

Sac River 1 00 «zl 1 25 

Humboldt 1 25 @ 1 .Ml 

Knrly Rose — 'a. 2 2.5 

Sweet (a) 3 00 

POUI,TRir <fi OAMB 
Hens, per dz... 7 .50 'aS on 

Roosters 6 .511 (3)7 .50 

Broilers 4 .50 feS ,50 

Ducks. Hime.dz.S 00 folil On 
do Mallard.... 2 .50 (33 .'lO 

do Canvass 3 .50 (g4 ,50 

Geeie, per pair 2 .50 iO(4 00 
do Wild Gray. 3 00 @i "0 

do White 1 .50 ^2 00 

Turkeys, Live, lb 17 rS 18 

do Dressed 20 @ 22 

Quail, pcidoz — 1 '0 ml 75 
Snipe, Eni;., doz.l 60 32 00 
Doves, perdozen .^(i (ai 75 

Rabbits 1 00 m 25 

Hare, ner doz...2 00 W 00 

PROVIiSIONS. 

Cal. Bacon, L'uht 15 @ I5'-2 

do Medium... 14 m UU 

do Heavy 14 @ — 

Lard 14 (a) 17 

Oal.SmokedBoef 9 U 10 

(Eastern do.... — (S 1"^'^ 
Bast'rnShould's — M 10 

Ham6,0al 13 & U'; 

do Whittakcrs 20 @ 23 

do Ariucur Ift (4 20 

do Worster'a. — @ 21 

SEEDS. 

ilfalfa, Chile lb. Slif^ 11,'.^ 

do Oalifornia. II 9 14 

Oanary — (0 20 

Clover Red — m 25 

do White 60 @ .55 

Ootton 6 @ 10 

Flaxseed — ^ 3).i 

Hemp 12)4® — 

ItalianRyeGrass 25 @ 3(1 
Ferennia do .... 20 m 30 

Millet 10 (§ 12 

Mustard, white. 3 ® 3'™ 

no. Brown 3 @ uU 

Rape ® II 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 33 @ — 
do 2a riualily.. 20 (a) — 
do3d outtlity.. — (a) — 
Sweet V Grass.. 75 @l 00 
Orchardrto.... 30 M 3.5 
Red Top do... 25 fi> 30 
HunguriaD do S m 12 

Lawn do 5ii m — 

Mcsquit do... 15 (g — 

Timothy 1) (^ 13 

. TAI.I..OW. 

Orude! 6M;<* 7 

Relined 9 fg) 9% 

IVOOl., ETC. 
l''ALL— 

Seedy 11 C<i Wi 

Choice free 12 m 18 

Burry 9 2) 11 

Oregon — & — 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Ohahlks Sdtko t Co.] 

San Fbanoisoo, .Taniiary 12, 3 p. m. 

liEOAL TENDF.BS in S. F., Ua. U.,SHH to 89M. 

OoLDinN. Y. 112 ?i. 

GoLP Baks, 8SO((i(Si)0. SiLVEH Babs, 7>i and 8 per cent, 
discount. 

ExcuANOR on N.y., OO-lOO per cont.preiniiim for gold ; on 
London hankers. 49; Commercial, 49.'.4 ; Paris, five francs 
per dollar; Mexican dollara, three to five per cent, dis- 
count. 

London — Consels. 93 to 93)4 ; Bonds. 102*< 

QaiOKSiLVEB in U. V., by tho flask, per Si, 72>^oi^75c. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 




ii<^i 

12 
12 

9ii 



m 3 (.0 
a 4 2.5 



I 3 60 
J 1 90 



BACI8, 

Eng. Stand Wht.. 

Neville A Go's... 

Hand Sewed.... 

22x36 9^1 

24x30 ■• 

24x40 

Machine do 24x40. 

" 23x40. 

" 22x40. 

" 22x36. 

Floor Sacks >48... 

" •■ )4b 

" " '/as 

Hessian fiO-in 12\i<ctiih 

do 4.5-iu 8)4@ 9 

do 40-in ... 7)4(38 
Wool Saoka,3)^ lbs. 45 ©.50 

do 4". 50 (®52>!, 

Stand, onnniea. .. — @16 
single seam do.. — 

Bean Bags 7''$l 

Baney Bags 24x36. l'"' 
do 23x40. 

do 24x40. 

Oat Bags, 24x40 

do 28x36.. . 

Detrick's"E. W.". 

do "E — ' @9}4 

CABIN El» eOOltS. 
Aast'dPie Fruits 
in 2!4 lb cans. 2 75 
do Table do...» 75 
Jams & Jellies 4 25 
Pickles .'^ gl.. — 
Sardines. qr boil 65 

do hf boxes.S 00 (g 

COAL— Jobblnic. 
Aostralian.^ton — •^ 9 00 

Coos Bay 8 00 §10 OH 

Bellingham Bay. @ 8 50 

Seattle 9 25 @10 .50 

OumberI'd — 16 &~ 18 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 (S8 25 

Lehigh C<*22 III) 

Liverpool 10 00 @11 |iO 

West Hartley... 'olU nO 

Scotch 9 00 @II .51. 

Scranton 13 00 (§16 00 

Vancouver's Isl.lO 511 a 13 00 
Charcoal. msk... 75(3 - 

Ooke, ?4bbl — & m 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — Q 21)* 
Costa Rica per lb 22,'i0 - 

Gnatemala — m 22)4 

Java — ^ 30 

Manilla — @ 21)-j 

Ground in cs — 25 ^ 

Cnlcorv 27 IS 

FISU. 
Sao. Dry Ood, new 4 a 

cases 6 @ 

do boneless.... 8'i.@ 10 

Eastern Ood 7)4® 8 

Salmon in bbls.. 8 .50 &9 00 

do )4 bbl84 .50 is 00 

do 29) cans.. 2 25 (a>'i 30 

do IB) cans .1 25 (ail 30 

do Ool. R. '4b. 5 00 (di5 fill 

Pick. Ood, bbl8.22 00 (to — 

do )4 bi.lsU 00 (I - 

Maok'l,No.l,'.^bl89 00 m\ 00 

Extra — @12 Oo 

in kit8....1 90 m 00 
Ex mess. .3 00 @3 .50 
" Ex mes8.)^bs— 1@12 00 
Pic'd Herr'g. bl.. 3 OC (^ 3 -5(1 
Bos'. Sm'k'dHBr'e40 @ 60 
ilARDWAKK. 
Amoskeag handled Axes 
JlOftsJl"; do unhandled do $13 
@14— les.s.50c in 5 case lots. 

Amoskeag Hatchets, Shin- 
gling, No I, $7.25; No. 2, IfS: 
No. 3, $8.2.5. Do do. Claw 
No. 1. $7.75; No. 2, 8..50; No. 3, 
$9.25— less 10 per cent. 

Locks, Yale Lock Mf'g Co., 
discount 33>i per cent, from 
list. 

Planes, Ohio Tool Co., dis- 
count 30 percent, from list. 
Am. Pack Go's Cut Tacks 
72'4 per cent, discount and -^ 
per cent, extra. Finisilinp 
and Clout Nails, 50 per cent, 
ott list: 3d fine Nails $7.iiO per 
keg. Ohio Butt Go's Loose 
Joint Butts .50 per cent, do 
Fast, 35 per cent otr list. 
Machine Bolls, .'0((}3.5 off. 
Square Nuts, 2@3c off list. 
Hexa^;on Nuis 2{gJ3c off list. 
Wrought Iron Washers. 
i(a)3c otl list. 

Lag Screws, 15 per cent off 
list. 

LIME, ETC. 
Lime, S'la Cruz, 

.'# bbl 2 00® 2 25 

Cement, Rosen- 

iiale, do 2 75((a 3 .50 

do Portland do 4 75@ 5 ,50 
Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills 3 00® 3 25 

Land Plaster, ^ 
ton 10 00@12 .50 

.m:i8uei>i.aai ku i7». 

Pulu - 7 (8 9 

iirAii..8. 

Assorted size, lb. 3 75 @4 00 



WHOLESALE. I 

WsDNESDAX M., January 12, 187fi. 
OILS. 

Paciflo Glue Oo 

Neat F't No. 1.1 00 ® 90 

Pare — (ij _ 

CasiiorOil.No.l.. — ®1 25 

Baker's A A -"• - 

Gocoannt 

Olive Plagniol.. 

do Possel 

Palm ft 

Linseed, raw 

do boiled 

Chiaa nut in ce.. 
Sperm, crude..,. 

do bleached.. 
Coast Whales. .. 

Polar, refined 

Lard 

Oleophine 

Devoe'a Bril't... 

Long Island — ^ 

Enreka 26 (S) 27 

Devoe's Petro'm 25 (§j 27'< 
Barrel kerosene 23 la 25 

Olive — ((83 .50 

Downer Keroae'e 40 @ — 
Gaa Light Oil.... 23 (<fl 25 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead 9^4 (310' 

Whiting - @ 2 

Putty 4 ® .51 

Ohalk _ (g 21. 

Paris White 2H® — 

Ochre 3 (g 5 

Venetian Red... 3)4 'li 5 

Red Lead 10 @ II 

Litharge..... 10 f^ U 




Eng. Vermillion — @l 25 
Averill Chemical 
Paint, per gal. 
White i tints.2 00 @2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow.. 3 00 (313 .50 

Light Red.... 3 00 (^3.50 

Metallic Roof.l 30 @1 60 

RICE. 

China No. 1 6 00 (2.6 25 

Hawaiian.!* tti.. — (§ 8 
"arolina. %) lb... 10 (ai 

SALT. 

Oal. Bay, per ton 10 00|®I4 00 

do Common.. S 00(«8 7 00 

Oarraen Island. .12 OOfdlls 110 

Liverpool fine.. .22 .50aj25 00 

SOAP. 

Uastile * lb 10 rq> 11), 

Common brands. . 4)^'SJ 6 
Fancy do .. 7 (g 10 

SPICES. 



- Cloves TP lb 45 @ iT4 

Cassia 23)^a «fii.: 

Citron 2S tS 



*'i 



Cassia 23)^5) 26>^ 

Citron 2S ta 30 

Nntmeg 96 0" 97)<; 

Whole Pepper... IV^'c^ I 

Pimento 16 

'ir'nd Alisp prdz 

do Casaia do . . 

do Cloves do.. 

do Mustard do 

do Ginger do.. 

do Pepper do.. 

lo Mace do. . . 
Bowen'h Pure 

Ground ^ lb 

SUOAR, 

OaL Cube per lb.. 

Oircle A crushed 

Powdered — 

Fine crushed. .. — 

'iranulatoa — 

')oldenC - 

Hawaiian 9 

Oal. Syrup in ksa — 
Hawaiian Molas- 
ses 25 @ 27)^ 

TEA. 
oolong.Canton,B> 19 

do Amoy... 2S (^ 

do Formosa 40 (a) 
Imperial, Canton 25 

do Pingsuey 45 

do Moyune.. *^'l 

Gunpo'der.Caut. 

do Pingsuey 

' do Moyune. 

Y'ng Hy, Canton 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune.. 

Japan, )4 chests, 

bulk 

Japan, lacquered 

bxs,4.'4and5 Iba 
Japan do, 3 Eb bxs 




do pl'n bx,4.HIb 
do 'i&l lb paper 




80 



4IS 

45 

35 
-- »-- , ^ - 30 (§ .55 
TOltACCO— JobblMB, 

Bright Navya .50 (Sj 0.' 

Dark do 50 @ .5." 

Paces Tin Foil.. — ® 7,; 

Gregory 70 @ - 

Dw J Twist 65 

L.iKht Pressed... 70 
Hard do .. .50 (a) 1 
Conn. Wrap'r — 40 @ 1 
Penn. Wrapper.. 2l) @ • 
Ohio do .. 15 S ■. 
Virgi'aSmok'g.. 4.i @1 1 
Fine ctobe'K,gr..8 50 @9 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.%) lb.. 75 @ 
Banner fine cut.. — w3 I 

Oal .Smoking 37 m t 

TURPEJVTINfe 
E«.stern 51)4a).55 



LEATHER. 



[ WHOLESALE. 1 

Wel>nesdax m., January 12, 187«. 

Olty Tanned Leather, W m 22<J)29 

Santa Crnz Leather, W lb 22fal28 

Oonntry Leather, » lb 22(329 

Stockton Leather, IS ft 25Ca)i9 

Jodot,8 Kil., perdoz $50 00® .54 00 

Jodot, 11 to l3 Kil.. perdoz 68 OOOi 79 00 

Jodot 14 to 19 Kil., perdoz, 82 00@91 00 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil. ^ doz 57 OOAti 74 00 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko .57 OOW 67 00 

Oornelhan Females, 12 to 13 63 00(3 H7 00 

CornelliaB F.'malcs. 14 to- 16 Kil 71 iillW 76 .VI 

Simnii Ullrao Females, 12 to 13, Kil .58 00@ 62 'lO 

Simon Ullmo Femalea, 14 to 15, Kil 66 OO.nj 70 00 

Simon Ullmo Females, 16 to 17, Kil 72 00.4 74 00 

Simon, IB Kil.M doz 61 1)11® M no 

Simon, 20 Kil. * doz 6.5 00(g) 67 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. It* doz 72 OOfcj 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00(a) 40 'Kl 

French Kins, ^ ft 1 liOO I 15 

Oalifornia Kip, « doz 40 l)0(«) 6' 10 

O'rench Sheep, all colors, ft doz 8 IMKo) 15 00 

Kaslern Calf for Backs, ^ ft 1 II0(§ I 2S 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colore, fl doz 9 Oll(o) 1.100 

.Sheep Roans for Linings, W doz 5 .51 1 (.5 10 .5(" 

Oalifornia RuBBett Sheep ],ining» 17.5(a) 4 50 

Best Jodot Oal f Boot Legs, ^ pair 5 00(9 5 2.5 

Good French Calf lioot Legs, 1t» pair 4 OOfa) 4 75 

French Calf Boot Logs, ^ pair 4 IW«p - 

Harness Leather, ^ ft 24(9 22)t 

Fair Bridle Leather. |) doz 48 OOia 72 — 

Skirting Leather, * ft 3,%$ 31H 

Welt Leather, W doz 30 00(? .50 00 

BnCI Leather, $ (oot 17(9 H 

Wax Side Leather. W font HliiB 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Wkdnkhuay m., January 12, 1876. 



ttnttcr.Oal.oh'ico 
ChlCBQ, lb 

KfisMtrn 

Lard. (Jal., Hi 

liaslr-rn 

Flour, ux.fam, blti 

Oorn Meal, lb 

SuKar. wn.crah'd 

do It.brown.lb 
C' ir»'e, Kreen. lb.. 
Tea, fine hU. «).«.% 
Te».ttnnt,Jap.W.7,'i, 
t^'ftiidlc^, Adman t'o 
Soap, Oal., fi).... 

Rioe. A 

V«iuit Pnwdwrd?:.! 
Uowcn Bro. largo 



35 (d) 

IS 




can per doz — 5 

Small, dn 2 

IlowniiV (Jrcam 

Tartar lb 

Ottn'dOyster8.dz.2 
SvruD.S K.GoI'n. 
Driod Apples.... 
Dr'd Oer.Vrunoa 
P'd Fixs, Oal... 

Dr'd pRachos 

Oils. Korosenw . . 
Winea. Old Port 3 
do Fr. (Uaret.-l 
do Cal.,dz.bot.H 
WbiBky.O.B.itAl.a 
{Tr, Brandy i 




S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 

Wednebday, m., January 12, 1876. 



POULTBTf, «AMK. 

Ohiokeng 50 ftql 00 

Hens 75 lo) 88 

Eggs Hens .55 (a) 60 

do Diiclts' — (^ 60 

dif Farallones. — @ — 

Turke.T8. W ft.. 15 @ 25 

Ducks, each 1 00 @1 2i 

Geese. wild, pair. — (m — 

Tame. TS pair. .3 00 Cffl4 00 

Snipe, 19 doz — jS — 

do English.. — ^3 00 

Quail, per dozen — i|2 00 

Pralne Ch'k 8,pr — (ffi — 

Hares, each ... 25 i^ 35 

Rabbits, each... 15 ;<S — 

SquirrelBJdo — @ 15 

Beef, tend, IS ft. 15 (a IS 

Corned, % ft.. 8 (iS 10 

Smoked, II ft. — @ 15 

PorterHouseSt'k — @ 20 

Sirloin do 12 fS 15 

Round do 8 (§ 10 

Pork, rib, etc.. ft 12 @ 12) 

Chops, do, fl ft 15 @ — 

Veal, |» ft 10 @ 15 

Outlet, do 16 @ 25 

Mutton-chops, ft 10 @ 12 

LegMuiton, ^ ft a o 10 

Lamh, I* ft 20 ^ 25 

Antelope 15 (p) 20 

Tongues, beef, .. 60 la 75 

do. do, smoked 75 (81 00 

Tongues, pig, ft 12'-J@ — 

Bacon, Cal., ^ ft IS (^ 20 



Ham«. Cal. « ft. 
FliilU, MEA 

Flounder, IB ft.. 
Salmon. W ft... 

Smoked 

Rock Ood. » ft.. 

Cod Fish, ft 

Perco. ft 

Lake Big. Trout. 

Smelts. » ft 

Herring, Sm'kd. 

do fresh 

Tomood, Vi ft... 
Terrapin. ^ doz. 
Mackerel, p'k.ea 

F>esh, do ft ... 
Sea Bass, * ft... 

Halibut 

Sturgeon. 1ft ft.. 
Oysters, f, 100.. 

Chesp. Tft doz.. 

Olams 1ft 100 

.Vlussels do 

Turbot 

Crabs ^ doz ...I 

do Soft Shell. 

Shrimps 

Sardines 

Anchovies 

.Soles 

YoungTrout.bay 

Skate, each 

Whitebait, 1ft ft.. 
OraiTfi.sh ?* ft... 
Green Turtle.... 



16 m 20 

TS, ETC. 

.15 ^ 35 

.25 ^ 35 

..— (O) S 

15 ^ - 

12 (9 15 

15 (a) 



(S) 30 



10 

75 ® 

- ® 5 

- ® 20 

- 9 - 

i-iam — 

- ® - 

- a - 

- a 75 
5 a » 

75 a - 

6(1 a 75 

- m 50 

- (a) 25 
65 (a) 75 
110 @1 25 
■" " .50 



40 a 
8 ~ 



in 

% 15 



fRUlTS. VEOBTABLES. 



Apples, pr lb.... 

Pears, per lb 

Apricots, ft 

Peacbes, ft 

Plums 

PIneApples.each 

Lady Apples 

tii'apes 

Bananas 1ft doz. . 
Muskmeions ... 
Watermelons.. . 

Blackberries' 

Cal. Walnuts, ft. 
Cranber'es, Org., 

do Eastern i|t. 
Huckleberries.. 
Strawberries, ft 
Raspberries, ft.. 
Gooseberries. -. 

Currants 

Cherries, 1ft *... 
Nectarines. ... 
Pomegranates. . . 
Oranges,*^ doa.. 

Lemons 

Limes, per doz .. 
Figs. dried Cal. . 
Figs, Smyrna, ft 
Asparagus, ft.. 
Artichokes, doz. 

do Jeru>alem. . 

BeetB, % doz 

Potatoes, ^ ft . . . 
Potatoes, sweet. . 



5 W 



Broccoli, each.. 

Oauiitlower. . .. 

Green Pc,is "^ ft. 

Cabbage, per iid. . 

Oyster Plant, bn 

Oarrota, S doz. . . 

Celery, 1ft dz 

Cress, 1ft doz nun 

Onions 

Turnips, 1ft doz 
bunches 

Brussels Sprouts 

Eschalots 

Dried Herbs, doz 

G.lrlic 1ft lb 

Green Corn, doz. 

Lettuce, 1ft doz.. 

Mint, 1ft bunch. 

Mushrooms, 1ft ft 

Horse ^adi^h,lftft 

Okra, dried, 1ft ft 

Pumpkins. ^ j). 

Parsnips, doz . . 

Parsley 

Piokles.frsh.lftft 

Hadiahes, doz.. 

Sage 

Marrowfat, do 
Hubbard, do 

Manuoes, 1ft doz. 

Spinage 1ft bskt. 

Rhubarb 

lireen Chilies. .. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

L WHOLESALE.! 

Wednesday m., January 12, 1876. 



FKUIT MARKET. 

Oranges Mex. ^ 

M 15 00^35 00 

Tahiti, do (& 

Oal. do 15(10(^40 00 

Limes. Mexican, 

* M 10 00@ 

Malaga Lemons, 

1ft bx 12 00(5iU 00 

Cal. ift 100 2 Oli'o, 3 Oil 

do Sicilv?>b'x.l2 00:5)14 00 
Bananas, W bncb 2 .50<^ 4 Oil 
Cocoanuts.lftlOO. 7 00 (5) 9 00 
Pineapples, 'pdz.7 00 to.8 no 
Apples, 1ft box... 1 (10 (ai 25 

do Choice 2 OO (a) — 

Blackberries .... — @ — 

Figs — (S — 

Huckleberrie.s. .. - @ — 
Strawber'slftch.. — (§20 00 

Pomgranates — ^ — 

Raspberries — m — 

Currant.s.lft ch.. — m ~ 
Quinces Ih bx. . . — @ — 
Cranberries W bbl. 13 01 (ajU 0" 
Peacnes, ^ bx.. — (Si — 
Pears. 1ft bx 75 (&\ 00 

do Choice.... 2 00 ©3 00 
Crab apples, %* bx — 'ffl — 

uKiEu Fjcvrr. 

Apples, * ft 7>^q) 9 

i^ears, %» ft R @13 

Peaches, 1». ft 12 @13 

Aoricois, m ft 14 t<8l5 

Plums, » ft 7 (ifi 8 



Pitted, CO Ift ft .... 18 @20 
itaisin;^. imported. 3 25 to3 75 

Cal. Raisins 8 (^ Xl'/i 

Black Figs, ^ ft.... 6 @10 

White, do 8 (310 

Prunes I2)iq)l7 

Citron 28 im 30 

iSante Currants. 9 (ffl 10 
VEOETABI.KS. 

Asparagus — @— 

Beets ^— 

Cabbage, ^ 100 fti.. .50 'alhJ'^ 
Carrots, per ton. ...8 00®10 00 

Cauliflower, doz 50(^75 

Oelery.doz 60 @75 

Oarlic. ¥ ft — ^ 6 

Green Peas — (^10 

Green Corn 1ft doz. .— a— 
Sum'rSquash 1ft box. — ig)— 
Marro'lat Sn'sn.tn 6 00a.8 00 
Artichokes.lft doz.. — 'ai— 
String Beans. 'S ft. — @ — 

Lima Beana — ^— 

Parsnips — @— 

Shell Beans 2 @ 3 

Peppers, green, bx. 75 al 00 

Okra 4 a 5 

Cucumbers. 1ft, box 1 2h'i)\ 75 
TomaloRs, l)0X....l 00(a) 1 50 

EggPlant,bx -@ — 

Rbubaro C^— 

Lettuce — S) — 

Turnips, pr ton — (^ — 

Musbroums, ft.. 8 @ 10 



LUMBER. 



CARQO PRICES OF 
REDW^OUI). 



Rough, 1ft M 

RouKn refuse, 1ft M.... 

Rough clear. 1ft M 

Rough clear refuse, M. 

RuBtio, 1ft M 

Rustic, refuse, Tft M 

Surfaced, 1ft M 

Surfaced refuse, 1ft M,. 

Flooriilt;, 1ft M 

Fldorluk'. refuse, Ift M. 
Boadeil flooring, 1ft M.. 
ili^atled floor, reluse, M 
Half-inch Siding. M.... 
Half-inch siding, ref. M 
Half-inch, Surfaced, M 
Hiilf-inch Surf, ref., .M 
HalriHcb Battens. M.. 
Pickets, rough, 1ft M... 
Pickets, rough, p'otd.. 
Piekete. fancy, p'otd... 
Shinglsa.WM 



.»1S 00 
. 14 00 

. 30 on 

. 20 00 

3'i .50 

. 24 Oil 

. 30 Oil 

. 20 no 

. 28 00 

20 00 

30 Oil 

25 00 

22 .VI 

. 16 on 

■i5 00 

. 18 00 

. 22 .50 

. 13 00 

. 16 00 

. 25 00 

. 3 00 



PUOET tSUCND PINE 

— Relull Price. 

Rough, 1ft M '22 .50 

Fencing, 1ft M 22 .50 

FlooriUK :inil Step, 1ft M 32 .50 
Floorint;, narrow, ^ tf.. 35 00 
Flooring, 2d quality, M. .25 00 

Laths. 1ft M 3 .50 

O'urrinK. 1ft lineal ft 

KKI>WOOI»-Ret»ll. 

Rough. I* M 22 50 

Hough refuse. 1« M 18 00 

K.ough Pickets. 1« M. ... 18 IHI 
Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

26 00 
Long 

Knaded 

Flooring 

Do do refuse, 1ft M. 
Hall-Inch surf aoed,M. . 32 SO 

Rustic, No. 1, 1^ Itf 40 00 

Battens, Ulincal fooL.. X 
tthinglMlK U 3 2 



Fancy Pickets. * lA.. 

Siding, f M 

.Surfaced and 



37 .50 
36 00 
25 00 



^ACIFIC ^URAL ^RESS, 

A tirst-clasH I6'page Agricultural Home Journal, &lleu 
with fresh, valuable ami interesting reading. Every 
farmer and nirallHt «hniild take it. It is im- 
mensely popular. Subscription, $1 a year. 

DEWEY & CO.. Publishers, 
No. 224San8ome street. BAN FBANOISOO. 



The Rural Pbebs.— Glancing over tho columns of a 
lato iiumbor, we are pleased to find how much excel- 
lent reading matter It coutaiiis. It kccp.s a farmer 
JioHted In the latest Information of real value. It Is up 
with tho times in sui-'Kestiiiiis and advlco, answers to 
queries, etc. It tells <d' new trees, seeds and phints; 
mentions discoveries and useful recipes. Tho farmer, 
his wife, boys, girls and help, can all road it with 
pleasure and prollt. It fairly represents each part of 
tho State to Immigrants. It is now givinR a short 
sketch and statistics of each county. Wo shall watch 
with interest when it gets down to Santa Barbara Co. 
It f^ivcs pniniiiienco to an article from our colufus on 
the state of tho crops in thin valley. Farmers, you 
can't aiTord to be without that paper.— £onij)oc Record. 



No AoENTS are authorized to recoive NiibscriptionB for 
this paper at lesn than our advertised rates. 



46 



»SMm 



31? 3cxj IE o o« 



[January 15, 1876 



Nurserymen. 

[E8tabll«hed 1853.] 

SEEDLING STOCKS and PLANTS 

FOR NtJItSEIlYMiEN". 

Apple Seedlings, fine f 10.00 per 1000 

Pear Seedlings, fine $18.00 per 1000 

Plum SeeiUmgs, Mirobolan, Best French 

Block dons not Sucker $40.00 per 1000 

Chtrry Muzzurd SeedlingB fl'i.'O per 1000 

Cherry Maheleb SeedlingB $15.00 per lOCO 

Blue Gums in Variety $5.00 to $10.00 per 100 

Magnolia Grandiflora— all sUes— large atock. 

Golden Arborvitre 1 

Heath, leaved Arborvlt:e 

CratHKno Arhoria | 

Lauri.stinus > Flue Plants— Large Stock. 

Sweedish and Irish Juniper 

Medeterraniau Heath | 

Loquat or Japan Plum ) 

Oranges and Lemons, large stock, best European, 
Australian, and Chinese varieties, all grafted, from 
$12.00 to $IH.O0 per dozen. Large Palms, Large 
Tree Ferns. Large Aurioarias, at 8p<cial prices. 
with the usual large atock of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees. BERNARD S. FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 

THOS. HEHEBIN, Agent, 516 Battery St., 8. F. 
1865^ ^^ — jg,^- 

Haiiiiav Bros.' Nurseries. 



We tbc unJfrslgneJ havo bofii en»(aKeil In tbe Nuraory 
bu&iiieiis lor tl»e last ten years in hau Jose, und our chief 
aim has l>cen to grow and produce only the very tjest vari- 
eties ot' Kruit Trues, and tnose of a healthy yrowth, and 
8Ucb trees as will «ive natisfaction to our patrons. In 
order that purchasers may know our vanetiert, and «l-«o 
our prices at wholesale or small lots, we yivc the lol- 
Uiwing : 

OXEYROLD. PrlW. PrlOW. TWOYBSOLD. I'r 100. Pr lUOO 

$150 
iAO 

■.'60 

•>m 
■Juo 



Apple trees.... 


...*12 


«IOO 


Pear " ... 


.... m 


180 


Fruae " ... 


.... -a 


2iie 


Plum •■ . . 


.. . a) 


18U 


Cherry " ... 


.... 22 


18U 


Peach '* . . . 


.... 22 


ISO 


Nectarine" ... 


.... 25 


— 


ouince ... 


.... iO 


— 


Almond '• ... 


.... 2U 


— 


CurraDt " ... 


.... 4 


— 



Apple trees $20 



Feur 

Prune " 

Plum " 

Uherry *' 

Apricot " 

Kjk 

l-'ertille dc Palicao 



We also offer a larRo assortment of the leading kinds of 
Ornamental and Kver^rtten Treee. Purchaserg who wish 
choice grown trcen are invited to visit our NurHeries and 
examioe our stock, as we know their character and heal- 
thy growth will pleaw tbein. Peraons unknown to uri, 
that order tree:}, should send the cash or good reference, 
ID order to secure their trees. 

Our Nursery in niiurtled upon Julian street, one mile 
east of the Court House. 

HANNAT BROS. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

The attention of Nurserymen and Planters is invited 
to my large stock of 

FRUIT THEEisi 

Of the very best varieties for Market, Shipping and 
Drying. Also 

OBAPEVINES, 0T7RBANTS, OOOSEBERKIES, BLACK 

BBRRIEi AND RASPBERRIES. SHADE 

TREES, EVERGREENS, BLUE GUMS 

AND SHRUBS. GREEN HOUSE 

PLANTS, BEDDING 

PLANTS, ETC. 

Sand for a Catalogue. 

JOHN ROCK, San Joao. 

PEPPERS NURSERIES. 



(Established in 1858.) 



PETALUMA, OAL. 



Oreen Houses and Tree Depot corner Wash- 
ington and Liberty streets. 



i Oieen Honsea. 



3,000 feet of Glass. 
Specialty. 



Fmit Trees a 



We offer for sale at lowent market rates a general as 
sortment of Fruit and Shade trees, small Fruits, Vines 
etc. EverKreen trees and Shrub, in great variety. Green 
House. Conservatory and heddinc Plants, Rosea, etc. 

KuoalyptuH in variety. Eucttlyptos Globulus, per 1000 
for lorost planting, at very low rates. CataloKue and price 
list furnished ou application. 



Address, 
19vS-tt 



|W. H. PEPPER, 
Fetaloma. Senoma Co., Oal 



60,000 FOREST TREES 

FOR SALE— CONSISTINO OF 

Australian Gum Trees. ( Eucalyptus ) 
Monterey Pines and Cypress, etc. 

The undersigned, having earnestly engaged in the 
above bueiness, will strive to merit and receive a fair 
share <if the trade. Prices lor all kindw very low. rang- 
f rom $11 per hundred upward. A liberal discotiut made 
for large orders. For lurtiicr inforiualion addreus 
QEO. C. BAXTER. 
Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
November, 1OT5. 



SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

h Located seven miles west of Santa Burliara, Cal. 
Depot. Cor. Montecito and Castillo stret-ts, 
JOSEPH SEXTON, - - - Propri.tar. 

CULTIVATOB OF 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also 

Grange. Lemon, Lime and Palm Trees, 

Pot Plants, and Hardy Ever 

Kreen Shrubbery. 



Farmers, Take Notice. The Most Important Invention of the Age. 
THE ENAMELED STEEL BARBED WIRE FENCE, 



T»a,teiit«?tl 1>>- .T. !•'. «LII>I>li:>'. 




BflOO 
CD o Z( 

a^3 



The GLIDDEN PATENT BARB WIRE has been tested by thousands of practical farmers, who universally 
recommend it. We ask you to try it for the following, among other reasons; 1. If it iioes not answer the nn'om- 
mend, you can return it and your money will bo refunded. 2. It is the cheapest and most durable fence made. 
i. It takes less posts than any other fence. 4. It can be put up for one-quarter the labor of any other fence. 
5. Cattle, mules, and horses will not rub against and break it down. 6. The wind has no effect upon it. and (ires 
will not burn it up. 7. Stock will not Jump over or crowd through it. 8 Your crops will be safe as far as fence 
is concerned. 9. Vou will know where your stock Is by night as well as by day. 10. You can draw enough in a 
buggy to fence ItiO acres, and two men can put it up In two days. 11. Because it Is what every farmer needs. 
12. Because it was invented by a practical farmer and you will say. after a fair trial, it is the Bp;ST FENCE IN 
THE WORLD! 13. The change of seasons has no effect upon it — it being twisted, holds its tension. 14. The 
wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative strength of over 30 per cent, greater than that of 
any common iron wire. l.^. The only stoel copperetf wire barb. 16. The only barb that cannot be displaced 
with thumb or finger, or cattle's horns. 17. The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire, 
and cannot bo bent, broken, or mbljed otT. and never need replacing. IK. The only coiled barb with broad base 
on main wire. .which ri-ndera it immovable. 19. The only barb wire which, during process of manufacture. 
its strength is tested equal to that of two-horse power. 20. The only barb put on by ma<'liinery — it is not 
pciunded on with hammer and indented in main wire to hold its place. 21. The only barb wire tha'. gives 
universal satisfaction, and has greater sale than all otliitrs put together. tf^Dtt sure and ask for the Glidden 
P,iTF.NT I'.Aim WiKK. Enquire of Hardware ami Agricultural Dealers. Samples sent free of charge by addressing 

aoivEfc*, tjjivrciv!-* as oo.. 

Oeneral Agrents for the Coast. K and 10th Streets, Sacramento. 



W. B. Steono, So edsman. 
Established 1H57. 



1876. 



P.oiiT. Williamson, Nurseryman, 
Kstablisheil IMC.'i. 



W. R. STRONG &; CO. 

SEEDS. TREES. 

San Francisco Office, 418 & 420 Clay Street. Sacramento Office, 8 & 10 J Street. 
Nursery Grounds, Sacramento County. 

Our Stock if full and fine. Seeds of our own growth or imported by ourselves from the 
most reliable producers in Europe or America. For freshness, puritv and perfect development 
they cannot be exceUsd. Gardfin, Flower, Field and Tree Seeds. Ornamental. Evergreen 
dud Deciduous Shrubs and Plants. Flowerinir Bulbs of every deBcriotlnu. Trees -Fruit, Or- 
namental and Shade Trees; California. Australian, Eastern and European. We guaran- 
tee Satisfaction. Sand us your orders. Catalogues furnished on application. 

House in Sacramento, 
House in San Francisco, 

p. S. Alfalfa, Chile grown, 7 to lie; 
Guaranteed fresh and genuine. 



W. R. Strong & Co- 
Strong & Williamson. 

California, 11 to 15c> as per quantity and grade 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SA.1V m.A.]VCISCO, CA.1L,., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

LINSEED, CASTOR AND COCOA NUT OILS, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL- 

Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans delivered at our Works. 
Ofilfe— 3 and 5 I'"'ront Street. 



The Aughinbaugh Blackberry 




This new blackberry is a California production, of 
large size, tirm. and excellent flavor. It ripens from 
May until August. The last of the crop of tarries sold 
readily at 40 c^nts per pound when the -'Early Wilson" 
brought 20 cents at the same time. Plants are now 
ready for transplanting and for sale at my residence on 
Central avenue, west of Webster street, Alameda, and 
Geo. F. Silvester's, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 
PmoEs: 

For one do?.., by mail, postpaid $3 00 

Lfss than one doz.. by mail . postpaid, each iSO 

For lOi), forwarding expenses paid by purchaser 1.^ Oil 
For inoo, forwarding expenses paid by purchaser 100 00 

Send your address and receive circular containing 
particulars fbee. 

G. AUGHINBAUGH. 



CAMELLIAS. 

We offer a large ntock of very fine plants at from 
$33 t"' $100 per leo. For catalogues of these, as well 
as of Azaleas. Rhododendrons and Evergreen 
Trees in gieat variety, address 

R. B. PARSONS & CO., 

lidi '.'0. Flushing:. N. Y. 

BLUE GUM TREES. 



400,000 For Sale. Price from $30 to $50 
per 1,000. Also 1,000 Cypress trees. 

BAILEY & CO., 

Depot, 118 East Twelfth street, Oakland, Alameda 
county, Cal. Lock Box 80. 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES, 

S. Newhall. Prop'r, - - San Jose, Cal. 

A large and general assortment of 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Roses, 

Greenliouse I*la.TitB, 

GRAPEVINES. SMALL FRUITS, Etc. 

I offer for sale a well assorted, well grown and 
healthy stock. Low-topped stalky fruit trees a spe- 
cialty. Address 

S. NEWHALL, San Jose. 



fWWEB VEGETAJLlii 



Is the most beautiful work of the kind in the world. It 
contains nearly l.W pages, hundreds of fine illustrations, 
and four Chromo Flatea of Flowers, beautifully drawn 
and colored from nature. Price 'Xi cents in paper cov- 
ers: 65 cent"* bound in elegant cloth. 
Vlck's Floral Guide, Quarterly, 25 cents a year. 
Address, J AS. VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 




1,0()<».000 Itl\ie Ounx Trees 

At $10 per lOOil in lots of 10,000, or $15 per 1000 in 
smaller quantities. Address W. A. T. 8TRATT0N, 
Pacific Forest Tree Nrtrsery, Petaltuna, Cal. 



FOR SALE BLUE GUM TREES. 

The undersigned ha-* the pleasure of rviinouncing to 
those contemplating idaiiting largely this season, the 
nursery stock of the well known Gum Tree Farm, at 
$\f* per thousand, nursery price. The young stock is 
extensive, ranging in higlit from 8 inches to l.H. feet, 
i-j^ecially grown for Forest Culture. Address. ISAAC 
CiiLLINfl, Haywood, AlamedaCo., Oal. Nursery situ- 
ated ou Redwood road. 1 M miles from Haywood. 

200,000 Forest Trees 

For Sale. Consisting of MONTEREY' CYPRESS, PINES 
and BLUE GUMS: all sizes at low rates. .Also, large 
AURICUIUES EXCELSV and a GENERAL NURSERY 
STOCK of FRUIT TREKS. I'ruit Bushes, Vines. Street 
and Ornamental Evergreen Trees, Shrubberj- and Green 
H'.'nsc Plants. Send for prices. Address 

WM. SEXTON, Norseryman, Petaluma, CaL 



RIVER BANK NURSERY, 

San •Jose, Oal. 

Established - . - _ 1865. 



FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES in groat variety. 
Choice and Rare Variety of EVERGREENS, SHRUBS, 
ROSFS. BEDDING PLANTH. PALMS. M.VONOLUS. 
FERNS. TUBEROSES. GLADfOLAS, Etc.. with general 
collection of Greenhouse Pljints. Hanging Baskets, 
Etc. 

Nursery and Greenhouses, comer Berryessa road and 
12th street, two blocks from terminus of North Side 
horse railroad. Address 

L. F. SANDERSON, 

Nurseryman and Florist, San Jose. 



SUPERIOR FRUIT TREES, 

TlltTI-:: TO 1VA.3VIE. 

A lino collection of Evergreen and Deciduous 
trees. Australian Gum trees in variety, by 
the hundred or thousand. Monterey Cypress in 
quantities and sizes to suit all. Orange and 
Lemon trees at reduced prices. A general Variety 
of Nursery St<x;k- Also, Rhubai^i and Asparagus roots. 

T. CORLEY, 
325 Washington Btraet. S. F. 

Formerly at 315 Washington street. 



^ THOMAS MEHERIN, tjl 

AUENT I UU 

B. S. FOX'S NURSERIES, 

516 Battery Street, - San Francisco. 

(Opposite Post-offlce.) 

1 now offer for sale at Lowest Market Rates, a large- 
and choice assortment of FRUIT, SH.\D£ and ORNA 
MENTAL TREES, POT PLANTS. BLUE GUMS, MON- 
TEREY CYPRESS, and ENGLISH WALNUTS, per 100 
or 11(00 at very low rates. Scud for Piicivligt. 



P. O. Box, 72-2; 



THOMAS MEHERIN, 
516 Battery Street. 




My Illastrntfil FlornI CntaloguP for 18>6 

is now- reieiy. Price 10 Cents, less than half the cost. 
WiLLi-vM E. lt-)Wi)iTcu,»'-i:i Warren St., Boston, Mass. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEIDS 



If you want Seed that you can depend upon as to 
variety and fret.hness. why not send direct to the 
grower and make a saving of at least thirty per cent. 
on the prices of o'her seedsmen? As we grow our seeds 
we guarantee them fresh and true to name. Send for 
catalogus. free, post-paid, and compare with prices of 
other dealers. Just received. 

Grasses, Clover, Alfalfb. and Field Seeds, 
Trees, Shrubs, Flowerinif Shrubs, 
and Oreenhouse Plants, Cab- 
bag-e. Onion and Cauli- 
flower Plants. 



Large assortment of BULBS from HoUand. 
al) orders or Ultttrs of inquiry to 



Address 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 
607 Sansome St-, San Francisoo. 



LAW, SOMNER & CO., 

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA i. DUNEDIN, 
OTAGO, NEW ZEALAND, 

Offer Collections of Native Seeds, Including 

Blue, Red, and all other Varieties of Gums, Etc. 

■^^Illustrated Catalogue free on application. 

OK.A1NT Jic CAMLERON, 

Seedsnxen, 

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA, 

Collectors of all Seeds of Trees and Shrubs Indigenous 
to the Australian Colonies, including 

Blue, Red and Peppermint Gums, Acacias, Etc. 



FLOWER 

SEEDS. 

VEGETABLE 

SEEDS. 

ALL ABOUT GARDENING 

For Home IVe and for Market, in Root's Gabpcs 
Manual— practical, pointed and thorough— oonlaining 
one-ball as muoh matter as $1.50 books on the subject. 
Gardeners throughout the country commend its jirac- 
tical laborsaviug meth-'ds as invaluable to tbera. Sent 
for 10 cents, which will be allowe<l on the first order 
for seeds, i. B. BOOT, Seed Grower, Bockford, 111. 



Spooner's Prize Flower Seeds 

Spooner's Boston Market 
Veg-etable Seeds. 

The cheape t and best seeds in 
the markt.t. Send two '^ cent 
stamps for our illustrated cata- 
l»gue and see the prices. 

W. B. SPDONEU. Boston, Mass 



GOOD SEEDS 

Grown with care and painstaking, from seUK:te<l stocks, 
ALWAYS PAY. Try mine- See advertisement, "All Abou 
Gardening." J. B. ROOT, Seed Grower, BooUord, 01 



i 



January 15, 1876. J 



47 



Agricultural Articles. 

OAKLAND GANG PLOW 




I» A.C!HIi:CO 

Agricultural Implement Works, 

Pacheco.Oal., Established in 1858. 

This Plow is constrmted In the best style of work- 
manshlp and finiRh, and is suarantped to run with 
LIGHTEE DIIAFT, to do MORE PKRFECT WOUK, 
and to be more EASILY and PEUFECTLY MANAGED 
than any other yet offered the farmer. 

The essential feature of the device, which is illuf- 
trated iu the annexed eugraving, is a coiled spring, 
which acts upon a crank axis, turning the latter so 
that the plow may work to a depth of nine Inches into 
the ground or be raised seven inches above it, and 
the gang will work on side hill as well as on level 
ground. For illustrated circulars and prices, send to 

HENRY N. DAIiTON. 
Pacheco Agricultural Works, Pacheoo, Cal. 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long In the business and know what is re- 
quired In the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play Is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for ciroular to 



14y2-Sm 



MATTESON 4 WILLIAMSON, 
Stooktcn, Cal. 



REMINGTON SEWING MACHINE. 




Superior to all others, because of their simplicity of 
construction; the most durable and are always ready 
for use: will do all kinds of work. Price of Machine 
as represented in cut, with Hemmers, Feller, Braider, 
Gouge Tucker, Quilter, Johnson's Rtiffler, and Diamond 
set of Hemmers, $75. 

SHOWERS, JEWELiL & COLE, 

61s9 Market st., under Palace Hotel S. F. 

AGENTS WANTED FOR CITY AND COUNTRY. 

Ha Ha Ha 

HORSE MEDICINE, 
r>. i:>- T.— isoH, 

Is gaining a wide spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast show it to be a companion in 
every family. It quickly removes Wind Galls, Spavins, 
Callous Lumps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the 
horse, while the family hnds it indispensable for 
Sprains, Bruises, Aches, Pains, and wherever a good 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 

Stoolcton, Cal. 



GUANO FOR SALE, 

In Lots to Suit, l>y 

CROSS & CO., 

816 0»UfonU».8treet, - - - S»a rranoisco 



BUY THE BEST AND LATEST IMPROVED PLOWS. 

PRICES REDUCED. 
THE "IRON KING" GANG PLOW, 

MADE BY SACRAMENTO PLOW MT'G CO. 
301 & 303 J STREET, - - _ SACRAMENTO. 

This cut represents the 
"Iron Kins" Oang Plow 
which we claim to be the 
Standard Flow of the Pa- 
cific CoKst, for thf* fol- 
lowing reasons: First- 
It runs lighter, working 
easier for man ami team 
than any other plow 
Second -It turns the fur 
row better and lifts eaaipr 
out of the ground. 
Third-It is stronger and 
less complicated. The 
materials used are all 
iron and steel, exceiit the 
pule, which is (if the best 
ish. Fourth-The beams 
ire miide of wrought 
tron, and are very strong, 
;in(l higher in the throat 
than any other plow, and 
the mold-boardi thicker 
and better. Fifth— The 
shares are all made from 
our latest improved pattern", neatly fitted, and are stronger than any other in use. 

They fir^ built with cast sieel share-- molds and landside^. and l\ave no c>is'ings on the under side of the plow to 
prevent the plow from going in wbenfthe p"int is worn short. Thev are differently shaped from auv other plow, 
being the result of fifteen years' experience of the inventor. They have Ready's Patent (.'enter Draft, which dispenses 
entiretv with the unnecessary weight on the wheels, thereby les^enlnfi the drift of the piov.-. We guarantee the irant: 
to run lishter for the team than anv other plow on the PHcific Coait. It was awarded the premium at the California 
Slate Fairs of 1874 and IHTV for the Best Stubble Plow. In the^e i)articulars, we claim a vast superiority over all other 
Plows heretofore made. We aVso guarantee a perfect fit in duplicating each and every part of this plow. Wo ask of 
farmers simply a trial of this olow, which we warrant to work well in all kinds of soil. We believe itto be the neatest, 
simplest, strongest and most durable plow ia the world. 

**Little Giant*' Iron Beam Gan^ Plows, Moline Bottoms— Price Reduced from $90 to $70 
Cash. Single Plows from $11 to $20. All kinds of Tuie and Breakiug Plows made to order. 

No. 1 "Iron King" Gang Plow.. $85 00 I Extra Sharea— No. 1 $3 00 I Landsidos for 8inKle Plows.. $2 50 

No. 2 " " " " .. 90 on I " *' No. 2 3 60 | '* •' Gang Plows.., 1 50 

All lands of ca'^tinp; done on short notice. 

San Francisco Agents. FLEISCHMAN, SICHEL & CO, No. 37 & 39 Battery Street. 




Lands and Homes for Sale. 



Rich Farm Land For Sale. 

L. r. MOtTLTON, of Colusa. 

OFFERS FOR SALE VERY CHEAP, FOUR THOUSAND 

ACRES OF EXTRA WHEAT OR VEGETABLE 

LAND, ADJOINING WHICH HAS GROWN 

FORTY BUSHELS TO THE ACRE THIS 

YEAR, AND IS EASY TO IRRIGATE, 

YET HIGH LAND, AND ON THB 

LINE OF THE COLUSA AND 

CHICO RAILROAD. 

This is the hc.st and cheapest land in the State. 

Address the owner, at Colusa, for partic- 

lara. 



FRUIT RANCH FOR SALE. 

Ten miles south-east of Sau BtTuardino. EiKbteou 
acres of viney.'vrd. Ten acres of alfalfa. Seveial thou- 
sand young Irult trees. Abundance of water. Beau- 
tiful location and only five miles from the railroad. 
Terms easy. For particulars, address 

"WM. CRAIG, San Bernardino, Cal. 



HUMBOLDT COUNTY LANDS 

And Building Lots in the city of Eureka. For sale 
by DOLLISON & DART, Eureka, Humboldt Co., Cal. 



SAVE $50! WHY PAY $85? 

K,EI>TJCEr> nSICE, #t5S. 

HOME and HOME SHUTTLE SEWING MACHINES. 

Reduced to Live and Let Live Prices. 



These Machines are superior to any and all; nice sewers, straight needle, two threads, shuttle, lock-stitch, 
the simplest and cheapest, and the lightest running first-class Machines In the market. To see is to 
convince yourselves. 

The Hall Treadle for Sewing Machines, 
The most important improvement ever made. It saves labor and preserves health. No more diseases and 
deaths, side or back aches from using Sewing Machines. No teaching required. A child can run it. Always 
starts the right way. Never goes backwards and breaks things. Can be stopped instantly. With it on your 
Machine, you can do double the work you can without it. Fifty stitches can be made with one pressure of one 
foot. It can be applied to any Sewing Machine. Approved by Massachusetts State Board of Health (see Official 
Report l.S7'2) , Massachusetts Medical Society and Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association. The HALL 
TREAFLE is a part of all HOME MACHINES sold by us. 

The Hall Treadle Orinding' Machine 
Must be seen to be appreciated. For a Farmer or Mechanic to see it, is to buy one. It is an indispensable article 
in every Furm-honse, Shop or Hotel. 

The Hall Treadle Jig- Saw and Boring- Machine 
Is an accomplishment in every Workshop. The HALL TREADLE is applicatjle to all machinery requiring 
foot-power — Sewing Machines, Grindstones, Jig Saws, Turning Lathes, Jewelers' and Dentists' Lathes, etc 
Send for Circulars. 



owbp 



HALL TREADLE MANUFACT'G CO., 17 New Montgomery St., S. F. 



CJLMOI^E 

IMPOBTf^. BBEEDCh 




The Cilmore Angora Goat 
BREEDING ASSOCIATION, 

iMl'ORTEUa AND BUEEDERS 01'' 

PURE BLOODS, 

— .\Lso or— 

Gne, A. I> E .** . 

stock Ra- ch situattd at El Dorado, (Mud Springs) 
El Dorado county, four miles troni Railroad Station. 
For prices of stock and any other facts connected with 
the business, address 

N. GULMORE, 

El Dorado, El Dorado Co., Ca 



CALIFORNIA WINE COOPERAGE AND MILL CO 




30, 32, 34, 36, 38 & 40 

Spear Street, 
M.FULDA&SONS 

Proprietors. 

Manufacturers of 

WATER TANKS SHIT 

TANKS, MINING 

WORK, 

J WINE, BEKR AN1> LIQUOR 

CASKS, TANKS, ETC. 

Cooperage and Tanks, Steamed 

and Dried Uefore or After 

Manufacture at Reason. 

able Rates. 

Sawing-. Planinft, «tc. 

at Short Notice. co-vvbp 



F O Ifc WALE. 

NEW ZEALAND GRASS SEED 
By HELLMANN BROS. & CO., 

Oor- IFront and Jackson Streets, San Francisco. 



A Card. 

Waisonville, Dec. 6, 1875. 
To C. P. Hoag, Gen. Agent. 1/8 

Beale street, S. F., 
Dear Sir. — We have had the 
Eclipse windmills in use several 
months. They have worked to our 
entire satisfacuor. running in the 
lightest breeze, and their self-regu- 
lating apparatus working lo perfec- 
tion in the severest gales. We take 
pleasure in recommendingthe Eclipse 
to all desiring windmills. 

Yours truly. 
Otto Stoesser, E. S. Peck, J. M. 

Rodgers and E. J. Martin. 

Reasons why the Eclipse Windmills 
should be Preferred. 

1.— It has been tested eight years In almost every 
State in the Union. 

2.— It is the most simple in principle, strongest iu 
construction and possesses more power than other mills. 

:i.— It is noiseless in oiieration, beauliftil iu design, 
and well finished. Has no loose joints to get out of 
order. 

4.— Has hardly any friction and will run in light 
winds. It is a perfect self-regulator. 

6. —It is sanctioned and adopted by the leading rail- 
roads for their water station.^, and pronounced by rail- 
road engineer to be built upon true mechanical prin- 
ciples. 

6.— The entire mill is guaranteed, and any casting 
or portion of a mill breaking from defect in material 
or workmanship will be replaced free of charge mth- 
out delay. 

7. — The rims are straight, instead of steamed or bent, 
as in other wheels, and the entire mill is durable. 

8._The cost is less than others when the actual 
power, durability and safety are considered. 

Write me or call. 

CHAS. P. HOAG, 

General Agent for Pacitic Coast, 118 Beale street, 
between Mission and Howard, San Francisco, Cal. 

Union Box Factory, 

GEO. W. SWAN & CO., 

115 and 116 3ijear St., bet. Mission & Howard 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



Apple, Penr, PInm, Poach, Chorry, Grape, 
Orange, Lime and Wine Cases. 

Tomato, Potato, Fig and Ruisin Boxes. 

Strawberry, Raspberry and Blackberry Chests 
and Drawers, and Jlaskets for all kinds of Berries. 

Peach and Picking Baskets, Butter Chests and 
Boxes, Cheese Boxes, Square and Round Egg Carriers. 

DrnmH for Figs, Cherries, Rdisins, and for 
otlier Dried Fruits. 

Free Packages— Boxes not to be returned— a 
good article, costing less than Sawed Boxes. 

Lard Caddies, Coffee and Fruit Caddies. 

Turkey and Chicken Coops, Bee-Hives, Etc. 

Packing Boxes for DrvGooods, Cigars, Can- 
dles, Candied Fruits, Honey, Maecaroni, Crackers, 
Sugar, Soap, Boots, Ktc, 

In fact, every style of Boxes manufactured in 
the Union, and tt'imed out in the Best Style at Favor 
able Prices. Orders from the country well attended to 

LOOK! 

ALBERT E. BUKBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. Also Eggs 
for hatching from the flnestof im- 
ported stock. Egg> and Fowls 
reduced prices. lend for Prl 
List. 

ALBERT K. BnRBANE, 
lT8-8m 43& 4' Oal. Market 8.F 




48 



3i^<g^yQXWji.Q 3Ei»W»Eb«^J[0t dPc^lSSSa 



[January 15, 1876 



«., Scientific Press 



at©a% Ag©a©F« 




Publishers, Patent Agents and Engravers. 
No. 221 Saneome Street San Fraocisco Oal 



Our Agents. 

OCB Fbiends can do mncb In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, b; aBSistln^ 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. Tharp— San Francisco. 

B. W. Cbowell — California. 

John Rostbon— California. 

G. W. McQbew— Santa Clara county. 



Thouohtlessners. — Persons sometimes return thei 
paper, marked "stop this paper." Their name being 
pasted on tht^ sheet they think that is all we need to be 
able to cross their names off. Now that is thoughtless- 
ness. Your P. O. address is needed as much as your 
name. We have thousands of names arranged only 
according to locality. Our mailing clerk does not know 
where everybody lives. 

Dewey & Co. WJ^^\ Patent Agt's. 



1876. Scribner's Monthly. 1876. 

We invite the attention of the public to SiRiuneh's 
Monthly, which now deservedly ranks among the 

BEST ILLUSTOATEU PERIODICALS OK THK WOKLl). 

The papejg illustrative of American scenery, which 
have appeared in its pages, among which were included 
"The Wonders of the Yellowstone" and the "Grand 
Oanon of the Colorado," have won wide-spread ad- 
miration on both aides of the Atlantic; and "The Great 
South" articles, with their beautiful engravings, have 
been rc-isKued in book form in both Great Britain and 
America. For the .oniing year we have broader plans 
than ever before. The magazine will be enlarged, 
and there will be Three Kemabkahle Serial Stokieb 
Bv American Wbitebb . 

"Oabrlel Conroy," by Bret Harte, 

Of which the Boston Pnst says: "It is a serial that 
will make every new number of Scbibnee's eagerly 
sought for, it it bad nothing else to recommend It." 

The Canadian JUmtrated A'eiuj predicts that "we 
have found at last tht American novel." 

The Louisville Courier-Journal says: The second 
installment is even stronger than the first, justifying 
all that was looked for. 

We begin in -lanuary, 

"Philip Nolan's Friends," 
By Edwabd Eveeett Hale. 

This is an historical romance. The scene is laid in 
the South-west, at a time when that territory was first 
Spanish, then French, and then American, and when 
war was Imminent, to obtain control of the mouth 
of the Mississippi. It is likely to be the great romance 
of the Mississippi valley, as "Gabriel Conroy'' will be 
of the Pacific slope. 

"That Iiass o' Lowrie's," 
By Fanny Hodcson Buiinett. 
The friends of "Scbiuneb" who have read "Surly 
Tim's Trouble," "One Day at Arle," "The Fire at 
Orantlcy Mills," and others of Mrs. Burnett's short 
stories, will not need to bo assured that they have a 
rare treat before tliem. The scene of the new novel is 
laid in an English mining town, and from the first page 
to the last the interest is unllagging. 

Among other notable papers wo mention the fol. 
lowing: A socoud "FARMF.R'S VACATION," by Coi,. 
GfcoiiuE E. WAKiNd, descriptive of a row-boat ride of 
two hundred and fifty miles in one ol the most fertile 
and interesting ot the vine-growing valleys of Europe 



— a region never seen by the ordinary traveler, but full 
of interest, in its social and industrial aspects. A rare 
collection of REVOLUTIONARY LETTERS. A SERIES 
OF ILLUSTRATED ARTICLES ON AMERICAN COL- 
LEGES. The series includes William and Mary, Har- 
vard, Yale, Michigan State University, Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, Amherst Agricultural College, Friuceten, 
Union, Bowdoin, Trinity, and other typical institutions 
of the countr}'. Elegantly illustrated articles on OLD 
NEW YORK, illustrated papers on AMERICAN CIT- 
IES, etc. 

The editorial control and direction of the Magaziiio 
will remain in the hands of Dr. Holland, who will 
contribute each month editorials upon current political 
and social topics. Our readers may look to "Tones of 
THE Time" for healthy opinion; "The Old Cabinet" 
for pure sentiment; "Home and Societi" for graceful 
economy; "Culture and PaodREss" for criticism; 
"The World's Wobk" for industrial intelligence; 
"Bbic-a-Be&o" for wit and innocent pleasantry. 

Scbibneb'k Monthly Is now recojinlzed, both in 
this country and in England, as the great representa- 
tive American Magazine. 

Encouraged by the favor accorded to it by a generous 
public, we shall aim, during the Centennial year, to 
eclipse its former achievements in both its Literary 
and Alt departments. 

ScRiBNEB is sold by all First-Clags Booksellers and 
News-Dealers. 

Price $4.00 a Year; 35 cents a Number. 

The 10 vols, complete, Nov. 1870, to Oct. 1875, 

bound in uiaruou cloth $20.00 

Same bound in half morocco 30.00 

Vols, begin in November and May. Any of the earlier 
volumes (I to VIII) will be supplied separately to par- 
ties who wish them to complete sets at this rate, t. e., 
cloth, $2.00; half morocco, $3.00. 

Booksellers and Postmasters will be supplied at rates 
that will enable them to fill any of the above offers. 

Subscribers will please remit in P. O. money orders, 
or in bank checks or drafts, or by registered letters. 
Money in letters not regi.stered at sender's risk. 

November and December numbers kree to all new 
8Ul:s<'RiuEBH for lS7i;. 

SCRIBNER & CO.. 743 Broadway, N, Y. 



1874. 

PATRON'S 



1876. 

HELPER, 



A Larere 'Weekly Paper, devoted to the In- 
terests of the Patrons of Husbandry. 

As A Farmer's Paper— Replete with jiractiiil Infor- 
mation for working farmers. 

As A CoMMEii(^iAL PAfEn— Teaches where, when and 
how to buy; where, when and how to sell. 

As AN Advkbtisino Pai-er— E.vcludos everything 
which is of dc>ul>trul utility, and every advertiser who 
is of doubtftil respouhibility. 

As a Family Papeic— Pure and chaste, free from 
scandals and low wit, but full of the choicest and 
brightest thoughts of the best writers of the day. 

As A Newspaper— Full and complete; carefully gath- 
ers from all sources whatever is of importance and 
presents it in a fresh, bright and intelligent form. 

As A Gran<ie Paper— Gives all Grange news; freely 
and fully discusses all questions of interest to Patronn, 
whether inside or outside of the Order, and fearlessly 
proclainiK the sound political and economic principles 
on which our reform is based. 

Subscription price, post-paid, $1..')0 ayearin advance. 
Specimen copies free. 

Address all cummunicatlons to 

aSO. WIIiLIAM JONES. Publisher, 
Ses Uoinea, Iowa. 



TRAVELING 



AGENTS 



WANTED 



For this paper. Experienced canvassers can 
make excellent w.iges. None but intelligent 
persona of good reoommondation need apply. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND COMPANY. 

Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting of 
the Stockholders of the Guadalupe Island Company, 
will be held at its otlice, 207 Sansoine street, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., on Monday, January 31st, 187C, at 3 r. M. 

AUTHUB EoDciERS, BENJAMIN FLINT, 

Secretary. Preddeut. 



THE lOO DAYS TOMATO- 

Actually ripens in one hundred days. 
Earllext Ciood Tonutto IS-v «r Olloi-eil 

Free from rot; ships well; remarkably prolific. 
$419.50 Sold from One-Fourth Acre. 

Positive proof of these claims in Free Circular. 

25 cents per packet; 6 for tim, post-palij. Address 

J. A. FooTF., Sidsiiiau, .")12 Main St., Terre Haute, Ind. 



ATTORNEY AT LA^W, 
306 PINE ST., N. W. Cor. Sansome, SAN FRANCISCO 

iWEspecial attention given to cases Involving Min. 
ug. Patent or Commercial Law. 



R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 




KLOWflHINQ PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUIT AND 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 

DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 

INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 

Comprising the Most Complete Stock 

EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 
Prices Unusually Low, 

IWTradc Price.List on appliculion. 

*,*My "Ouide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden" 
will soon be ready, and will be sent fbek to all Cus- 
TOMEBs. It will contain instructions on the culture 
of Fruit. Nut and Oruamenul True Seeds, Tobacco, 
.Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

419 and 421 Sansome street, S. F. 




The Twentietli Edition ■ i ni 1. i.;:iied Seed 
CatalOKue and Amateur's Guide to the 
Flower and Kitchen Garden, containing up- 
wards of 2110 pa;,'e», including several hundred finely 
executed engravings of favorite Jlowers and vegetables, 
and a beaatiful colored chromo, with a Supple- 
ment for lull), will be mailed to all applicaots upon 
receipt of 3r> cents. An edition elegantly bound in 
cloth, $1. 

BLISS' ILLUSTRATED GARDENERS' 
ALMANAC 

For 1876. and Abridged Catalogue of Garden 
and Flower Seeds. contaiUK npward.s c.f lim pages, 
and embraces a monthly Calendar of Operations and a 
price list of all the leading Garden. Field and 
Flower Seeds, with directions for their culture. A 
co|iy will be ruailed to ail applicants inclosing ten 
cents. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS. 34 Barclay St., 
P. O. Box 5712, New York- 



Scions for Grjiftiiig and 
StrawbeiTy Plantn 

At Felix Gillet's, Nevada City, Cal. 



Best varieties of winter Pear: Bergaiuotte, Passe- 
Crassanne, Royal d' Uiver, Doyoiine, Beiirre Clairgean 
and Duchease d' Angoiilenio, ifall pear). 

Cherry: Guigno Marbree, (Irosse de Mezel and Noire 
Luicaiite. 

Chestnnt: Marrou de Lyon and Oombale. 

Walnut: Pneparluriens. Four varieties of Filbert 
plants. All imported varieties. 

Twenty-six varieties of the nicest Strawberries at $5 
to $H per hundred plants. Ever bearing Raspberries, 
(three crops a year) , $.t per hundred. 

Every variety guaranteed to bo true to namo. 



• M. Eyre, Napa, Cal. 

BRONZE 

TURKEYS. 



Hig-h Class, 
THOROIGHBRED 

POULTRY. 

EMDEN GEESE, 
Pekin Ducks. 
PIGEONS. 




RABBITS. 



PRICE-LIST 

For 1876 

Now Ready. 

FERRETS. 



THOROUGHBRED SOUTHDOWN SHEEP. 

Address M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 
Please enclose stamp. 



SANBORN 



BYRNES, 




Mechanics' Mills, Mission Street. 
Bet. First and Fremont, San Francisco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended to. All kinds of stait 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ten Pins, Fancy Newels and 
Balusters. 26v8-8m-bp 



$250 



A MONTH— Agents wanted every. 

^'Iierc. Business iKUioruble ant] lirat 

hiss, raiiieiilars sent free. Address 

J. WORTH Si Co., ,St. Louis, Mo. 



NEW CHOP OF 



BLUK oxjm: hi£:i<:o, 



GXIAWH AIV1> 

CLOVER 

FLOWER A.IVr> 
VEGETA.B1_,E 

TREE A]VI> 
iT' K, TJ I T 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 



OF EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY AND OF I'HB 
BEST QUALITY; OFFERED AT WHOLE- 
SALE OK RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER. 



v8-tf 



No. 317 Wastain^on Street, 

8A.N FBAN0I800 . 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Constantly on hand and for tale choice 
specimens of the following va- 
rieties of Fowls: 

Dark and Light Brahmaa, Buff 
White and Partridge Coch- 
ins, White and Brown Leg- 
horns. Dorkintrs, Polish 
Hamburg's, Same and 
Sebrirht Bantams, 
Aylesbury and 
Bouen Ducks. 

ALSO, FOB BALE, 

20 of the Largest Bronze Turkeys in America. 

E^gs for sale after January 1st. 

NO INFERIOR FOWLS SOLD AT ANY PRICE. 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

For further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Oir( rilar, to 

GEO. B. BAYI.EY, 

P. O. Box 859, Ban Franclsoo. 




F O K. M ^ IL. K 

—BY THE— 

COUNTRY REAL ESTATE 

ASSOCIATES. 

Officers and Directors. 

Q. W. Coi.nv Norilj.!. RE(;KN8in;B<iER S. F. 

J. VoLLMAB 8.F. A.W. Thompson. Petaluma 

J. D. Blani-iiab Napa F.A. Kimball San Diego 

0. MlTCBELL OkANT |l. O. tlAaDNKB 8. K. 

a. P. K>XLuuu Baliaas. 

:$0,000 AOltK*^ 

Of the i^faolcest farming land In RAN LUIS OBISPO 
COUNTY, subdivided into suiall farms of from 4U to 
SOU acres, for sale on favorable terms. 

This is one of the best opportunities yet oifered to 
persona who wish to locate in one of ihemost desirable 
portioua of California, Choice farms for sale In all 
parts of the State. 

The Company is now fully re«dy lor the transaction 
of business, and all (tersons who have lands for sale, or 
who wish to purchase land are re<jue8ted to call upon 
the Secretary. 

J. R. BEAD, 6 Letdesdorff Street. S. F. 



CAMELLIAS 



A lart.'e stock of very fine plants 
at rates from $/3 to $100 per KM 
aocurding size and kinds. Also 

BhododendroQS, Azaleas and Roses- 

PURPLE BEECH and other RARE and 
ORNAMENTAL. TREES. 

ROSES and tlie Best FLOWERING SHRUBS. 

CLEMATIS OF MANY NKW AND FINE SORTS. 
Catalogues Free. Address 

R. B. PARSONS & CO., 
[Box 99,1 Pluahinr, New Tork. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OF EVERY VARIETY. 

Freeh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD. ITAI-IAN UYK, 
RED TOP, TIMOTUY, MESQUIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
BED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOU GIGAN- 
TEA, PINU8 IN8IQNIS, Etc. 

For Bale, wholesale or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 



(SuccesBor to E. E. Hoore) . 
435 Washington St., San Francisco. SlvT-ly 



Grapevine Cuttings. 

B. Malvasia, Zinfindel, Unseat Alexandria, Berber, 
Largo White Malaga and many others. Price, three 
t<j live dollars per thousand. 

H. W. CRABB, 

OakTille, Napa County, Cal. 




Volume XI.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 22, 1876. 



[Number 4 



Straw Burning Engines. 

straw burning engines for steam plowing and 
threshing are considered the latest improve- 
ment in agricultural machinery by our valley 
fanners, who have had an opportunity to see 
them working successfully. There were about 
forty of these engines at work in the State dur- 
ing the harvest of 1875. Mr. H. W. Rice, of 
Haywooda, made over one-half of this number. 
But for his experience and experiments, in 
connection with Mr. D. Morey, of Watsonville, 
our farmers would probably not have had a 
straw burning engine at work in this State yet. 
Mr. Morey obtained a patent in 1873, and a re- 
issue in May, 1875; Mr. Rice obtained a patent 
January, 1874, and reissue in May, 1875. 
Credit is due Mr. Morey for his persevering ef- 
forts to obtain a suitable feeder for this style 
of engine. This system of feeding straw is very 
simple and effectual, as it excludes all cold air 
from entering the boiler above the fire, which 
it is impossible to do with the ordinary fur- 
nace with wood and coal. Messrs. Rice and 
Morey have sold their interest and right to 
make these engines on this coast to Marcus 0. 
Hawley & Co., Nos. 108 and 110 Front street, 
S. F. The engines are 18-horse power. Mr. 
Rice is now on his way to the Eastern States, 
where he goes to introduce the straw burners. 
Messrs. Enright, of San Jose, Heald, of Vallcjo, 
Brown, of Salinas, and Ames company, Os- 
wego, N. Y,, made the other engines. The 
latter firm's engines were made for Messr.s. 
Baker & Hamilton, of this city. Most of these 
engines show some slight difference in detail. 
The illustration on this page gives a good idea 
of the engine, showing the man in the act of 
getting up steam with straw. 

Many of our farmers who live in places where 
wood is plenty have not yet seen the straw 
burning engines working, and some of them 
even refuse to believe it possible to keep steam 
with straw to run a threshing machine steadily. 
Firing with straw is not difficult. I took a boy 
who had never fired an engine and put him to 
feeding straw. He watched me firing for about 
ten minutes and then 1 let him go to work, 
showing him a little about keeping the fire 
right. I had plenty of steam the first day. 

As far back as the year 1856 a mill of six 
paiis of stones was successfully driven by a 
straw burning engine. This mill was oituated 
on the Pardang estate, in Lower Hungary, and 
since then the established fact of the possibility 
of straw being used for the generation of steam 
has led to a dozen, more or less, good patents 
being taken out in England, some of which are 
now working successfully in Hungary and other 
grain growing countries. 

There are over 200 straw burning engines in 
Hungary. Over fifty of these are made by 
Garrett & Son, an English firm. They all use 
the ordinary fire-box boiler, but made some- 
what longer than for wood and coal. The mak- 
ers of straw burners in this State say they can- 
not burn straw in fire-box boilers, and have all 
adopted Mr. Rice's plan of the return-tube 
boilers, generally known as the Cornish boiler. 

Messrs. Fowler, of Leeds, England, have 
constructed two 12-horse (English nominal) 
traction engines for use in Russia, which are 
to be fired with straw (fire-box boilers). The 
engines are intended for steam plowing, and 
this work is much heavier than threshing. 
These enaines will have to indicate 60-horse 
power. Under these circumstances Messrs. 
Fowler did not like to rely on straw alone, so a 
tank is provided, standing across the top of the 
boiler, and from this petroleum can be blown 
in spray into the fire-box. Some trials of the 
engines have been made which, even with Eng- 
lish straw of inferior quality, gav« eminently 
satisfactory results, and there is no reason to 
doubt that with straw of Russian growtk the 
results will be quite satisfactory. 

Messrs. Ransome, Sims & Head, of Ipswich, 
England, sent one of their patent straw burning 
engines to this city last spring. This engine 
has an ordinary fire-box boiler, made larger 
than a coal fire-box. The straw is put in by 
means of a pair of toothed rollers. The rollers 
are run by a belt from the engine shaft, at a 
speed of from forty to fifty revolutions per 
aiini)te. This keeps a small but steady supply 



of straw going into the fire all the time. By 
special invitntion of Messrs. Ransome's agent, 
in this city, I attended a private trial of this 
engine at his place some months ago. The 
engine worked well, consuming the straw 
thoroughly. The straw, of course, makes some 
clinker, which is readily removed by an ar- 
rangement of bars between the prates, moving 
to and fro easily and quickly, clearing the 
fire. This engine will probably be used during 
the harvest of 1876, and the readers of the 
Rural who are interested in this subject may 
look for a more detailed account of the work of 
this engine. 

As this or some other arrangement is much 
needed in our State, an attachment that can 
be applied to the many engines now in use for 
the successful burning of straw would save 
our farmers many thousand dollars. Unless 
we have nn attachment for this pnrpo.se that 
will work successfully, second hand wood and 
coal burning portable engines will become a 
drag in the market. To remove the old engines 
from the boilers, and purchase a new boiler of 
the Cornish style, put the engine on and re- 
mount it, will cost from $1,000 to $1,300. I 
altered a coal burning engine for the season of 
1875, and did considerable of the work myself. 



Tiie Wheat Outlook. 

It is strengthening to have a good outlook. 
In the telegraphic quotations from the Mark- 
Lane Express, which appears in our market re- 
port to day, it is said that a rise in wheat value 
is expected with the setting of March. This 
will nrgue well for the wheat growers, aud we 
earnestly hope the event may prove it. There 
seems every reason for a satisfactory advance, 
so far as wo can see into the stone wall of the 
future. Our own market is evincing a gratify- 
ing tendency. Let it go on. 

We find in a circular, recently issued by a 
Milwaukee firm, some very interesting and in- 
genious figuring of probabilities, which is wor- 
thy of reproduction for our readers. It is as 
follows : 

If statistics are of any value, we contend 
that the following figures, pointing all in one 
direction, telling all the same story of early 
depression, and final recovery, are a sure in- 
dex to the course of the market during the 
next six months. The law of " averages" al- 
though but imperfectly understood, is never- 




STRAW-BURNING ENaiNE. 



It then cost me about $900. The engine 
worked well. The boiler made plenty of steam 
with ease. I threshed three months with this 
engine in San Joaquin county and at Half Moon 
bay, ana will say that I consider straw the 
best fuel, preferable to wood or coal, even if 
the cost of straw was equal to that of wood or 
coal. 

An even presi?ure of steam can be kept easier 
with straw than with wood or coal. The straw 
must be fed steadily. If overfed the m>iin 
flue is filled up, much smoke is made and the 
fire smothered. The effect of feeding straw 
too fast is about the same as feeding too slow. 
In one case the fire is smothered and in the 
other the engine draws too much cold air. In 
either ease the steam pressure is reduced. 

There is less danger of fire in the field from 
straw burners than from wood, which fuel is 
generally used in this State. There is no need 
of pulling the fire out when going to the next 
stack, as is often necessary when burning wood. 
A fire occurred from this cause near where I 
was threshing, in the season of 1874. An engi- 
neer pulled his fire just before moving in the 
evening, and threw some water on the burning 
wood, but did not put it out. A few hours 
after, and in the night, the stubble caught fire 
from this wood, and the fire ran to the next 
stacks, where the machine had moved to, also 
to Another machine near by; both separators, 
driving belts, tools, four stacks of wheat and 
a lot of empty sacks at each machine were de- 
stroyed by this fire. 

The farmers prefer the straw burning engine. 
Threshers who have straw burners do not have 
to look for work— the work looks for tlioin. 

J. W. RlLBT. 



theless as potent to the scientist as tho law of 
gravitation, and the same causes which have 
for seventeen years produced the same result, 
will effect a like result this season. During 
the present month cash No. 2 wheat sold at 
963/^0, which is the lowest figure reached, as 
well during the month as on the crop. Tak- 
ing the lowest prices during December as a 
basis, we find that daring the past seventeen 
years the price of wheat some time during the 
next six months, has in each and every in- 
stance advanced sufficiently to pay all expenses 
and a handsome profit. The average advance 
for seventeen years is 37%o per bushel ; the 
smallest advance is 14c and ihe largest 95c. 

The maximum has been reached mostly dur- 
ing January, May and June. If we carry the 
figures still further and take the advances from 
the lowest prices daring the first four months 
of the cereal year to the month of June follow- 
ing, we have an average advance of 40c per 
bushel, which would indicate that some time 
during the next six months No. 2 wheat would 
bring at least $1.42 in our market, on the hy- 
pothesis that the causes now existing are of 
average strength with the sime causes for the 
past seventeen years. We think they are 
stronger. 

The minimum advance would give us $1.10^ 
and the m aximum $1 91. 

Including coin and bnllion, the value of the 
foreign imports at Sia li'ranciaco for 1875 w.is 
$32,523,500, of which Japan contributed the 
largest figure— $ 9.470,50 0. 

An action has been commenced against the 
Bank of California, to enjoin the sale of de- 
lipquent stock. 



East Oaidand Nurseries. 

On Friday of last week we paid a visit to two 
creditable nurseries, which are "located on 12th 
street, Oakland, near Tubbs' hotel, and are 
easily reached by street cars runaing out from 
the center of the city. 

We first inspected the premises of Bailry & 
Co., who make a specialty of propagating 
Australian forest trees. They have an estab- 
lishment which is a credit to the State. Seven 
acres of choice land in the foothills serves as a 
growing ground. The location on 12th street 
is a fine distributing point, and the newly- 
established depot opposite the City hall. Mar- 
ket street, S. P., brings their stock in such 
prominent view that all can examine its 
quality. 

At the place in East Oakland we saw 400.000 
of the finest blue gum seedlings ready for re- 
planting. The trees were of unusually uniform 
strength and size. We saw numerous examples 
of the quick growth of this tree. A fine row 
reaching through the center of the nursery was 
an average of six feet high and only nine 
months from the seed. Mr. Bailey promises a 
cord of wood in ten years from each tree favor- 
ably located for growth. 

Mr. Bailey makes a suggestion for the use- 
fulness of this tree to farmers in the way they 
can be used for fencing purposes. Land can 
be subdivided by blue gum trees. Planted one 
foot apart, in four years they will make a living 
fence. A gateway can be made at pny point by 
cutting out a few trees and hanging the gate 
upon a tree for a post. 

An important point to forest cultors is the 
nature of the wood they grow. Concerning the 
lasting properties of the blue gum wood, the 
following is a new instance: Twenty years ago 
a surveyor drove down stakes of gum wood 
near Bernal bights. Last week some of them 
were pulled up out of curiosity, and the wood 
was found still sound in the center, though 
rotted upon the exterior. 

Mr. Bailey maintains that the eucalyptus can 
be grown anywhere and any waste place can be 
covered with them. He believes that the waste 
hills back of San Francisco can be covered with 
a handsome forest. To succeed in a waste 
place he would plant the trees young and culti- 
vate them for two years. The limbs should be 
permitted to grow down close to the ground, 
and thus the tree would protect and maintain 
itself. 

We saw a namber of other praiseworthy 
things at Bailey & Co.'s. They have 85,000 
fine young Monterey cypress trees and a fine 
show of the iron bark eucalyptus. They find 
their business rapidly extending, which argues 
well for the cause of tree planting. Last year 
during the whole season they sold 177,000 trees. 
This year 100,000 have already been disposed 
of. But this is as much of Bailey & Co. as it is 
of tree planting, and we forbear, inasmuch as 
Bailey & Co. tell their own story in our adver- 
tising columns this week. 

After looking over the last named estabhsh- 
ment we crossed the street and visited L. M. 
Newsom, of the Maple Leaf nursery. Mr. 
Newsom makes a good show of nearly all kinds 
of trees, shrubs and potted plants. He is quick 
to secure all favorite growths and is a skillfal 
propagator. He has native redwoods threj 
years old which are four feet high. He is doing 
ft good deal in the eucalyptus, and has some 
fine stock; so also with evergreens. Mr. New- 
som gave us some interesting points on Monterey 
cypress. It can be pruned and trimmtd almost 
at any time, because in our climate it is always 
growing. It is easily propagated. Cut off a 
sprig three or four inches long, so as to leave 
on the heel by which it is joined to the larger 
branch. Break off two or three of the lower 
leaf stems and then stick it in the soil of the 
bedding box. He starts cuttings in sharp beech 
sand, first washing out the salt. In the box he 
puts first a layer of coarse soil to get drainage, 
and covers this with sand in which the cut- 
tings start. 

Thk Union Republican national convention 
for nominating candidates for president and 
vice-president of the United States, will be 
held in Cincinnati, June 14tb. 



60 



January 22, 1876 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Northern Part of Santa Barbara County. 

Messes. Euitobs:— If the following ittms of 
uews from tbis portion of the county, least fre- 
quently heard from, are of sufficient interest to 
your readers, you are welcome to them. Of 
Lompoc temperance colony, its fertility and 
rapid settlement, you have beeu fully advised. 
I will only now say that the rains have come 
very opportunely. At first they came rather 
Hparingly, with considerable intervals. But 
(his gave our farmers the better chance to " got 
a good ready." We have just had heavier rains, 
warm aud copious, that muke all feel jubilant. 
The weather is still unsettled. Everybody is 
busy preparing to put in large crops. The 
wharf is contracted for and is expected to be 
finished by an experienced wharf builder of 
this coast in 90 days. Already lumber is brought 
here and potatoes taken away for San Fran- 
cisco by schooners. We expect steamers to 
take away our next crop and bring us return 
supplies. 

The Los Alamos Valley 
Is a very fine one, bounded by good grazing 
hills, timbered somewhat with oak, etc., with 
very cosy nooks and canons for homes. The 
valley is being surveyed into farms of several 
hundred acres each. The land is level, almost, 
as a table. These farms are being taken up at 
a rental of one, two and three dollar.^ per acre 
per annum for three years respectively. A good 
deal of clowing and sowing to grain is already 
done. The no-fence law (which may the legis- 
lature not repeal, is the prayer of many a poor 
man now farming,) precludes tbe necessity of 
fencing. Moreover, the cattle on these ranches 
are being taken away, making room for sheep, 
so much more easilv herded and kept from 
trespassing. I should add that water is ob- 
tained at from ten to twenty feet, and wood aud 
a sheltering canon for a house are thrown in 
with the land rented. The regular overland 
stage from Soledad — terminus of Southern Pa- 
cific railroad — to Santa Barbara and Los Angeles 
passes right through this valley, by the farms 
spoken of, each way daily. It is but a few 
miles from 

La Graciosa, 
Where a daily mail, Wells, Fargo iV Co. 
agency, etc., are established; stores, hotel, 
restaurant, stage office and stable, etc., are also 
found here. Mesrs. Adams k O'Neil have 
built a very handsome and commodious store, 
and over it the largest and finest ball in this 
part of the country. In it I had the pleasure, 
recently, of preaching. This little town is 
growing. The Todos Santos lanch is abont to 
be surveyed, and that will determine what 
Government land there is in the neighborhood. 
Some parties have taken up claims in anticipa- 
tion; a goodly number have homes already 
established in the rich little valleys adjoining. 
The moving back of the cattle, before referred 
to, will also lead to the necessary migration of 
a number of native Californians, and the dispos- 
ing of their homesteads and claims in (juarter 
sections to Americans. It is said that two or 
three good dairy ranches on the Todos Santos 
ranch, now belonging, I believe, to Mr. New- 
hall, the San Francisco auctioneer, can be 
rented on very good terms. Beyond Graciosa 
eight or ten miles is Central City, a compara- 
tively new town in the midst of a very fertile 
valley, called 

Santa Maria Valley. 
But for the grasshopper plague that infest* d 
the place for several successive years, this 
would be dotted all over with improved farms 
and thriving orchards and shade trees. The 
land, a sandy loam, is easily worked and very 
produclive. Last year the grasshoppers gave 
little or no trouble, and this year there are no 
signs and no fears of them. Hence, with the 
seasonable rains, and absence of frost — at least 
on my last visit, Christmas day, green and ripe 
tomatoes, and fresh potato vines were to be 
seen -they expect to raise large and remunera- 
tive crops. Though money is scarce here as 
everywhere, houses are being put up and stores 
improved all the time, making the settlement 
look quite townlike. 
Ten and a half miles from here is 
Guadalupe, 
On the Santa Maria river, which divides our 
county from San Luis Obispo county. I have 
had no occasion to visit this town for several 
months, so cannot say much about it. I know 
that some fine, rich land adjoins it, and that a 
good deal has been lately sold to settlers. It is 
good for grain, potatoes, corn, pumpkins, 
beans, dairying, etc. I see more advertised 
for sale. The overland stage makes daily con- 
nection both ways with this town and Sun Luis 
Obispo and Santa Barbara. 

In conclusion, there is a great deal of travel 
to this county; a great many like this part of 
it, purchase or rent and thus become settlers. 
Gradually the stock ranches— all more or less 
suitable for farms, agricultural, grazing or 
dairy, or all combined, will be cut up and sold, 
or colonized. It is capable of supporting a 
large population, and a short time will nu- 
donbtodly bring the pt-ople to occupy, utilize 



and beautify what nature has done so much for 
already. There is a good deal of business-like 
talk concerning railroads just now, down south 
of here. J. W. Webb. 

Lompoc, Jan. 3d, 187(!. 

For the Centennial and the " Rural 
Press. " 

Messils. Euitobs: — I can hardly render a fit- 
ting apology for contiiMied silence. Will the 
plea of plenty of work avail ? Only a few days 
*ago I finished shipping the last of my tree sections 
to Washington— over a ton in all. Then, in order 
to distribute my large collection of plants into 
iheir families, some 500 large receptacles were 
needed in my herbarium. This is just com- 
pleted, making my herbarium now, perhaps, 
the finest thing of the kind in the State. The 
selection of about 1,000 species of plants for 
the Centennial Exposition follows, then writing 
np my botanical excursions of 1875 for tbe 
RuKAL Pbess. 

I inteni- to celebrate the Centennial year by a 
grand exploration of the Sierra from end to end, 
in company with tne distinguished botanist aud 
explorer, JDr. C. C. Parry. B-'ginning at the 
south end in March, we ascend Mount Whitney 
and his alpine neighbors in May, and reach 
Yosemite in June. Then leaving the Doctor in 
midsummer to revel in the charms of Central 
California (familiar to me), I will hasten East 
to visit Philadelphia and other Atlantic cities, 
returning in September to rejoin Dr. Perry for 
the exploration of ehe Oregon Cascades. 

Sincerelv yours, J. G. Lemmon. 

Sierra Valley, Cal., Jan. 7th, 1876. 



Hungry Hollow. 

Messus. Editoks.— Our beautiful valley is call 
ed Hungry Hollow. The rains so far have been 
gentle, and not dashing r.iins like we have some 
seasons. The wheat, barley and grasses are 
four or five inches tall, and it makes this valley 
look very beautiful. There is a very large 
crop of grain put in this fall; the most of it is 
summer fallow and volunteer grain. There is 
not a great deal of winter sown grain. 

Hungry Hollow, Cal., Jan. Ist. J. M. D. 



li\E Oi^il^Y. 



How Prize Cheese is Made. 

At the last grand exhibition of the American 
Institute, held in New York city, which was 
closed November 13th, B. F. Adams; of Austin 
Minn., exhibited some specimens of excellent 
cheese, for which he was awarded the premium. 
Herewith we give the principal details in the 
manufacture of such cheese, which he has fur- 
nished to the Practi.'-(d Farmer for publication. 
He writes: 

"The cows whose milk was used in the man- 
ufacture of the cheese, were fed entirely on the 
wild grass of Minnesota. I receive the milk 
but once a day— in the morning. The farmers 
set their milk in cans pat into a tub of cold 
water, and cool it down to the temperature of 
the atmosphere by agitating it well with a large 
dipper. Morning milk the same in a separate 
can. The milk when received at the factory iu 
the morning is weighed and strained through 
two thicknesses of bandage cloth and kept cjn- 
stantly agitated in the vat until the rennet is 
added; this is to prevent the cream from rising. 
After the milk is all received, the heating pru- 
cess commences, which is done by steam from 
a five-horse power boiler, ai:d conducted 
through pipes under the vat. I first heat the 
milk to a temperature of 82 deg., then I add a 
very little coloring prepared of annatto; next I 
put in rennet enough to cause coagulation iu 
fifteen minutes; rennet is prepared in cold wa- 
ter, cut up iu small pieces, and sufficient salt 
added to keep sweet. After the whole coagula- 
ted mass becomes hard enough, I cut both 
ways and let stand until the whey rises, then 
the scalding process commences. Scald very 
slow until a temperature of 'JO deg., then 
retain it at this temperature until cooked and 
acidity begins to develope on the whey — the 
whey is then drained ofi' and the curd dipped 
into the curd sink and salted immediately, 
using two and one-half pounds of salt to one 
thousand pounds of milk. After the curd is 
cooled to the temperature of the atmosphere 
then put to press, and bandage; press for about 
eighteen hours; then take out of the hoop and 
put in the dry room. I use no gn ase in the 
caring process, nothing but a small piece of 
bondage eloth— A good rich cheese will grease 
itself enough. I keep my drying room at a 
temperature of about 80 deg. 

How Milk is Secreted. 

In his address before the Pennsylvania dairy- 
men's association, Prof. L. B. Arnold gave a 
description and illustration of a fully developed 
udder in its active state, showing it to be di- 
vided into four separate glands, each acting 
independently of the other, but all bound to- 
gether by elastic membranes and suspended 
and supported by one compound tendon con- 
nected with the abdominal muscles, and ram- 
ifying in minute filamentary divisions which 
fasten into every part of each division of the 



udder, and also into the skin which covers it, 
80 that it is well supported, even when heavily 
laden with milk. Milk, he said, is not con- 
tained in tbe udder in one capacious sack, as 
many people suppose, and as some atithors 
have represented, but in small reservoirs dis- 
tributed through the glands. The largest of 
these reservoirs ii at the top of the teat, which, 
as was shown by an illustration recently copied 
from a fully developed udder four weeks from 
the time of calvins. was only aljout the size of 
a turkey's egg. The other cavities distributed 
through the glands varied from the size of a 
hickory nut to a pin-head, the largi-st aud 
greatest number being located at and near the 
lower part of the udder, diminishing in number 
and size upward. The reservoirs in each quar- 
ter of the bag are cemented by a set of tubes 
distinct from the other quarter, which run line 
blood-vessels by crooked routes from one res- 
ervoir to another, till they at last connect with 
the larger cavity at the top of the teat. In 
each quarter of the udder all the internal 
arrangements nud subdivisions of the glands 
are not only independent of but diflferent from 
the corresponding divisions in tbe otLer 
quarter.^. The reservoirs and tubes in no two 
quarters are alike, either iu size, location or 
number. 



lEES. 



Bees in San Diego. 

In the course of an able article describing 
the various interests of San Diego county, the 
World of January 8th prints the following par- 
agraph concerning the honey interest: 

The narrow canons and bleak hills of San 
Diego county (hat used to be held in derision 
by the upper country, have proven themselves 
to be productive of a wealth that places them 
fairly on a level with the agricultural portions 
of the State. No matter how steep the hillside, 
or how gloomy and dark the canon, the nimble 
winged bee in its busy search for the sweet 
stores that nature has hid within tbe bosom of 
the flower, regards it not, but flits from place to 
place and gathers its rich store, and lays it 
away for th« benefit of its master, man. The 
bu.siuess of bee culture has continued to in- 
crease with great rapidity, and in every in- 
stance when a person understands tbe bubi- 
ness and will devote bis time and attention to 
it, it has proven profitable. 

The following table will show the increase in 
the business for the last four years : 
Year. Xo. of Hives 

1872 l,]3« 

1873 1,8154 

1M74 2,458 

1875 8.7C1 

The yield of honey, while very fair, has no' 
been as great as it would have been had the 
bees been allowed to work where they were 
swarmed, but a large number of our bee men 
devoted their attention to the production of 
bees rather than of honey, and the moving of 
tbe swarms to new localities, of ^course inter- 
fered with the working of the bees to a great 
extent, but notwithstanding these drawbacks, 
the yield of honey the past year will probably 
reach 400,000 pounds. Of this amount 307, (»0U 
pounds have already been shipped by steamer. 
There have been manulacluredby our two plan- 
ing mills 1(!,700 hives; there has been used 
800,000 feet of lumber. In addiiiou to this 
nearly 200,000 feet of cut lumber for hives and 
honey cases has been imported. 



^RBOI^ICdLXJf^E. 



How to Secure Premium Honey. 

Dr. P. .\. Baker, in the Beekeeper's Magndne, 
publishes a plan to secure the largest quantity 
and the best honey, which is well worthy of 
trial. 

The plan is simply to keep a very strong col- 
ony queenless during the period of the gtf atost 
flow of honey. All apiarians know that a virgin 
swarm will work with more energy in building 
comb and storing honey, than one with a full 
supply. It is not uncommon for strong fam- 
ilies, with everything needful for storing honey 
iu surplus boxes, to loaf abont the hive, until 
a few empty frames are given between the full 
ones, when they will soon bo filled, but, being 
in the queen's chamber, she immediately per- 
forms her maternal duty aud you get no honey. 
The law is immutable, in their allowing no 
empty space between broad combs, and the law 
impelling the bees to fill the space with comb 
acts with like force iu indicating to the queen 
her duty. By virtue of cause and effect, if the 
entire hive is made into space, it is but fnlHll- 
ing that law for the bees to promptly fill it with 
comb and honey, if, perchance, it is iu abund- 
ant supply, but madam queen being present, we 
must allow a considerable force to assist in at- 
tentions to her royalty; dethrone her and sup- 
ply the colony with material to make a new 
one, and yet allow none to mature lor a period, 
aud we shall have our boxes filled with the 
beauteous nectar. The operation is to put two 
large swarms, without queens or comb, into a 
hive filled with empty sectional frames or honey 
boxes, and give one broad comb at one end of 
the kive, and before the new queen is hatched, 
remove the comb and give them another. 
When the second has become fertile, ihe great- 
est flow of honey being over, remove the honey 
frames or boxes and till the hive with combs or 
empty frames as the fall season for honey may 
indicate. The queens and broad combs can be 
utilized to advantage, which any intelligent 
apiarian will understand. 



A New Conifer. 

The latest accession to the ranks of the coni- 
ferie hails from California. In the Gardener's 
Munthly for January we find a description of 
the Abies macrocarjHi, by Dr. George Vusey, of 
Washington, as follows: 

In the fall of 1S71, Mr. P. M. Bing, of San 
Gorgonio pass, California, sent to the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture s'lme cones and twigs of a 
coniferous tree, of which he desired to know 
the name. Tbe striking resemblance of the 
clones to those of Abies DomjUlsu was very ap - 
parent, but their great size aud weiuht were 
remarkable. I requested from Mr. Ring more 
detailed information of the characteristic marks 
of his tree. In reply, under date of November 
25lh, 1874, he wrote as follows: "The tree in 
question is called here a fir tree; it is the first 
pine tree met with in ascending from the plain 
to the mountains, growing in the canons of the 
foot hills, and in this locality is the most com- 
mon of the evergreens. As you ascend in the 
mountains it becomes scarce, and is not found 
tiigher np than about five thousand feet. It at- 
tains a large size, from two to three feet in di- 
ameter, aud from si.vty to eighty feet high; the 
usual size, however, is about a foot and a half 
in diameter, and fifty feet high. Its appear- 
ance is peculiar, ditterent from the other pines 
found with it. Tbis is caused by its manner of 
growth, the limbs extending straight ont from 
the trunk without bending up or down. It is 
a fine spreading tree, even when growing 
thickly together, and I think would make a 
highly ornamental one if planted singly or in 
groups in open ground." 

The leaves had all dropped from the twigs 
sent by Mr. Ring, and as it appeared too late 
for more specimens that year, I deferred the 
matter until the coming year. In the mean- 
time the cones were seen by Dr. Gray and Dr. 
Engelmann. Dr. E. was particularly interested 
in the matter, and desired mere information 
and specimens. I accordingly applied again to 
Mr. Ring last summer, and under date of Sep- 
tember I4th, 1875, he writes as follows: 

"I have endeavored to find some cones of the 
fir tree, but have not succeeded so far. This 
year there appeared to be very few cones formed ; 
last year the trees were loaded with them, but 
now I can find none but the old ones which 
still hang upon them. The cones that I sent 
you came oflT separate trees, and were of the 
average size; all tbe trees of this sort bear cones 
of about the same size; there are none interme- 
diate in size as far as I can discover. If by the 
Abies Donglasii you mean the Douglas spruce 
of tbe northwest coast, I should say the tree in 
question is not the same. It has not the same 
general appearance, and grows under quite dif- 
ferent circumstances. It is not nearly so large 
as the Douglas spruce, and tbe branches are 
much longer in proportion to the bight of Ihe 
tree. The branches appear to me to be singu- 
larly lung and spreading, in marked contrast 
with the other cone-bearing trees. The bark of 
the old irets is quite deeply furrowed; in the 
young ones not so much so, but it is never 
smoi-th." 

In addition to the information sought for 
from Mr. Ring, I also instructed Dr. Ed. 
Palmer, who was making collections in South- 
ern California, to search for the tree, and to 
get specimens and a section of the trunk. He 
was successful in finding the tree in San Felipe 
canon, in the mountains northeast of San Diego. 
The section of wood has not yet come to band, 
bat the specimens of twigs and cones have. 
The twigs seem to be longer and slimmer than 
those of Abies Douglusii and the loaves are 
rather more acutely pointed, but otherwise 
there is no apparent difference. But the cones 
hold out in entire accordance with those 8>-nt 
by Mr. Ring. They are old cones, Dr. 
Palmer stating that no new cones were to be 
found. They are five inchei long by two and 
one-half inches in diameter, composed of about 
rixty scales, which in the center of the cone are 
one and a half to one and three-fourths inches 
wide. Tbe bracts can hardly be distinguished 
from those of ^I'^ies Doui/lasii, except that they 
do not project so far beyond tbe scale. The 
difference in tbe cones of tbe two kinds is most 
strikingly shown by their comjiarative weight. 
Five average sized cones of the San Gorgonio 
specimens weighed 202 grammes, equal to six 
and one-ihird ounces; while five cones of the 
average size o( the ordinary form of Abies 
Oouiilisii weighed but thirty-eight and one- 
half grammes, or less than one-fifth as much. 
The seeds are triangular, brown outside, and 
white on the under side, with a wing twice as 
long as the seed, together being seven-eighths - 
of an inch to one inch long. The seeds are 
much heavier tLau those of the ordinary Abies 
Doiif/lasii. 

In recent investigations of the collections of 
the Deoartment, a cone was found marked 
Abic^ Bniu/lnsii, var. macrnciirpa, collected at 
San Felipe, Cal., November Ifith, 1H57, with 
the note, "cone five inches long, I. S. N. Ives' 
Colorado Exp." On referrine to the report of 
Iv s' expedition, we find Abies Dumilusii, var. 
imirrocvp'C referred to from the mountains 
near San Felipe. The cone corresponds ex- 
actly with those obtained by Dr. Palmer. 
Further examination of the range *t this form, 
and of the permanence of the peculiar charac- 
teristics stated is desirable, but it would seem 
from what we now know ol it, that it deserves 
to rank as a new species, in which event no 
more appropriate uame CQUid be found than 
Abies inacrocarpn. 



January 22, 1876.] 



51 



P©jlt!^y Y^ro. 



Poultry on the Farm. 

Messes. Editors: — To the farmer the profits 
of raising poultry must come from the sale of 
eggs and stock. To make it a good invest- 
ment, the returns from the sale of these must 
be large enough to pay rather more than the 
market price for the grain consumed, besides a 
good amount for the time and labor spent in 
caring for their wants. 

Aa there are several different breeds of fowls 
it is of great importance to keep those best 
adapted to the locality and conveniences of the 
farm, as also to fill the demands of the nearest 
market. If the fowl house or sheds afford good 
shelter, breeds can be kept with good results 
that would be an utter failure where there is no 
protection afforded from the weather. If the 
demand of the market is chieily for fowls for 
the table, a breed should be kept that excels in 
its quantity as well as its quality of flesh — one 
that is easy to fatten and reaches maturity very 
early. 

If eggs sell best, keep breeds that are great 
layers and poor or no setters; when both flesh 
and eggs are wanted, keep those that excal in 
both. 

Again, if the farmer delights in having fine 
large stock and takes good care of it, he would 
be best pleased with the Asiatics, while only 
the smaller kinds should be kopt when they 
are left to get their own living and take earn of 
themselves, us they are of a roaming disposi- 
tion, and would thrive where an Asiatic might 
starve. 

Breed Characteristics. 

Of the larger breeds, the Cochins and Brah- 
mas are the most desirable. These are both 
large and heavy varieties, are very docile, and 
are good winter layers, though their propensity 
to set in the hot season somewhat lessens the 
annual number of their eggs. When good feed 
and warm dry quarters are provided, no breeds 
will show good care better than these. 

For laying alone the Leghorns and Hamburgs 
surpass all others in the number of eggs; be- 
ing non-setters they improve the time others 
use in setting and raising young. The L"g- 
horus lay the larger egg of the two, and bave 
yellow legs, while the Hamburgs are blue legged 
and their eggs rather small. 

For both eggs and flesh we have the American 
breeds, the Plymouth Rocks and Dominiques, 
also the French Houdaus, Oreve Cuiurs and 
La Fleche. All these live are large bodied 
fowls and flrst-class layers. The French claim 
the finest quality of flesh, but they are black 
and white logged, and non-setters, while the 
American breeds are yellow Jegged and good 
setters. 

Games are liked by a great many. They are 
good layers and excellent mothers; but their 
size and the color of their legs is against them. 
Ban'ams make nice pets, but they are not at all 
profitable. 

There is a great difference between the several 
varieties of each breed: Of the bufl", Partridge, 
white and black Cochins, we have found the 
Partridge the best layers. They set less than 
the bufts, keep cleaner than the white, and sur- 
pass the black in size. 

Of the Brahmas the dark are preferable. 
They are an improvement on the light, and, 
like the Partridge cochins, they are not such 
bad setters, consequently they are better layers 
and of a more business-like color. 

The white, brown, black and Dominique 
Leghorns stand in general favor in the order in 
which we have named them. The first are the 
largest and lay the largest eggs, but their white 
plumage is easily soiled, and the colored ones 
are preferred by many. The Hamburgs come 
in for their share of favor as well as dislike. 
They will find their own living almost any- 
where, and being great layers and non-setters 
they stand high with many, but their eggs and 
bodies being small they are not always favor- 
ites. In fact, it is hard to tell which breed 
would stand first were all interested to give 
their opinions. 

Care and Feed. 

Having decided what breed to keep the next 
move is to provide them suitable quarters for 
roosting and laying. The amount of shelter 
they need depends on the climate. When snow 
covers the ground part of the season it is neces- 
sary to have a warm and especially a dry place 
lor them to gather and stand out of the wind 
and wet. Keep their roosting place sweet and 
clean by the free use of lime and ashes. Good 
sized roosts, wide apart and not too high from 
the ground, are best. Let the place be well 
sheltered from winds and wet and well venti- 
lated. Put nests in out of the way places, easy 
to get at, but away out of sight. Never have 
many eggs in them, as they are apt to get broken, 
and in this way hens often get into the habit of 
eating the eggs. It, is very hard to break them 
of it. Feed food that will supply the most 
urgent want. If it is cold or wet weather feed 
warm, nourishing food. Corn is good, ground 
and scalded for the morning meal, and fed 
whole at night. In the laying season feed 
grain and meat, or fat in some shape, and if 
kept shut up give plenty of green food, lime in 
any shape and gravel to grind their food. Al- 
ways have an abundance of fresh, clean water; 
nothing goes further to keep fowls in a good. 



healthy condition. Have it handy and plenty 
of it. A variety of food is always better than 
any one kind, however good, fed altogether. 
Change their feed often and you may look for 
good results. Chickens like vegetables boiled 
and mixed with most anvthing, so that they 
can have something to peck at when not other- 
wise employed. 

Breeding. 
Get your chicks out early. They do better, 
grow faster, and are by far the most profitable; 
late ones always are a nuisance and serve to 
degenerate the stock. Always keep the earliest 
and largest for breeding. If any show signs of 
running down dispose of them before the breed- 
ing season. It is a good plan to shut up the 
liveliest cock and a few of the largest hens and 
keep their Cf^gs for setting. Change roosters 
occasionally, as by breeding in and in one will 
soon ruin the very best stock. 

In selecting hens for setting pick out gentle 
ones, not over large, and with smull feet. Set 
in a large box or barrel, fill in with clean straw 
on top of about one foot of moist earth. Try 
first on two or three false eggs to see that the 
nest is all right, and when the hen seems satis- 
fied with it, ])ut nine to fifteen esgs under her, 
the number depending on her size. Better put. 
too few than too many, for it one gets cold each 
day, all will in turn be spoiled. After putting 
a little lime .ind sulphur over the eggs and on 
the hen's back, leave her to herself, except oc- 
casionally see that others do not bother, and 
that she comes oft' to feed and water. 

Young chicks, to make large birds, should be 
fed often, but only what they will eat up clean, 
soft food the first few weeks, after that small 
grain and meat occasionally. Do not let them 
roost too young, as it injuries them. 

Procure good fine stock to start with of soma 
reliablo breeder; better pay something extra 
and get that, then all is ritjht. It is with 
poultry as with any other stock, if you take an 
interest in them you will strive to keep them 
as they should l)e kept and in this way make 
sure of good profits from them. Experience 
goes to show that no l)ranch of farm industry 
pays better for the amount of capital invested 
than poultry raising, if carried on in a system- 
atic manner. G. G. Wi<;k.son, -Ik. 
Lyons, Wayne Co., N. Y. 



SliEEf i^flD W©©L. 



Sheep in Georgia. 

It will be interesting to wool growers to read 
some accurate statistics carefully gained from 
the growers of Georgia. " A Manual of Sheep 
Husbandry in Georgia," is the title of a publi- 
cation from the pen of the Commissioner of 
Agriculture for Georgia, Thos. P. Janes, Esq. 
A series of questions were submitted to three 
of the wool growers in each county of the State, 
and from the replies submitted the commis- 
sioner compiled the following facts: 

Of those who had tested crosses 98 per cent, 
reported the cross of the merino and native 
sheep the most profitable. 

The average annual profit on the capital in- 
vested in sheep is 63 per cent. 

The average annual cost per head of keeping 
sheep is only 54 cents. 

The average cost of raising a pound of wool 
is only six cents, while the average for which 
the unwashed wool is sold is 33]/', cents, or 
27 % cents not. 

An average of 71 lambs are raised for every 
100 ewes, notwithstanding the ravages of the 
dogs. 

The average yield of unwashed wool to the 
sheep is 434 pounds, which, at 27 J 3 cents, gives 
an average clear income for each sheep of 94 
cents. 

The average price for lambs sold to the 
butcher is $1.87; the average price of stock 
sheep is $2.58 per head; the average price of 
mutton is $2.75 per head. 

Ninety per cent, of the correspondents re- 
port dogs the principal and generally the only 
obstacle to sheep husbandry; 75 per cent, of 
them recommend the protection of sheep 
against the ravages of dogs by appropriate leg- 
islation; many report the business generally 
abandoned on account of the absence of such 
protection. 

Sheep on the Farm. 

At a late meeting of the Illinois wool grow- 
ers' association, Mr. W. C. Flagg submitted 
the following propositions: 

1. I think it is demonstrable as a general 
proposition, true of nearly all kinds of farming, 
that nearly every kind of domestic animal, up 
to a certain limit, can be kept more profitably 
than it can be dispensed with, by all farmers. 
It can bo kept, so to speak, without any ex- 
pense beyond personal care, because it feeds 
upon products that would otherwise be wasted 
or sold at a low price. Take cattle, and we 
know that throughout (!entral Illinois a consid- 
erable body of farmers have been selling their 
cornstalks after the corn is gathered at such 
a low price as to make the keeping of stock 
cattle through winter less than their summer 
pasturage. We know that throughout the 
State large amounts of straw are annually 
burned that might be made to pay from two to 
five dollars a ton as feed for cattle and horses. 
During the year 1874-75, as I was informed, in 
one portion of Missouri, where the wheat crop 
was exceptionably good, the horses and other I 



had no feed in the following winter. The farm- 
ers of that region had not stacked their straw. 
Your own experience and observation will show 
you, that in all parts of our State great quanti- 
ties of farm products that would go to feed and 
grow animals on the farm are burnt, wasted or 
sold at low rates. 

2. This is still more true of sheep. The 
sheep, as we all know, is a more gentle feeder 
than any domestic animal, except the goat, and 
' ats nearly every vegetable product with a good 
relish, including, I am sorry to say.in the case of 
certain old and perhaps wiser sheep, apple 
bark, au naturel, from the tree, taken, perhaps 
as a tonic. The weeds are generally eaten as 
readily as the grasses. Of the weeds more 
common with me, they seem to absolutely re- 
fuse the horse nettle and the poke weed, and 
do not quite like the Jamestown weed and 
Indian mallow, although they do browse both 
a good deal. This taste extends to dried weeds 
found in hay or straw, and makes them practi- 
cally omnivorous of vegetable matter. This gen- 
eral taste makes the sheep a very useful aniaial 
in utilizing otherwise waste products of the 
farm. He browses the hazel brush and kills 
out the wild grasses for the emigrant. He gets 
abundant food from the scattered grain and 
springing weeds of the grain stubble. He cleans 
out the late springing weeds and strips the 
lower blades off among the ripening corn, lie 
is a good scavenge^ of weeds and fallen apples 
iu the orchard, and in doing all this he is mak- 
ing mutton and wool out of weeds and waste. 
The cost of keeping, up to the point where all 
this waste matter is consumed, consists only 
in the iucideuial expenses, and the returns are 
manure, mutton, wool and increase. 



Wool Growers' Association. 

On the first day of the present month the 
wool growers of San Diego formed an associa- 
tion to advance their mutuai interests. Mr. C. 
Deleval was elected president, and P. Bolan 
secretary. A statement was presented by 
County Assessor Shaffer, showing the growth of 
the wool interest as follows: 
Vear. No. Sbeftp. Assessed Value. 

1SV2 Wmr, $ 46,5'.»2II(I 

187;j 7(1,295 101,680.011 

1874 86,617 15s.24fi.on 

W75 236,6.34 ;J34.917.00 

Total valuation $ 641,435.00 

The object and beliefs of the new society are 
best shown forth in the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, As appears I'toni the assessment roll of the 
the county of 3au Diego, tlie growing of wool is the 
leading iudusti-y of said county, and from the nature 
of the soil and productions of said county, it is likely 
to continue to be of great importance to the commerce 
and welfare of Southern California, he it 

Resolved, 1. That, for the better protection of their 
interests, and in furtherance of a better nuderstanding, 
and of the common welfare of tlie pa, sons engaged 
iu wool growing in the county of San Diego, it is 
highly imponaut th.at aa association of said persons 
be formed. 

KesolnfA, 2. That the members of the Legislatnro of 
the State of California, and the members of Congi-ess 
of said State, be memorialized as to s\i, h legislation as 
may be proper for the better encouragement of wool 
growing in Soiithern California. 

Kesohu'd, 3. That it is the proper duty of Congress to 
so amend the revenue law of the United States, so that 
American citizens and those having declared their in- 
tention in good faith to become such, can have their 
sheep and stock manifested on passing over the Lower 
California line by the Collector at San Diego, and can 
return the same, or the produce th reof, under oath, 
for shipment free of duty the sauie as though sheared 
on this side of the lino. 

Unsolved, 4. That it is not oxrr desire to conflict with 
any other of the growing industries of this countv, but 
we believe from the ceneral nature of the county, that 
wool growing is destined for all time to be a paramount 
interest, and that no monopoly of the soil or water 
should be granted to any individual interest but that 
laws should be framed carefully to conserve the gen- 
eral interest, always favoring tbat industry which has 
demonstrated itself as the most practicable and valu- 
able. 



SyOCK BlS[EEDEF\S. 



Good Care and Good Stock. 

The man who buys improved stock, with the 
expectation of having them do well under neg- 
lect, will be disappointed. In fact, generally, 
the animal best adapted to profit under good 
treatment, will not endure as much hard treat- 
ment as an inferior specimen. The "natural" 
animal is well fitted for seeking its own food. 



feeding will do much; excessive fat will hide 
deficiencies, but there are deficiencies which fat 
will not hide, and which can only be modified 
by efforts continued through successive gener- 
ations. No amount of food or care will give 
the size or form of an average Shorthorn to a 
Jersey calf; all the efforts of the most skillful 
horsemen cannot make a good draft horse of a 
thoroughbred (running) colt; a "native" sheep 
may be fed so it will reach large size, but it 
will not have the form or the wool of a Cots- 
wold, and it will take more than one or two or 
three generations to develop the "woods hog" 
into an animal that will please a practical hog 
man. 

And so we will hold that it will well pay 
farmers to avail themselves of what others have 
done. If a neighbor farmer ha 1 been very suc- 
cessful in feeding hogs, and has atofk which 
suits, why should not hi? work be made use of? 
IIh may or may not have cared for a name; if 
he has, for several years, selected his breeding 
stock with reference to desirable qualities, has 
caredj for them well, and has succeeded in 
getiing the produce to be of nearly uniform ex 
celloncp, he has done just that which other men 
have done iu producing the best breeds of hogj. 
The hog raisers of Southwestern Ohio, some 
years ago, cared much more for getting hogs 
that suited them than they did for names of 
breeds. After a time their success attracted 
attention, and then a name was needed for 
I'oys possessing the quivlitiea they had worked 

f >r. 

In breeding hogs, nearly all desire the same 
general characteristics. There are differences 
in size, in earliuess of maturity, etc., but the 
Sitme general object has bean kept in view by 
all good breeders- adaptability to the produc- 
tion oi meat. Iu the other domestic animals 
there is much greater diversity. In sheep, wo 
look both to the flesh and the wool, and the 
wool may be of widely different quality; in 
cattle we may look for either meat or milk; in 
horses we may seek fast movement or great 
strength. So there is great need in these of 
being sure we are breeding from the right kind 
of animals, and it is a great help to know that 
those we select have been bred for several 
generations with reference to adaptation to cer- 
tain purposes.— Weslern Rural. 

Regulations for Importing. 

The Treasury Department has issued, in cir- 
cular form, the following extract from article 
3s3 of the regulations of the department, for 
information of persons intending to import, for 
breeding purposes, animals from "beyond the 
seas:" To admit to free entry animals from 
beyond the seas, when imported for breeding 
purposes, the owner thereof will be required to 
produce to the collector at the port of importa- 
tion a certificate from the United States consul 
at the port of shipment, showing that the ani- 
mals are, to the best of his information and 
belief, intended for such purpose, and also a 
statement of the owner under oath that the 
animals were purchased abroad and imported 
into the United States especially for breeding 
purposes. The collector must also be satisfied 
that the animals are of superior stock, adapted 
to improving the breed in the United States. 
Custom officers are required to rigidly observe 
the provisions of said article; and should the 
certificate mentioned therein not be pre- 
sented on the entry of the animals at the cus- 
tom house, it will be necessary for the importer 
to give a bond, with satisfactory sureties in a 
penal sum ol not less than twice the amount of 
estimated duties, conditioned for the produc- 
tion of such certificate within a specified time. 
To avoid this inconvenience and the attendant 
delay and expense, it is respectfully suggested 
that importers of such animals obtain, prior 
to importation, the requisite consular certificate 
for production at the time of entry. The term 
"beyond the seas," as used in the regulations, 
and in the law on which they are based, em- 
braces all territory beyond the limits of the 
United States. 



Important Postal Decision. 

Many merchants in various cities of the coun- 
try having been in the habit of sending out 
papers devoted to 8i)ecial interests, in their 
own name, printed boldly on the wrapper, ad- 
dressed "iu the care of" their customers, at the 



for fleeing from or fighting its enemies, for re- regular pound rate chargeable on daily papers, 



sisting storms, etc. The highly improved 
animal can do none of these things as well as 
its wild ancestor, but it will give more moat, 
milk or wool. The man who buys an inferior 
animal because it hai a long pedigree is not 
wise; but he also makes a mistake who attaches 
no importance to the character of the ancestors. 
Breed is not everything; neither are good food 
and care all that is wanted, (iood care given 
to good stock is what is needed. Good care 
will help poor stock, but the profits will be 
greater if the stock be also good. 

It would be possible, if one worked long 
enough, to produce a race of heavy draft horses 
from Shetland jionies; but one lifetime would 
not bo long enough to well finish the work. It 
would be po.ssiblo to produce a breed of large 
fowls from Seabri^jht bantams. In a scientific 
point of view either work would have interest 
and value, but in the line of money making it 
would pay better to make use of what has al- 
ready been done. Commenc':.g with very com- 
mon stock, injured by careless breeding mid 
bad treatment through several yeneratious, a 
farmer may, in time, produce excellent animals, 
without drawing from what are called the im- 



stock were sold at very low prices, because they I proved broods. But this work is slow. Extra 



the question was submitted to the PostofBce 
Department, and the following decision has 
just been rendered : 

' 'That a newspap' r or periodical sent by mail 
to a regular subscriber implies not only the 
name of the subscriber, but his residence or 
place of business also. When a sab.scriber is 
temporarily absent there would be no objection 
to sending his paper at the pound rate to the 
place where he may be temporarily sojourning, 
but when papers are addressed to subscribers 
at places where they have no permanent or 
tiimporary residence or place of business, with 
an evident intention to defraud the government 
of the legitimate rate of postaee to which such 
papers are subject, they should not be deliv- 
ered until postage has been paid thereon at 
transient rates, notwithstanding they may be 
sent to the care 01 some other individual." 

Lkavks of the pine-apple, now being exten- 
sively cultivated in the E.ist Indies, are turned 
to account by being converted into a kind of 
wadding, which is used for upholstering in- 
stead of hair. A sort of flannel is also manu- 
f.ictnred from them, from which substantial 
waistoouts and skirts can be made. 



52 



wbm 



January 22, 1876 



PlT&eiljl %t pBJIBilBHI* 



THE HIAUaiTARTEKS of the California 
gtate Grange are at No. S Liedesdorff Btreet, in rear of 
the Grangers' Bank of California, No. 416 Oelifornia 
■tr»^ 8bb FranclBCO. 

TEe Gta>?irs' Busineas ABiociaiioc of California is 
at Ne. 361 Market St. 



Grangers' Business Association of Cal- 
ifornia. 

Notice of Annual Meeting of Stockholders. 

The Annual Meetinp; of the Stockholders of tho 
Grangers' BiieinesB Association of Oallfomia, for the 
election of Directors, will be held at the office of the 
corporation, in tho builillng at the north-c»Bl corner of 
California and Davifi Btroets, in the city and cnnnty of 
San iranciBco, on Wednesday, tho Blxteenth day of 
February, 1876, at the hour of ten o'clock in tho fore- 
noon of that day. 

T J. Bbookk, Wnj.iAM Vandebbilt, 

Vice-PreBideut. Secretary. 

Vaw Oonstitntion and By-Laws. 

We have the amended form of the Constitution and 
By-Laws and Rules of Order of the State Grange; the 
Declaration of PurposeB, Constitution and By-LawB of 
the National Grange, and blank form of Subordinate 
Grange. Constitution and By-Laws now printed in 
one pamphlet. Granges supplied at five cents per 
copy, post paid, from the Kural Pbess office, San 
ItanciBCO. 

Obakge Dibiotoby.— We have concluded to postpone 
the printinK of our Grange Directory until the first 
week in February, in order that it may embrace the 
records of elections in the several Granges which are 
now coming in each week. At that time we shall (rive 
a full list of the officers of the State Grange, Deputies 
names of Councils, SubordiBate Granges, Masters and 
Secretaries. 



Blection B.ETtJKNB.— Secretaries will please send us, 
88 early as poasible, the result of their election of ofh- 
cers. Write plainly (on one side only) in tho following 
form:— "Napa Orange, No. 1, Napa City. Election, 
Dec. 4.— J. B. Saul, M.: J.W.Ward, Jr., O.: Harry 
Haskell, Sec.;" and so on, giving a full list and also 
the names of trusteeB and busineBS agent. We should 
like to receive further corr>-8pondence from Secretaries 



New (range Officers. 

We are now publishing, from week to week, 
the resnlta of the elections for officers of the 
Subordinate Granges of this State. The list 
will soon be completed, after which more space 
will be allowed for miscellaneous matters of 
more general interest in our Grange depart 
ment. In connection with the announcement 
of these elections, we often receive from Sec- 
retaries some general remarks in regard to the 
progress which their individual Granges have 
made during the past year, and in almost every 
instance such reports are of an especially en- 
couraging uatare. They indicate that there 
has never been a season when such meetings 
kave been more harmonious or when greater 
evidence of earnestness and interest has been 
manifested in behalf of the progress and im- 
provement of our Order. 

Among the re-elected, so far as our personal 
knowledge goes, we notice none but good men 
and true, while the new names which appear 
have doubtless been selected witti due regard 
to their fitness for the places which they have 
been called upon to fill. As we become better 
accquainted with each other and with all, the 
judgment which comes from such better ac 
quaintance is made to tell for the interest of 
our organization. It is this "better acquaint- 
anceship," as Sister "C. A. C." remarks, that 
makes our Grange life better, more enjoyable 
and of more value from year to year. Let us 
then continue to devote ourselves more ear- 
nestly and more unselfishly in aid of the great 
and good cause in which we are engaged. 
Truly we have been blessed beyond our most 
sanguine expectations in the consummation of 
our organization, where we may unite in the 
consideration and enunciation of the great 
ptinciples of fratermity in a manner and with a 
reality never before presented to mankind. 

Our organization is one which has built itself 
tjpon the foundation interests of our State and 
country; one which binds together the home- 
life interests ef a people with a golden chain 
that unites hand to band and links heart to 
heart in one common cause, whose paramount 
object is to strengthea and pieserve the peace 
and purity of the family circle and tinite stran- 
gers in one common brotherhood. It is a 
movement by the people, of the people and for 
the people. Let us never weary in keeping 
bright every Tink of the chain which binds us 
together in this great and good work. 



Wortliy Master's Decision. 

Messbs. EDiTona:— n the time for which a 
demit card is granted fully expires before ap- 
plication, I am not awars of any authority 
which would justify me in extending the time. 
The fact of the brother permitting the time for 
which his demit card was granted to expire 
before presenting it for application, by virtue 
of the condition therein contained, severed his 
connection with the Order. He can be rein- 
stated only upon application in the usual form, 
accompanied by tho usual membership fee. 
J. V. Webster, M. 8. G. 0. 



Important Grange Movement.— The Insti- 
tution to be Planted in England. 

At the last annual meeting of the National 
Grange the Committee on Foreign Kelations 
made'a report favoring the introduction of the 
Grange into Great Britain, and the Master of 
the National Grange was authorized to appoint 
a deputy to sarry out the project. In accord- 
ance with such power, Bro. J. W. A. Wright, 
of this State, was appointed to this work, and 
will thus be the first to inform the farmers of 
the Old World in regard to the objects of the 
Grange and the great work it is doing in this 
country. 

The labors of Bro. Wright in behalf of the 
Order in this State are well known, and we feel 
assured tkat the work entrusted him could not 
have been put into more efficient hands. Mr. 
Wright was to have sailed from New York the 
present week. 

It is the belief of prominent members of the 
Order that by union and cooperation, the farm- 
ers of this country and Great Britain can do 
mnch to enhance their material interests and 
advance the general good and usefulness of the 
Order. This effort for the establishment of ths 
Ordei in England cannot fail to be gratifying 
to Patrons and the friends of the institution 
everywhere, and we wish Bro. Wright the fullest 
success in his ucdertaking. 

Under the rules of the Order, when fifteen 
Subordinate Granges are organized in a foreign 
country, they are competent to organize as an 
independent body into what is known in this 
country as a State Grange; but which in Eng- 
land will probably be termed Provincial or Dis- 
trict Granges, which, in -turn, will organize a 
National Grange. The body or bodies so organ- 
ized will not be considered as owing any al- 
legiance to the United States National Grange, 
bat will stand upon their own footing, acting 
only in fraternal union with other like bodies 
in this or other countries. 

The English Agricultural Interest. 

In this connection many of our readers will 
no <iloubt be interested in the following facts 
with regard to the farming interests of England, 
which we clip from the Louisville Ledijer: 

The farming interests of England may be 
divided into three clashes, viz: The land owners, 
consisting of the nobility and wealthy squires; 
the farmers, or those who rent the lands, and the 
agricultural laborers, or those who are em- 
ployed by the farmers. Of these three classes 
the Grange will appeal more directly to the 
second one. The farmers of England are still 
suffering from the eflTects of unjust laws, which 
discriminate in favor of the owner of the land 
and against the tenant. These laws give the 
legal right to do that which custom sanctioned 
in the days of feudalism. Then the nobility 
were all-powerful, and they asked for no law 
other than their own will. For years the farm- 
ers have striven against this injustice, and 
sought to obtain aid by appeals to Parliament, 
but in vain. Their efforts were "dispersed." 
They did not unite in a solid body and mass 
their strength for the attack, but skirmished 
here and there, and were, as a natural conse- 
quence, defeated. 

Prominent among the acts of legislation 
which they have striven for, we may mention 
the "tenant right law," and the "game law." 
The first is a demand for a law requiring the 
land owners to compensate the tenants fori 
costly improvements which the interests o 
good farming demand that they may make 
upon the land which they have rented. 

The second advocates a change in the game 
law. Hitherto this law has been altogether 
in favor of the land owner and against the 
farmer. It enabled the former to preserve 
game upon the land which he had rented, and 
to hunt it upon all occasions, often to the 
Utter Destruction of the Crops. 

The absurd injustice of this will be seen at 
a glance, and yet the victims have not, as yet, 
been able to secure a law to protect themselves 
and their property from the calamity which 
may fall upon them at any time. 

The farmers of England are intelligent and 
educated men, and thoroughly abreast of the 
advanced principles of scientific agriculture, 
and through the Grange they would be enabled 
to combine and obtain those legislative privi- 
leges which are so necessary to their interests. 
They are strong in numbers, and all that is 
necessary to give them protection is a utiliza- 
tion »i their strength by union. 



The Patron's Helper. — The Patron's Helper, 
Des Moines, Iowa, is the true Patron's sincere 
friend. It is a steadfast promoter of the prin- 
ciples of the Order, and is in a measure a na' 
tional representative of the organization. It is 
worthy of the friendship and support of the 
Granges. J. R. Smedley, Master of the Iowa 
State Grange, one of the aV)lest Grange writers 
in the country, is a member of the editorial 
staff. 



"Feom tub Granges." — The large number 
of reports from the various Granges which are 
crowding in upon us just at this time, renders 
it necassary that we should cut them down a 
little in some instances, while many, for the 
same reason, are delayed. All will appear in 
due time. 



From the Granges. 

Merritt Grange, 

Mkssrs. Editors: — On the occasion of the in- 
stallation of officers, Merntt Grange, No. 7, held 
a public session, inviting Wellington Grange to 
assist and rejoice with us. Tho state of the 
roads rendered a general attendance impossi- 
ble, yet a goodly number were present; and 
after installation by Bro. Hawley, the overladen 
V)askets were brought in, and — well, you know 
what follows on such occasions. But you 
should see to know how this desert land can be 
made to blossom with the good things of this 
world. After feasting, the dance was called, 
and after a temperate indulgence in this, we 
resolved that each regular meeting should be 
like this, a social festival and harvest feast 
without the dancing. We are weak in num- 
bers, bat strong in will to accomplish the ob- 
jects of the Order. K. 

Mason Valle}-, Nev., ,Tan. 10th, 187G. 

Installation at Plymouth Grange, Amador Co. 

Messrs. Editors : — On New Year's day 
Plymouth Grange held a harvest feast, and 
many invited guests were present to par- 
take of the good things which the Matrons 
of our Order know so well how to prepare. 
Most of the members were present, and after 
partaking freely of the good things provided 
and enjoying a good social " time," our Dis- 
trict Deputy, H. Vanderpool, called to order 
and proceeded to install our new officers. 

The harvest feast is a feature in our organi- 
zation which, if properly conducted, results in 
much good. It certainly promotes good feel- 
ing amung those who assemble on such occa- 
sions, snd if discretion is practiced in extend- 
ing invitations to those who are not common 
enemies to the Grange movement, it is sure to 
bring many good men and women into our or- 
ganization. 

Those who are continually finding fault 
with cur Order and can see no good in any of 
our social festivities should not be " urged," 
even by a polite invitation to attend, however 
much their hankering after roast chicken and 
turkey, pies and cakes may be. The mining 
population predominates in this region, and 
where so large a proportion of the community 
are ineligible to membership it creates a strong 
opposition, which it is difficult to overcome; 
but with all the opposition brougtt to bear 
against us we are gradually gaining ground and 
incrensing in nunihcrs. We are watching, 
working, waiting for the time not far distant 
when every farmer will see that it is to his in- 
dividual interest to join in with the great fra- 
ternity whose voice will be heard in the grand 
councils of the nation, proclaiming freedom for 
the "tillers of the soil " from the thralldom of 
corporate powers. S. C. Whkelkr, Sec'y. 
Installation at San Bernardino Grange. 

Messr.s. EniTORs:— To-day the San Bernar- 
dino Grange, No. 61, held their regular 
weekly meeting at Boren's hall. It being the 
occasion of the installation of officers and New 
Year's day, the Grangers determined to make it 
one of social enjoyment and good fellowship. 
For this end a sumptuous repast was spread 
upon two tables the full length of the ball, 
which fairly groaned beneath the weight of 
the good things placed thereon. As the various 
dishes were fu^ni^hod by different lady mem- 
bers the variety was almost endless, consisting 
of every class of viand, from the orthodox 
pork and beans of New England to luscious 
strawberries, the peculiar winter product of 
Southern California. Among the dishes was a 
beautiful cake, presented by Mrs. Dr. Shelton, 
on which was a well wrought design represent- 
ing a plow resting under the folds of the Amer- 
ican Hag, with the letters P. H. on either side. 

Alter a benediction by the Chaplain, the as- 
sembled guests fell to discussing with a vim 
which must have been flattering to the provi- 
ders, while jokes and repartee lent their aid to 
its enjoyment. The dinner was interspersed 
with choice performances on the organ, and al- 
together, was one of the most enjoyable affairs 
we have ever attended. T. D. Henri, Sec'y. 

Installation at Nicasio Grange, 
Messrs. Editors: — Nestled in a beautiful vale 
in the county of Marin, surrounded by green 
hills, pretty groves and murmuring streamlets, 
gently lies the little hamlet named Nicasio, 
with its large and imposing hotel, its neat lit- 
tle church, its store and Grange hall, all of 
which, together with two pretty cottages, con- 
stitute the town of that name. It is reached 
by the North Pacific Coast railroad and a short 
ride of four miles by stnge over a picturesque 
road, but oh! how muddy just now. It was 
here that we found onrselves last Saturday 
evening, by invitation of Nicasio Grange to 
install Its officers. It is needless to say that 
we met with a warm and cordial welcome from 
the brothers, yea, and from the sisters, too. 
Indeed, this is one of the beauties of our Order, 
for though I had never before seen a member 
of that Grange, except Past Master Taft, yet 1 
soon found myself as one of them, and as if I 
bai always known them. The Grange hall 
was tastefally and boantifuUy decorated with 
evergreens, pictures, various ornaments and 
symbols of tho Order. Over the Lecturer's 
seat were two doves, one of which, in the atti- 
tude of flying, hold in its beak an olive branch, 
Ryml)oho of " Peace and good will towards 
men." M the hea4 of the Jjall, in front of 



Ceres, Pomona and Flora, on a nicely deco- 
rated stand, stood a large erey squirrel with 
the sash and pouch of a full fledged Granger, 
and at the other end of the stand was a pretty 
dove with a Matron's sash aronud its glossy 
neck. Wp tried to solve the meaning of these 
emblems, and finally concluded that they were 
emblematic of the friskiness of the brothers 
and the gentleness of the sisters. 

The Grange was called to order at 7 p. m. for 
the transaction of business, and we were much 
pleaiied to note the able manner in which the 
Grange work was performed, the more so be- 
cause this Grange had received but little in- 
struction, and though organized for more than 
two years, had never before been officially 
visited, thus reflecting mnch credit upon the 
ability of its officers and the intelligence and 
zeal of its members. After transacting their 
business, the gites were thrown open for a 
public installation, and | the ha'l was soon 
crowded with their friends. The newly elected 
officers wore duly installed, after which all 
were invited to partake of a bountiful collation, 
prepared by the good sisters of the Grange, 
which was vastly enjoyed by all. 

The sounds of music attracted our attention, 
and it was announced that a dance was next in 
order; thus the festivities were continued until 
the Worthy Master's gavel proclaimed the mid- 
night hour, and thus ended our pleasant visit 
to Nicasio Grange. T. H. Merrt, 

State Deputy. 

Christmas at Florin Grange. 
Mes-srs. Editors — I have just been reading 
Siiiter Carr's pleasant description of the Christ- 
mas entertainment at Elk Grove Grange, and 
it started in my brain the desire to toll yon a 
little about our doings at the same festive 
season. Like our neighbors at Elk Grove we 
have the privilege oi renting a new, capacious 
and well ventilated hall, CO by 30 feet, with a 
convenient fastival room beneath it built at a 
cost of $3,200, on the co-operative plan, in 
shares of $10 each, and inaugurated on Christ- 
mas eve by a ball and festival, which, notwith- 
standing the rain and mud, was largely at- 
tended. On Chrismas day we held our first 
regular Grange meeting in the new ball, and 
after transacting business adjourned to the fes- 
tival room, there to find the tables quite pro- 
fusely laden with the necessaries and luxuries 
of life. The sisters were unsparing in their at- 
tentions to make all happy, and I am sure by 
the looks of everybody that success crowned 
their efforts. We are now entering upon a 
new and better class of conditions than we 
have been working upon, and if we do not mis- 
take the signs of the times, Florin Grange will 
ere long become the banner Grange of the 
State — neighboring Granges had l)ftter wake 
up and put on the steam or they will be left 
behind. On the 8th inst. our installation of 
officers for the ensuing year took place, and we 
had a remarkably pleasant time. Meml>ers of 
neighboring GrangtB came in large numbers to 
honor us with a fraternal visit, cheering us 
with their smiling faces. At the close of the 
installation, guests and members retired to the 
festal room, where the best of everything in 
abundance was awaiting their disposal. The 
young people had a dance in the evening. 

Old Creek Grange Installation. 

Messrs. Editors: — I submit a report of the 
good time we had on Christmas in installing 
publicly the officers of Old Creek Grange, No. 
'21). The services of our worthy brother A. J. 
Mothersead, of Moro City Grange, was secured, 
as installing officer. At an early hour our 
Grange hall was filled with our own and mem- 
bers of sister Granges and friends of the cause, 
all intent on having a good time. As soon as 
the regular business was got through with the 
doors were thrown open and the sisters com- 
menced taking out the contents of sundry 
boxes, buckets, pans and even tubs, with which 
a bountiful repast was spread. 

The tables were filled, refilled and filled again 
with Grangers and their friends, and about 
three o'clock the seven baskets of fragments 
were gathered up, and the installing officer 
proceeded with his labor; after which, we were 
ediSed with speeches from Bro. Mothersead, 
Mr. Kirkpatrick, Mr. Victor and others. 

Taking it all in all, it is a day long to be re- 
membered, and I think a harbinger of much 
good to the cause. At our next meeting we 
start a class of five. C. S. Ci,4bk. 

Jan. 7th, 1870. 

Sacramento Grange. 

Messrs. Editoils: — Sacramento Grange 
passed a pleasant day at the installation of her 
officers for 1876, on the 11th inst. The sis- 
ters were on hand with ever a ready hand, 
and spread a bountiful feast which all partook 
heartily, and ageoeral social feeling prevailed 
througnout. Worthy Master W. S. Manlovn 
did the honors of tho day, and on retiring 
thanked the Grange for their kindness shown 
him throughout his third term of offioe— and 
wished them success under their newly elect of- 
ficers for 187(1. In spite of wind and rain those 
who appreciate the social as well as the labor- 
ing of the field stommod tho swift current after 
the raging storm to be ready at the work of 
action, and help their colaborers in pruning 
and clearing the dead matter off the field. 

Farmers, generally, feel well plensed at the 
present outlook, and expect a bountiful yield. 
They are sowing alfalfa on the plains and irri- 
gating it for stock use. Many contemplate 
doing thiq in tho spring. Some fields that 



January 22, 1876.] 



53 



have been riddled by the gophers will be re- 
Bown. Warm rain and light frost has hastened 
the growth of grain. Small fruit men have 
fears that the crop may prove light, because of 
the continued blossoming, so late through the 
winter. Strawberries and raspberries were 
picked in December. Orange and lemon'trees 
have made an extraordinary growth and the 
tips are still green and growing. The fruit is 
of good size and the skin becomes thinner the 
longer they remain on the tree; they need shel- 
ter from the north wind and grow best in level 
ground. Dates from the seed are growing well. 
Pecan nut trees succeed here. There is no 
reason why all tropical fruit may not grow by 
careful attention. G. R. 

Sacramento, Jan. 12th. 

Installation at Walnut Creek Grange. 

Messbf, Editobs: Onr Grange held its first 
meeting of the Centennial year on January 
Ist. Bros. Blanchard, Merry and Thompson 
were expected to be with us, but owing to the 
inclemency of the weather, no doubt, and the 
fearful condition of the roads, failed to put in 
un appearance. But storms, fog, cold and mud 
failed to prevent the attendance of a goodly 
number of brothers and sisters ^intent on the 
welfare of the Oider. After the regular routine 
of Dusiness, the third degree was conferred 
upon a worthy sister, after which the Grange 
adjourned to partake of a harvest feast, where 
full justice was done to a beautiful and bounti- 
ful spread prepared by the skillful hands of 
the worthy sisters. May they live to enjoy 
another I'entennial New Year's feast— every 
one of them. After the feast the fourth de- 
gree was conferred upon a brother, who was 
late in urriving, and then the ofHcers elect for 
1876, with the exception of Ceres and flora, 
were duly installed. And let me say right here, 
Messrs. Editors, that the election and installa- 
tion of officers comes in the wrong time of the 
year, and the time for holding the same should 
be changed. On both occasions a full attend- 
ance is desired, and that is impossible unless 
we have fine weather and good roads. I believe 
that a better feeling prevails in this Grange 
than ever before, notwithstanding the heavy 
losses of many of the members through the 
failure of Fassett, McCauley & Co. 

The Press is more welcome than ever in its 
new form, and I hope to send you some solid 
Hcknowledgements in a short time. 

Very truly. Occasional. 

West San Joaquin Grange. 

Messrs. Editobs: — West San Joaquin Grange, 
No. 3, met for the installation of officers for 
1876 on January 1st. The attendance was full 
and the meeting spirited. An address was de- 
livered by the retiring Master, C. E. Needham, 
which was greatly enjoyed. He alluded to the 
various points which have arisen during his 
conduct of the Grange, and among other things 
drew a picture of coming prosperity to this 
region, which will be interesting to your read- 
ers. He said: 

"It might seem strange to some that we, as 
Patrons here on the west side of the San 
Joaquin river, should try and keep up our 
organization as Grangers, having, as we have 
had for the past few years, a continuation of 
ilrouths; so much so that it has been almost 
impossible for us to pay our taxes and neces- 
sary expenses. I say it may seem strange that 
we as a Grange should try to accomplish any- 
thing. But, brothers and sisters, I can now 
look forward in my mind's eye a few years 
hence, when these desert plains shall have a 
canal running through the whole length from 
Tulare lake on the south and east to tide water 
on the west, and this valley then will be dotted 
with beautiful homes surrounded with orchards 
and vineyards, and will blossom like the rose. 
I do not say that we shall all enjoy colossal 
fortunes in this valley, but I have no doubt 
many of us will live to own and enjoy our little 
homes, and can sit under our own vine and fig 
tree, and there will be none to molest and make 
us afraid. I say when these things shall have 
come to pass, who shall then say that this 
sturdy handful of Patrons belonging to West 
San Joaquin Grange, No. 3, did not or was not 
the means of bringing this great revolution 
about ? For did not the idea of irrigation on 
the west side germinate in this Grange, and has 
it not been fostered and petted and kept alive, 
nntil to-day it is in the minds and mouth of all 
the public men; and is it not the common 
theme for publication in all our public journals 
throughout the entire State of California ? " * 

Installation Ceremonies at Stockton. 

Messes. Editors: — The ofi&cers of Stockton 
Gr ange were duly installed on Saturday last, 
by Bro. J. V. Webster, Worthy Master of the 
California State Grange. The ceremonies were 
preceded by a harvest feast, at which ample 
justice was done to the eatables. This break- 
ing of bread together has a tendency to pro- 
mote good feeling and cement friendship; 
especially is this the case wben strangers, 
hungry and wearied, are the recipients of your 
bounty, as happened to be the case when Bro. 
Webster met us, after his trip from San Fran- 
cisco on Saturday last, just as we were ready to 
sit down to our tables. He was some hungry, 
and we were glad of it, for when you get any 
one in that condition and feed him well, when 
next he sees or thinks of you, he mentally ex- 
claims, "I was hungry and you fed me." You 
have then got him right where you want him. 
He is your friend for life. 



Well, we all became acquainted with Bro. 
Webster in a few minutes, and liked him, too. 
After dinner we repaired to the adjoining room, 
where the Worthy Master explained to the 
members present and invited guests the prin- 
ciples, purposes and working of the Order. 
We then proceeded with the installation, which 
was conducted by Worthy Master Webster in a 
very impressive manner. 

Persons present not entitled to remain with us 
when the Grange was in session, then retired, 
the Grange was duly opened, and Worthy 
Master Webster gave us an account of the pro- 
ceedings of the National Grange, and, also, 
what is transpiring at headquarters in San 
Francisco. He also illustrated the working of 
co-operative system on the Rochdale plan. 
When he concluded, we were satisfied that we 
have got the right man in the right place. We 
would have been glad to have listened to him 
for hours, but most of our members living in 
the country, and the roads in a deplorable con- 
dition, we were obliged to clese earlier than 
we desired. 

As there were some errors in the list of offi- 
cers elect of Stockton Grange, as published in 
^vour paper of the 2oth ult., I will furnish you 
with a correct one. Wm. G. Phelps, M.; J. B. 
Harelson, O.; D. A. Learned, L.; Wm. Kuhll, 
S.; Chas. Kuhl, A. S.; C. M. Beecher, C; 
Israel Lander, T. ; Mies Julia E. Allen, S. ; J. 
L. Beecher, Jr., G. K.; Mrs. Wm. B. West, 
Ceres; Mrs A. Wolf, Pomona; Miss Martha 
Harelson, Flora; Mrs. Wm. L. Overhiser, L. 
A. S. Brother .las. Marsh was elected trustee 
for three years and D. A. Learned to fill the un- 
expired term of one year. Wm. G. P. 

Stockton, Jan. 17th, 1876. 

P. S. — I notice by the Rural that Bro. Web- 
ster was to meet with Temeacal Grange on Sat- 
urilay. No doubt they were greatly disap- 
pointed. They will have an opportunity to ex- 
ercise one of tbe cardinal principles of our Or- 
der (charity), and remember that their loss was 
our gain; and it would be a great gain if every 
Grange in the State could have Bro. Webster 
meet them. P. 

installation at Tehachlpa Grange. 

Messrs. Editors:— "A Happy New Year." 
We have heard the above all day, as were gath- 
ered in our hall of meeting, where we were con- 
vened to iustal our officers for the ensuing 
year, which ceremony was conducted by Bro. 
J. Norboe. After the ceremony tbe members, 
visiting members and outside guests regaled 
themselves with a harvest feast set by the lady 
members. After partaking of this feast and 
witnessing the beautiful ceremony of installa- 
tion, we all went homo feeling a deeper interest 
in the Grange than ever before. P. M. N. 
Installation at Gait Grange. 

Messrs Editors:— The officers elect of Gait 
Grange, at Gait, were duly installed January 
lat. After the ceremony of installation we had 
the pleasure of listening to an able and appro- 
priate address delivered by our Worthy Master 
for the good of the Order, which was followed 
by a grand harvest feast, at which the tables 
were spread with everything heart could wish, 
and judging from the contents we would say 
that there must have been quitea consumption 
of fuel in the culinary department, and also 
some cackling done in the poultry yards tbe 
day before. All of the members seemed to 
manifest a lively interest in behalf of the 
Grange, and we look forward to the day, and 
hope it is not far distant, when Gait Grange 
will be numbered among the first in the State. 
Respectfully yours. Granger. 
Elmira Grange. 

Messrs. Editors:— Elmira Grange, No. 15, 
had their installation and dinner on New 
Year's day. The officers were all installed by 
Past Master Bro. J. A. Clark, assisted by Bro. 
Bond, formerly of Healdsburg Grauge. After 
the installation, which was public, the Patrons 
and their invited friends partook of dinner 
prepared for the occasion. It was a liberal 
feast, as could be vouched by the basketfuls of 
good things left untouched after all had feasted. 
'The roads were very bad, and the rains the 
night before disappointed many who lived at a 
distance. Mrs. J. A. Claek, Sec'y. 

ElmirB, Solano Co., Jan. Hth, 1876. 
Temescal Grange. 

Worthy Master Webster gave way to the ur 
gent request of Bro. W. L. Overheiser and in 
stalled the officers of Stockton Grange las 
Saturday. He was sincerely missed fiom Oak- 
land, but knowing his stay would be transient 
in the asylum city Temescal made the best of 
it, and as " all is well that ends well," had an 
enjoyable occasion, winding up wilh basket 
lunch, cream and coffee, and brief speeches. 
Three candidates took the first degree. The 
officers (who are general favorites,) were in- 
stalled by Past Master A. T. Dewey. 
Los Angeles Grange, 

Messrs. Editors: — Los Angeles Grange, No. 
26, elected 8. A. Waldon Master, and J. Q. A. 
Stanley, Secretary, for the ensuing year. * * 

[Please send us the balance of the officer 
list. — Eds. Press.] 

Walnut Creek Grange. 

Messrs. Editors :— Walnut Creek Grange has 
received a communication from a Grange in 
San Diego county, asking for assistance to en- 
able them to build a Grange hall. Have you 
any knowledge of the matter? If the call is 
general and likely to be responded to, indi- 



vidual members of this Grange are willing to 
contribute their mite. If you wish to publish 
this, it is at your disposal. 

B. M. Jones, Sec'y. 

[We do not know anything about the San 
Diego Grange referred to— not even its name; 
but think that neither Walnut Creek or any 
other Grange should entertain such a request 
as the above from a distant county, until the 
matter has first been referred to headquarters. 
— Eds. Press.] 

Enterprise Grange. 

Messrs. Editors:— Enclosed find names of 
Trustees of Enterprise Grange, No. 129: H. 
Cronkite, A. A. Nordyke, and Wm. Birch. 

Brighton, Jan. 15th. A. Root, Sec'y. 

From Rio Vista. 

Messrs. Editors: — At this time of the year 
accounts of the weather at different localities 
are always interesting. During the week pre- 
ceding Christmas the weather in this vicinity 
was delightful and the farmers seemed glad. 
When a blustering rain arrived on Christmas 
eve it was welcomed as gladly as the previous 
warm weather, notwithstanding its disagreeable 
features. Grain is growing so finely and pros- 
pects are so encouraging, that the Granger and 
those dependent upon him (all are dependent 
upon him) are bright and joyous, whether it 
rains or shines. In accordance with the gen- 
eral rule we had rainy weather during the holi- 
days. It is raining very hard at the present 
time, and as there are always a fe^ decisive 
weather prophets to make conversation agreea- 
ple and dispel doubting conjectures, it is com- 
monly agreed that January will this time be a 
rainy month. A stormy January is desired, 
because it renders a very dry spring almost im- 
possible. The best indications up to the last 
of December have been followed by failures, in 
consequence of the "beautiful weather" in Jan- 
uary. Those who have been industrious have 
fine crops growing, and will rejoice when har- 
vest yields them their reward. Those who 
have theorized wrongly will sow their grain when 
Januarv's cloudy days are past. Amphion. 

Rio Vista, Solano Co., Jan. 4th, 1876. 

Santa Rosa Grange. — J. A. Obreen, ex Sec- 
retary of the Santa Rosa Grange, No. 17, writes 
as follows: "The Grange is in a good and 
prosperous condition, meetings are well at- 
tended, and are very interesting; outlook is 
encouraging for increase of membership this 
spring. We will never weary of welldoing." 

Election of Officers. 

Bishop Creek Grange, No. 211, Bishop 
Creek, Into Co., Cal.— G. W. McCrosky, M.; 
J. C. Mills, O.; L. Arrison, L.; H. G. Plimly, 
S.; G. M. Clark, A. S.; M. H. White, C; Ed. 
Powers, T.; Geo. Collins, Sec'y; G. C. Gracy, 
G. K.; Mrs. Holmes, Ceres; Mrs. M. A. Clark, 
Pon^ona; Mrs. McCrosky, Flora; Mrs. Crom- 
well, L. A. S. 

Carson Valley Grange, No. 3, Genoa, Ne' 
VADA.— T. Irvin, M. (P. O., Sheridan, Doug" 
las Co.); J. Park, O. ; H. Tucker, S.; W. Gibbs, 
C; Miss E. Cook, L.; R. J. Livingston, Sec'y; 

A. R. Brockless, T.;W. H. Bull, A. S.; W. 
Park, G. K. ; Miss E. McCue, L. A. S.; Miss 
J. Bull, Ceres; Miss M. Jones, Flora; Mrs. T. 
Irvin, Pomona. 

Elk River Grange, No. 104, Humboldt Co., 
Cal. — Election, December 4th. Theo. Meyer, 
M.; R. A. Haw, O.; Mrs. F.L.Meyer, L.;F. 
S. Shaw, S.; J. Gardner, A. S.; A. C. Spear, 
C; A. Swain, T.; Miss Ella Williams, Sec'y; 
W. Tierney, K. ; Mrs. A. Knapp, Ceres; Mrs. S. 
Gardner, Pomona; Mrs. R. A. Haw, Flora; Miss 
S.-.Shaw, L. A. S.; Trustees, D. Fields, A. J. 
Kijapp and A. C. Spear; Business Agent, 
Theo. Meyer. 

Farmington Grange, No. 185, Fakmington, 
San Joaquin County. — Election, December 
24th: J.R.Heny, M.; C. A. Rogers, O.; J. M. 
Shafe;L.;D.S. Austin, S.; J.R. Owens, A. S.; 
J. M. Groves, C.; Wm.St. John Rogers, L.; E. 
O. Long, Sec'y; 0. H. Patterson, G. K.; Mth. S. 
Rogers, Ceres; Mrs. C. Henry, Pomona; Miss 
Emma Anthony, Flora; Mrs. G. W. Andrews; 
L. A. S. 

Franklin Grange, No. 147, Pbanklin, Sac- 
ramento County.— Election, Dec 11th: Wm- 
Johnston, M ; W. R. Runyon, O.; J. M. Steph- 
enson, L.; R. M. Daniels, S.; P. P. Killbourne, 
A S.; J. W. Moore, C.;P. R. Beckley, T.; 
Sister S G. Bradford, Sec'y; Thomas Anderson, 
G. K.; Mrs. E. V. Pockman, Ceres; Mrs. M. K. 
Runyon, Pomona; Miss Belle Johnston, Flora; 
Mrs. A. E. Bradford, L. A. S. 

Funk Slough Grange, No. 99, Colusa 
CoLUBA County.— Election, Dec. 18th: G. H. 
Abel, M.; J. G.Wolfe, 0.;J. W. Daly. L.; T. 

B. McDow, S.; E, C. Hunter, A. 8.; T. D. 
McDow, C; A. L. Fulton, T.; Miss Ida Fulton, 
Sec'y; J. D. Rice, G. K.; Mrs. Alice Wolfe, 
Ceres; Miss Emma Benjimin, Pomona; Miss 
Eugenie Benjamin, Flora; Miss Annie Sutton, 
L. A. S. 

Florin Grange, No. 139 Florin, Sacra- 
mento Co.— L. H. Fassett, M.; W. H. Starr, 
O.; J. T. Amos, L.; W. Soholefleld, Seo'y; 0. 
Simons, S.; C. Lea, A. S.; D. Reese, T.; C. 
Bates, C; Julia Wilson, Ceres; Lizzie Rees, 
Pomona; Rose Carrington, Flora; E. Fassett, 
L. A. S. 



Indian Springs Grange, No. 246, Bough 
and Ready, Nevada Co.— Election, Dec. 11th: 
H. L. Hatch, M.; L. Horton, O. ; M. H. Jackson, 
L.; F. A. Horton. S.; F. E. Ranier. A. S.; S. 

F. Ball. C; T. J. Robinson, T.; Mrs. E. M. 
Horton, Sec'y; P. L. Stull, G. K.; Mrs. E. W. 
Hatch, Ceres; Mrs. M. L. Davis, Pomona; Mrs. 
S. P. Ball, Flora; Miss Jennie W. Stull, 
L. A. S. 

Linden Grahqe, No. 56, Lindem. Sak JbA- 
QUiN Co. — Election, December 3l8t, 1975. 
David Lewis, M. ; David Dodge, 0.; E. B. 
Cogswell, L.; Cyrus Prather, S.; Norman 
Ailing, A. S.; Robert Latham, C; W. F. 
Prather, T.; James Wasley, Sec'y; C. W. Mar- 
tin, G K.; Mrs. N. Ailing, Ceres; Miss Julia 
Hirrold, Pomona; Miss Josephine Martin, 
Flora; Mrs. Emily J. Martin, Li. A. S.; 0. B. 
Harrold, Trustee. 

Mkhritt Grange, No. 7, Masom Valley, Ne- 
vada. — K. Cleaver, M.;D. Cooper, 0.;Mr8. M. 
Higgins. L.; J. J. Fox. S.; C. J. Martin, A. S.; 
J. A. Webster, C; W. H. Spragg, T.; C. 
Cleaver, Sec'y; C. A. Reed, G. K.; Mrs. K. 
Cleaver, Ceres; Mrs. M. Hernlevan, Pomona; 
Mrs. !>, Sanders, Flora; Miss Alice Spragg, 
L. A. b. 

Montezuma Grange, No. 158, Collins- 
ville, Solano Co. — Election, Jan. 15th: C. 
M. Ish, M.; C. H. Rice. O. ; S. H. Depuv, L.; 
C. K. Marshall, Sec'y; T. T. Hooper, C.; F, 
Unger, S.; D. Cushman, A. 8.; Jas. Golbraith, 

G. K.; Geo. JJaniels, T. ; Mrs. Daniels, Ceres; 
Mrs. S. H. Depuy, Pomona; Miss A. Daniels, 
Flora; Mrs. C. H. Rice, L. A. S. 

Old Creek Grange, No. 26, Old Creek, San 
IiUis Obispo Co. — Isaac Flood, M.; Chas. S. 
Clark, O.; A. L. Telle, Sec'y.; E. H. Smith. 
C; G. Flood. S.; A. Flood, A. 8.; T. Phil- 
lips, G. K.; Mrs. Arcada Flood, L. A. 8.; Mrs. 
Betty Flood Ceres; Mrs. Martha Phillips, Po- 
mona; Mrs. M. J. Clark, Flora; E. H. Smith, 
N. NuckoUs, D. C. Powell, Trustees; C. 8. 
Clark, Business Agent. 

Paso Robles Grang", No. 203. Paso Roblbs, 
San Luis Obispo Co., Cal. — Election, Dec. 
2.5th: H. W. Rhyne, M.; D. P. Stockdale, 0.; 
Mrs. R. Thompson, L.; J. M. Cunningham, 8.; 
Wm. Exline, A. S.; P. McAdam, C; Philip 
Klepel, T., (re-elected); John Thompson, 
Sec'y, (re-elected); G. Middagh, G. K.; Mrs. 

E. McAdam, Ceres; Mrs. M. Moody, Pomona; 
Mrs. A. Cunningham, Flora; Miss Mary A. 
McAdam, L. A. S. 

Round Valley Grange, No. 217, Covelo, 
Mendocino Co. — Brother Handy, M.; Brother 
PuHen, O.; Brother W. Crawford, L.; Brother 
Brush, S.; Brother Faulds. A. S.; Brother 
Johnston C; Brother Dorman, T. ; Brother 
Tod, Sec'y; Brother J. Foster, G. K.; Sister 
Eberle, Ceres; Sister Moore, Pomona; Sister 
Shrum, Flora; Sister Johnston, L. A. S. ; 
Brothers Eveland, J. A. Crawford and G. Hen- 
ley, Trustees. 

Rustic Grange, No. 83, Laihbop, San Joa- 
quin Co., Cal.— Henry Moore, M.; Fred. 
Brownell, O.; Daniel Casey, L.; Frank Smith, 
S.; Donald McLeod, A. 8.; Thomas Wilson, 
C; H. 8. Howland, T.; H. B. Dunn, 8.; 
Dennis Visher, G. K. ; Cecilia Dunn, Ceres; 
Fannie Howland, Pomona; Mrs. D. Visher, 
Flora; Emma Shephard, L. A. 8. 

Salinas Grange, No. 24. Salinas, Monterey 
Co.,Cal— Peter Mathews, M.; J. D. Vanov, O.; 
J. R. Hebbron, L.; Hiram Cory, S.; J. H. 
Brown, A. 8. ; Henry Whisman, C. ; W. P. Ram- 
say, T.; Clara Westlake, Seo'y; Mrs. H. Cory, 
Ceres; Mrs. Breese, Pomonatf Mrs. Treat, Flora; 
Mrs. R. Cory, L. A. 8. 

Santa Clara Grange, No. 70, Santa Clara, 
Cal.— J. A. Wilcox. M.; A. Woodhams, O.; 
Mrs. Knowles, L.; J. W. Bryan, S.; C. H. 
Brandenberg, A. 8.; G. B. Walters, C; C. 
Peebles, T.; A. B. Hunter, See'v; J. F. Hunter, 
G. K.; Sarah J. Koith, Ceres; Elizabetn Willet, 
Pomona; Amanda Jackson, Flora; Lena Camp- 
bell, L. A. S.; H. Guopper, Trustee. 

Santa Rosa Grange, Ne. 17, Santa Rosa, 
Cal— A. W. Davis, M ; C. P. Teague, O.; S. 
T. Coulter, L.;W. G. Letk, C; Theo. Staley, 
S.; Jno. Adams, A. S. ; Julius Ort, Seo'y; W. 
W. Gauldin, T.; A. J. Mills, G. K.; Mse. E. 
H. Light, Ceres; Mrs. A. J. Mills, Pemona; 
Mrs. C. P. Teague, Flora; Miss Belle Hendrix, 
L. A. S. 

Skspe Grargb, No. 164, Cieneoa, Santa 
Paula, Ventura Co., Cal.— Election, Deo. 
24th. F. A. Spra^ue, M.; B. F. Warring. O.; 
8. A. Guiberson. L.; J. M. Horton, 8.; C. W. 
Edwards, A. 8.; Ari Hopper. C; I. D. Lord, 
T.; Hugh Warring, Seo'y; Wm. Horton, G. K.; 
Mrs. Elvira G. Keuney, Ceres; Mrf. M. E. 
Guiberson, Pomona; Mrs. Susan Hopper, 
Flora; Mrs. Edwards, L. A. S. 

Sierra Valley Grange, No. 257, Siebba 
Valley, Siebba Co.— Election, Deo. 30th: B. 

F. Lemmon, M.; 8. 8. Battelle, O.; W. O. 
Lemmon, S.; 8. H. Peterson, A. S. ; J. G. 
Lemmon, L.; Geo. E. Hale, C.; J. G. Lem- 
mon, Sec'y; Miss 0. B. Lemmon. T.; E. A. 
Garfield, G. K.; Mrs. S. L. Battelle, Ceres; 
Mrs. R. B. Hale, Pomona; Mrs. M. L. Lem- 
mon, :^lora; Mrs. 8. A. Haines, L. A. S.; B. 

F. Lemmon, Business Agent. 

VisALiA Grange, No. 142, Visalia, Tulabb 
Co.— J. M. Graves, M.; Henry Hunsaker, O,; 

G. F. Pennabaksr, L ; A. H. Murray, 8.; 
Richard Newman, A. 8.; Mrs. A. Swanson, L. 
A. S.; Wm. Curiii, Sec'y; L. Van Tassel, C; 
J. O. Blakeley, T.; Mrs. J. O. Blakeley, Ceres; 
Miss J. F. Shewey, Flora; Mrs. J. M. Graves, 
Pomona. 




.Ji (VCAj vj/ Ju J» Ji ' 



,trBJ.S 



[January 22, 1876 



New Year's Eve. 

(Wrilteu for the Pbkss by M. A. II. J 
It is New Year's eve— the olil year in K'>ue, 

And the rain.dropB "patter their doleful iirayerK." 
I am sittinji now by my tire alone, 

And brood o'or the past with itH toils and cares, 
And I try to onish each raiirmnrinf? thouijht, 

To still ev'ry bittir wish in my breast; 
To be tbsukful tor nood the yeai has broiiKht, 

To believe that the seomliiK 111 was l)e8t. 

Have I grown more wise or stroiie thmuyh it all- 
More ready to help, more firm to eudnre? 

Does my faith falter, thouKh still the storms fall. 
Or has my soul found its smlior secure? 

My little one said his prayer at my knee 
To-night— to whom will ho say it next year; 

Will he then take his good night kiss from me? 
How closely allied to joy is onr fear. 

I think of some who are "dropped from the roll," 

Whoee voices and Biiiiles will greet UB no more; 
Oth^s.who, living, are <lead to the soul. 

Whose Btraying from wisdom's paths wo dephire. 
Ah, bitter indeed is ihat liopelegs death. 

When all that's noblest ami truest has lied. 
Of the image defaced, nouuht left hut breath: 

The crown fallen from the dishonored head. 

How the rain falls ! How it sinks in the turf 

That covers the loved, b-it now pulseless breast: 
The dear one afar, by the ocean surf, 

Sleeping for aye in eternal rest; 
What to him are warmest caresses no%v. 

Words of endcariiieut or bitter regret 'r 
No more than the bias sweeping o'er the bough, 

Or leaves clinging round it, heavy and wot. 

Some must be missed from the New Tear's feast; 

Some will not come though we wait long and late; 
Some who to-night are expecting it least. 

Will have passe*, ere the next, through death's 
dark gate. 
Let us he ready what time Thou ahalt call, 

To give up or leave what so loosely we hold, 
Then, whatever in the future belall. 

Thou'lt gather us all in the (iood Shepherd's fold. 

Farm House Chat. 



[Written for the Press by Maby Moitntain.) 

■When the Hubal, like its host of thoughtful 
readers, made good resolutions and promises of 
improvement for the Now Year, I dared to hope 
that Santa Glaus or "somebody" would bring on 
a new folder or overhaul the old one, for nearly 
always I vexed my orderly soul over the disor- 
derly sides and ends of each new Kdbal. For 
want of a big, empty table, down on the floor I 
ma8tgo,funfold and smooth out the paper, then 
refold carefully before it could be neatly stitched 
and cut. Until quite recently the same toil- 
some process had to be gone through with 
Harper's Weekly; and even now Its folding is 
not always tidy. The Scientific Americdu was 
first to come in ship-shape, and with a con- 
spicuous notice to subscribers that it would be 
considered a favor if they would report all 
cases of slovenly folding, so that the person 
ha\'ing that department in charge might be duly 
overtaken with wrath and sciontifically "blown 
up" for criminal negligence. Probably the 
■•person" was entirely blown away, and not 
daring to sacrifice another, they ordered some 
mere machines, and for a year past the <S'''ien- 
tific has come to hand reaily stitched and trim- 
med neatly as a book. This has made me 
rather jealous in behalf of our California pa- 
pers, and led to the preparation of several elab- 
orate growls suited to the quantity and (juality 
of my discontent. Thankful am I that the 
growls were kept at home, for here comes a 
Holiday Kokal ready with all its cut pages to 
meet the New Year smiles and blessings of de- 
lighted friends. Pity thut editorial ears could 
not accompany the improved paper and listen 
to the kindly words of approbation that are 
sure to greet it everywhere ! 

In the ardor for finishing touches some of my 
pages slipped out of place and got their heads 
nearly slashed ofif; but when that new machine 
settles down to »teady work wc may all reckon 
upon "safe margins" and columns thut never 
straggle. 

Here again let us give thanks that our paper 
invests its dollars in real improvement rather 
than in womlorful $•') chromos worth two bits 
apiece. 

One of the leading religious papers has 
dropped the chromo business and gravely an- 
nounces that it has some thousands of dollars 
to " give away " — as a bait for new subscribers. 

Probably this is found to oo a good way of 
doing business, but it sounds curiously like a 
" prize package " concern, or the infallible 
paient pills, put np (in order to " go down ") 
with a " fine gold ring " ('?) in every tenth box. 

Here again let us give thanks that our best 
agricultural papers stand firm— though almost 
alone — in antagonism to the humbugging, 
swindling tendencies of the age. 

Many and many a paper that boasts of its 
purity and chri:-tian iufliieiice gives place to 
advertigemsLts directly calculated to mislead 
and defraud itu trusting patrons, and thus some 
of the most outrageous swindling is made safe 
and respectable ('/). The shrewd, advertising 
swindler is always anxious to spread his snares 



in quiet country places, where the innocent 
greenhorn is supposed to be waiting wiih 
almost eager readiness for the proffered bait. 

80 if Mr. Humbug can first buy the right of 
way in the farmers' paper, he is pretty sure, 
sooner or later, to pluck the farmer, or the 
farmer's son or daughter. It cpiite warms my 
heart to think how he has always faileil in 
efforts to bribe the genuine farmors' paper; but 
his astonishing success in other quarters is 
something — to bo ashamed of. 

Yes, I am actually ashamed to tell of the 
"high-toned " compauy in which he is found, 
and how many fair pages have been smirched 
by his foul presence. 

So many are involved in this mcanuess that 
it would hardly be fair to mention a few names; 
but I ftar one might almost count upon his 
fingers the few noble exceptions — the few hon- 
orable papers that dare to refuse 

Swindling Advcrlisemcnts. 

Perhaps Californiaiis are not as easily duped 
as their Eastern frieinls, for there seems less of 
that sort of work attempted here. How is it? 
Are the people more wide awake or all the 
publishers mure honorable? 

Santa Cruz Sunshine. 

About Christmas time wo were'astonishcd to 
hear that our friends in the interior had been 
gloomily wrapped in a blanket of fog, and had 
not even a glimpse of the sun for weeks, lint 
here nearly all the December days were full of 
sunshine, bright, warm, glorious. Farmers are 
happy, and cattle thriving on the plentilul new 
grass. In pre of of the warm weather, we saw 
on Christmas day the garden of one neighbor 
gay witb blackberry blossoms, and iu another 
almond trees in full bloom. Yet we have 
plenty of rain, ah, yes, can come to the front 
with our rain gauge as well as our sunshine. 
Here at Springdale the total rainfall to l)ec. 
Ulstis 24. -ll and up to date (Jan. 7th), it is 
33.16. 

If any other locality has more than thirty- 
throe inches, wo would bo glad to hear of it. 
And let no one imagine that we are dissolving 
in mild. Some mountain roads have become 
nearly impassible; but from this point we can 
trot briskly enough into town, and there 
flounder through streets too horrible to talk 
about. If strangers conlemplate a visit to this 
proud little city, it will be wise to delay until 
rather late in the spring, when it is to be hoped 
dry laud will once more appear in the princi- 
pal streets. It seems almost disloyal to admit 
such a blemish upon the fair fame of Santa 
Cruz. I have known a beautiful woman who 
was so very uutidy as to spoil the fine effect of 
nature's work. And this, both in city and 
country, is the prime fault of our beautiful 
Santa Cruz. But we are still young and rock- 
less, often marring and destroying natural 
beauties that would by and by become almost 
priceless. We need some bravo coutrolliug in- 
fluence that would lift us bodily "out of the 
mud," and force us so to improve, that the 
most gushing correspondent need not "damn 
with/<(/se praise" our fair and pleasant coast 
couniry. 

I send you an item from the Sealinel, a little 
fact that is worth more to us than a thousand 
and one sentimeutal exaggerations. Fresh ber- 
ries for Christmas, and gardens blooming all 
the year, tell the story of mild and eijuable 
climate; but there is a vast deal of work to be 
done before we can honestly claim that this i.s 
New Arcadia, the ideal or the real earthly par- 
adise. 

A Happy Couple. 

A man should always be a little older, a little 
braver, and a little stronger, and a little wiser, 
and a little more iu love with her than she is 
with him. A woman should always be a little 
younger, and a little prettier, and a little more 
considerate than her husband. He should be- 
stow upon her all his worldly goods, and she 
should fake good care of them. He may owe 
her every care and tenderness ttiat affection can 
prompt; but pecuniary indebtedness to her will 
become a burden. Better live on a crust th it 
he earns than on a fortune that she has brought 
him. 

Neither must be jealous, nor give the other 
cause for jealousy. Neither must encourage 
sentimental friindship with the opposite sex. 
Perfect confidence iu each other, and reticence 
concerning their mutual affairs, even to mem- 
bers of their own families, is a first necessity. 

A wife should dres^■: herself becomingly when- 
ever she expec s to meet her husband's eye. 
The man should not grow slovenly, even at 
home. Fault finding, long arguments or 
scoldings, ends the happiness that begins in 
kisses and love making. Sisters and brothers 
may quarrel and "m*ke up." Lovers are 
lovers no longer after disturbances occur, and 
married people who are not lovers, are bound 
by rod hot chains. If a man admires his wife 
mo.st in striped calico, she is silly not to wear 
It. 



FivK of the sweetest words in the English 
language begin with h — heart, home, hope, hap- 
piness and heaven. Heart is a hope place and 
home is a heart place, and that man sadly mis- 
taketh who would exchange the happiness of 
homo for anything less than heaven. 

The first exclamation of an American belle 
on entering the cathedral of Milan, was, "Oh. 
what a church to get married iu !" 



The best guuid of a woman's happiness is her 
husband's love, and for her honor, her own 
affection. 



A Woman's Idle Moments. 

What She Does With Them. 
There are many mysteries in nature, as 
where all the fluff comes from, where all the 
pins go to, why a dog turns round three times 
after getting up from sleep, why a woman com- 
ing out of a shop looks one way and walks the 
other, why a policeiuau mver has small feet, 
and why diamouds are not trumps as often as 
hearts; but a more impenetrable mystery en- 
velops a woman with a bedroom. When Ange- 
lina hasn't anything else to do she goes up to 
her bedroom, and a vague unrest and sense o( 
trouble fill her breast, and she says to herself, 
'•Now, I think I'd sleep more comfortable with 
the head of my bed turned there, and the sew- 
ing machine here." Then she mentally calcu- 
lates that the what-not would look bettor in 
this corner and the rocking chair more this 
way, and girds up her loins lor a work of re- 
constmction. About ten o'clock Edward gets 
home. They have no gas at Rogers' Park, and 
Angelina complains that the smell of the kero- 
sene, when the lamp is turned down, gives her 
the headache, and the bedroom bliuds are drawn 
down to keep out the unchaste moon, so that 
altogether it is about as black as a wolf's 
mouth. The unsuspecting Edward enters the 
room and shapes his course as usual, but runs 
stem on to the sewing machine, which has 
dnited from its moorings, stubbing his too and 
jabbing the sharp corner into himself where he 
lives. He makes some disconnected remarks 
not wholly pious and patient, and luffs up to 
find the bedroom candle and match safe, which 
are on the wash stand, or used to bo there. 
They are still there, but the wash stand now 
bears seven points on his Ice bow, its place 
being occupied by the what-not. Groping 
blindly about it, a fearful rattle and crash in- 
forms him that he has upset Angelina's work 
basket, containing throe dozen spools of thread. 
"Angelina," says the miserable man iu de- 
spair, turning l« ward whtrs the bed ought to be. 
"Where the heaven are you? Where iu the 
name of the archangel Gabriel am I?" "Oh, 
Edwin," respoi'ds the partner of his joys and 
sorrows from the dirocliou of his left shoulder, 
"Here I am. Why don't you come to bed?" 
Eilwiu hereupon wheels about and starts in the 
direction of the voice, but sttps on a rolling 
spool of tbroad and is hurled with the force of 
a catapult against the edge of the open door, 
which he stiikes so forcibly that his nose is al- 
most driven out through tlie back of his bead. 
Then his wife remarks in a tone of mingled 
s-irrow and indignation, 'Oh, Edwin, I thought 
you promised me never to go to a saloon 
again?" Thoroughly infuriated the tlesperate 
man makes for the bed, but the rocking chair, 
one of the old school, with a high back, like a 
tortoise shell comb, and oug, sharp rockers, 
has been in wait for him all the while, and 
now wresiles with him furiously. • • ► 
The oombat, though sanguinary, is short, and 
in six minutes Edwin has risen like a phconix 
from the ruins of that rocking chair, got into 
bed, turned his back on Angelina, and envel- 
oped himself in seventy-five per cent, of the 
bed clothes. And nest morning he contem- 
plates bis nose in the glass, and audibly won- 
ders why a woman can't leave things alone. 

Ancient Shoes. 

Recent discoveries have shown that the 
modern form of shoe is the same which was in 
use in Upper Egypt ages and ages ago. The 
pictures found in tombs in Upper Egypt repre- 
sent people wearing shoes exactly like ours. It 
is, nevertheless, certain that the form of these 
shoes were unknown generally in the East, for 
chroniclers mention that everybody in the East, 
in Sparta and at Athens, went barefooted. 
Sandals came very slowly into use, for thev 
were extremely inconvenient, and Athenians 
commonly preferred to go barefooted. In 
Rome, too, even senators long wjnt bare- 
looted. Cato, ot Utica, never walked other- 
wise than barefooted. Shoos were so rare in- 
Frauce in the ninth century, that they were 
among the presents sovereigns made to each 
other; for example, Solomon III, sovereign of 
Brittany, charged the ambassadors he sent to 
Rome to present the Pope in his name a golden 
statue, a mule, saddled and bridled, thirty 
shirls, thirty pieces of cloth, thirty deer skins 
and thirty pairs of shoes for his servants. The 
caprices of fashion soon began to mold the 
form of shoes, and the strangest forms were 
adopted. Media.val chronicles are full of in- 
vectives against the shoos " la pnulaine, which 
were in great vogue in the twelfth century. 
The toe of these shoes was pointed upward 
like the prow (poxdaine.) of a galley; the heel 
was armed with a spur. A royal ordinance of 
l:i(;7 iuterdicted thise shoes in France. They 
nevertheless were still worn by some persons 
at the court of Francis I. Shoes with exces- 
sively broad toes drove these shoes out of 
fashion. In 1-1'22 boots made their first ap- 
pearance. Mexeray mentions that Charles 
VH was so poor on his accession to the throne 
that no shoemaker would sell him a pair ot 
boots on credit. The forms of boots and shoes 
have changed repeatedly and annually changed. 

A Ckktificatk or Chabaotkb.— An English 
gentleman gave a Discharged domestic the fol- 
lowing "character:" "The bearer has been in 
my house a year- i/iimts eleven m<inths. Dur- 
ing that time she has shown herself diligent — 
at the house door; frugal — in work; mindful — 
of herself; prompt — in excuses; friendly — to- 
wards men; faitblul—to her lovers, and honest 
— when everything had vanished. " 



The Religion We Want. 

We want a religion that bears heavily, not 
only on the "exceeding sinfulness of sin," but 
on the exceeding rascality of lying and steal- 
ing — a religion that bauishes small L,ieasure8 
fiom the counter, small b.iskets from the stall, 
pebbles from the cotton bags, olay from the pa- 
per, sand from the sugar, chicory from the 
coffee, alum from breail, and water from the 
milk cans. The religion that is to save the 
world will not put all the big strawberries at 
the top, and all the little ones at the bottom. 
It will not make one-half pair of shoes out of 
good leather, and the other half out of poor 
leather, so .that the first shall redound to the 
maker's credit, and the second to his cash. It 
will not put Jouvin's stamp on Jenkins' gloves; 
nor make Paris bonnets in the back room of a 
Boston milliner's shop; nor let a piece of velvet 
that professes to measure twelve yards come 
to an nntimely end in the tenth ; tier a spool 
of sewing bilk that vouches for twenty yards 
be nipped in the bud at fourteen and a*-half ; 
nor all-wool delains and all-linen handker- 
chiofsbe amalgamated with clandestine cotton; 
nor coats made of old rags pressed together to be 
sold to the unsuspecting public for legal broad- 
cloth. It does not put bricks at five dollars 
per thousand into chimneys it contracts to 
build of seven dollar material; nor smuBgle 
white pine into floors when paid for hard pine; 
nor leave yawning cracks in closetp, where 
boards ought to join; nor daub the ceiling that 
ought to l>e smoothly plastered; nor make win- 
dow blinds with slats that cannot stand the 
wind, and paint that cannot stand the sun, and 
fnstouingH that may he looked at, but are on 
no account to be touched. The religion that is 
gcjing to sanctify the world pays its debts. It 
does not consider that forty cents returned for 
one hundred cents given, is according to 
gospel, though it may be according to law. It 
looks on a man who has failed iu trade, and 
who continues in luxury, as a thief. — Ex. 

Something for the Inventive Genius of 
Ladies. 

Hire is something that ladirs can exercise 
inventive genius upon profitably. Either of the 
following articles, if just the thing, will assure 
a fortune to the fair inventrei- ■ if properly man- 
aged : 

1. A rulUor which can be set to gather a giv<ii 
fullness. 

'1. A simple embroiderer. 

3. An adjustable scroll binder which will not 
stretch the binding 

4. A practical adjustable hemmer, from the 
smallest size to an inch wide. 

5. A rotary shuttle sewing machine, which 
will not twist or untwist the thread, and which 
will sew with great rapidity. 

6. A practical tuck folder. 

7. A sewing machine which will have in its 
working parts the different attachments wbioh 
can be thrown in gear with some working part 
of the machine when the attachment is re- 
quired. 

8. Motive power. 

9. A good needle threader. 

10. A glass oil bottle which can be sold 
cheap, and used to oil the machine ini>tead of 
the oil can. It must be made so that the oil can 
be forced out. — Ex. 



UncoMKOBTAJjLB Psoi'LE. — You have met 
them, in all probability — perhaps yon have them 
in your neighborhood — those people who have 
the faculty of making everybody uncomfortable 
where they are — people that, where yon enter 
their presence, act as if an apology was due 
them for your existence. They are to be found 
in all classes, sometimes among the poorest 
people we have, and I often thought it was 
wisely ordered that some sliould be poor, for 
if they had been rich no one else could have 
lived in their vicinity. Such people cannot be 
over-wise, for any one possessing CDmmon 
sense can make themselves agreeable under all 
circumstances. 



Thk FibstJof Its Kdid. — The legislature of 
Minnesota passed a law for the erection of a 
State inebriate asylum, the expenses of which 
are to be borne by a tax upon the li(iuor sellers. 
An appeal was made from the provisions of the 
law and the case taken to the supreme court, 
where its validity was confirmed. It is said 
that $10,000 of the tax have already been col- 
lected, which it is expected will be increased to 
$3(1,000 by the first of July. This is the first 
act of the kind, wo believe, over adopted by 
any of the States, and is well worthy of being 
introduced into every State in the union. 

Fkmale Suffbaok in Chilk.— ^A curious 
question has arisen in some towns in Chile on 
occasion of the inscription of tutizeus in the 
electoral registers. At San Felipe one woman 
presented herself for registration, one at Oasa- 
idanca, and ten at La Serena. As the law 
makes no distinction of sot, and as the only 
qualifications required for citizenship are to 
have attained one's majority and possess :i 
knowledge of reading and writing, the Boards 
decided to register said representatives of the 
weaker sex, so that at the coming elections wo- 
men will bo admitted to vote. 



A loND father wrote: "It generally takes 
twenty years of training to eradicate the word 
'nice' from a woman's vocabulary. The falls 
of Niagara, the Psalms of David and the pro- 
gress of the human race were all nice to my 
eldest daughter till she got married. " 



January 22, 1876,] 



Social Misadventures. 

The majority of men have an exceeding dis- 
like to appearing ridicnlous, never having ap- 
preciated the full comedy of life, and that it 
must be treated either as comedy or tragedy, 
or, perhaps, aa a nice admixture of both. To 
bring the foregoing remarks home to our pres- 
ent subject, when any of those ludicrous little 
mishaps occur which are described in witty 
works of fiction, or in comic periodicals, how 
painful they are to the principal actor in the 
scene, and how little he likes to hear of them 
again! When a young man enters a ballroom 
with his trousers tucked up; when a grave, 
wise man, like Pickwick, enters the wrong bed- 
room; when, as I once saw myself, a middle- 
aged lady comes down to breakfast having some 
stray locks still in the confinement of curl 
papers, these unfortunate people by no means 
like to be reminded of their misadventure-t. 
There is really no fun, only cruelty, in remind- 
ing them of their heedlessness; and, indeed, it 
becomes a kind of torture if this is repeated ad 
navseam. 

That great artist, Dickens, took care that 
none of Mr. Pickwick's companions, owing him 
respect, should venture to allude to that de- 
plorable and shocking incident in good Mr. 
Pickwick's adventures. And this present wiiter 
would not dare to allude (o the misfortune of 
that respectable and middle aged lady who, in 
absence of mind, had forgotten to release 
some of her locks from their nightly imprison- 
ment, if she had not long ago passed away 
from this troublesome world. As we have be- 
fore intimated, however, it is the young who 
most feel having on any occasion made them- 
selves absurd or ridiculous. The middle aged 
man, unless he is a most fortunate individual, 
has gone through so much trouble that these 
minor misfortunes of his youth are food for 
laughter for him as well as other people. Not 
always, though. A man in " the sere and yellow 
leaf " of life has confessed to me that he feels 
hot all over aud knows that the color is mount- 
ing to his face when be remembers some of the 
most ludicrous adventures of a trivial kind in 
his early life. The sensitive, alas! are always 
sensitive, and even old age fails to harden them. 
— Social Pressure. 



Yo(Jf(Q pOLKs' CoLlljiJi. 



The Better-Half of a Great Man. 

To promote her husband's interest Mrs. 
Benjamin Franklin tended his shop, where she 
bought rags, sewed pamphlets, folded newspa- 
pers and sold the few articles in which he dealt, 
such as inks, papers, lampblack and station- 
ery. At the same time she was an excellent 
housekeeper, and besides being economical her- 
self, taught her careless, disorderly husband to 
be economical also. 

Sometimes Franklin was clothed from head 
to foot in garments which his wife had both 
woven and made; and for a long time she per- 
formed all the work of a servant. Neverthe- 
less, she knew how to be liberal at the proper 
times. Franklin tells that for several years 
after his marriage his breakfast was composed 
of bread aud milk. They ate out of a two 
penny earthen vessel, with a pewter spoon; but 
one morning on going down to breakfast he 
found upon the taole a beautiful china bowl, 
from which his bread and milk was streaming, 
with a silver spoon by its side. When he ex- 
pressed his astonishment at this unwonted 
splendor Mrs. Franklin only observed that she 
thought her husband deserved a silver spoon 
and china bowl as much as any of his neigh- 
bors. 

Franklin prospered in his business until he 
became the most famous editor and the most 
flourishing printer in America, which gave him 
the pleasure of relieving his wife from the cares 
of business, and enabled him to provide for her 
a spacious and well furnished abode. She 
adorned a high station as well as she bore a 
lowly one, and she presided at her husband's 
liberal table as gracefully as when he ate his 
breakfast of bread and milk from a two penny 
bowl. 



What Makes Men Grkat?— A great man is 
affable in his conversation, generous in his 
temper, and immovable in what he has ma- 
turely resolved upon. And as prosperity does 
not make him haughty and imperious, so 
neither does adversity sink him into meanness 
and dejection, for if ever he shows more spirit 
than ordinary, it is when he is ill used and the 
world is frowning upon him. In short, he is 
equally removed from the extremes of severity 
and pride, and scorns either to trample on a 
worm or cringe to an emperor. 



The Little Brown Stocking. 

Here's a little brown stocking, 

Faded by many years, 
Hidden amon^ my treaeii^'es, 

Stained witli many tears. 
It hung in a cbimuey corner, 

On a Christmas long ago,. 
Loaded witli precious goodies. 

Full from the top to toe. 

Two clmbby hands vmloaded 

The gifts of Santa Olaus; 
Oh, how his black eyes sparkled 1 

And surely there was cause. 
You see that little hole there? 

There's where a horse was tied— 
So heavy that it tore it, 

And big enough to ride. 

No soldier was ever prouder 

With war horse most superb. 
Than he on his rocking pony. 

With saddle, whip and curb. 
Oh, that was the uterriest Christmas, 

And he the joUiest boy. 
And tliis is the sweetest memory 

I ever shall enjoy. 

The red leaves of the autumn 

Jjie dead above him now; 
The prattling Dps are silent, 

His hands are cold as snow. 
Naught but the little stocking 

Is left of that bright day; 
The stocking and the memory 

Are mine to keej) alway. 




Frost Bite. 



Snakes. — A huge rock, which appears to be 
formed almost entirely of serpents in various 
positions, but making a solid mass, has been 
found on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, and will be sent East for exhibition. 
Cardiff giant in a new shape. 



A Peripatetic Mill. — A queer use of steam is 
found on Duck river, in Tennessee, on which a 
steamboat, drawing only a foot of water, and 
naviug a grist mill on board, wanders up aud 
down, stopping where it is wanted to grind a 
bushel or two of corn for the farmers. 



Twenty cigars a head is the number annu- 
ally manufactured to every man, woman and 
child in the United States. Forty years ago 
two was the allowance. 



Little Sea Wonders. 

Some very curious little creatures live in the 
sea in places de^p enough to be visited some- 
times by whales and porpoises, who notice 
them about as much as elephants notice the 
moths and butterflies that flit in the air about 
them. The bed of the sea, where the sunlight 
can reach down to it, is as gay as a garden. 
Beautiful marine plants of the loveliest colors 
are growing there, and all sorts of delicate, 
brilliant mites of creatures are gaily sailing 
about or swaying their graceful forms from the 
rooks where they cling. We cannot tell you 
all about these tiny sea wonders, but we can at 
least start you on the way of liuding out more 
aboiit them for yourselves: 

The well digger (Cuttle), is a little round fel- 
low who moves about under the waves by dis- 
charging little jets of water from a small tube 
or syphon, and makes wells in the sand. He 
hovers over a clear patch of sand as though 
about to settle, while by means of bis tube he 
blows the sand from under him until a slight 
hollow is formed. Then he settles, but keeps 
on blowing out the sand until nothing can be 
seen of him save his straggling arms and curi- 
ous eyes. When tired of one well, he starts off 
and makes himself another. 

The living umbrella (Pelagla) . Think of it ! 
A tiny living umbrella that moves through the 
water by openiug and shutting itself. It has 
lour sticks instead of one, and has a number of 
tendrils floating from it. It is not made of 
eingham or silk, but ot a beautiful jelly, and it 
has relatives very like itself, except that they 
prefer taking the form of goblets and bells and 
cups gliding through the sea. 

The black goby is a pale brown little fish, 
with drab clouds and patches of white specks. 
He looks very fierce, in .spite of his mild blue 
eyes; and no wonder. What do you think he 
does ? He waits until some meek little fish 
comes along, then darts from bis hiding place, 
seizes his victim by the tail, and swallows him 
alive ! Now, his distended body is black with 
his victim, but he doesn't mind that. Before 
long, the wicked face is seen peering out from 
the sea-weeds again, with his mild blue eyes in 
search ot fresh prey. _^ 

Food foe Childeen. — Children do not like 
fat meat, so give them good bread and butter, 
and allow them plenty of sugar. A chemist 
will tell you that both fatty substances and 
saccharine or sweet substances are eventually 
oxidized in the body. Sugar is the form to 
which many other things have to be reduced 
before they are available as a heat-making 
food ; and the formation of food is carried on 
in the body. It has been proved that the liver 
is a factory in which other constituents of 
food are transformed into sugar. Now, it is 
probable that your children really need sugar 
to keep them well, and it is fortunate that 
most children are fond of vegetable acids. A 
saucer of berries, or a ripe apple, is often a 
better corrective for children's ailments than a 
dose of medicine ; yet the majoriiy of parents 
give the nauseous do«e preference over the 
fruit. It does seem sometimes as if parents 
were occupied more in denying than gratifying 
their children's appetites. This is neither nec- 
essary nor fair. They get as tired of bread and 
milk as y ou would. 

Advice to an Apprentice. — 1. Seize every 
opportunity of improving your mind. 

2. Be careful as to who are your companions, 

3. To whatever occupation you may be called 
as a means of obtaining a livelihood, determine 
to understand it well and work heartily at it. 

4. Accustom yourself lo act kindly and cour- 
teously to every one. 

5. Carefully avoid all extravagant habits. 

6. Determine to possess a character for hon- 
esty. 

7. Cultivate a strict regard for truth. 

8. If your parents are living, do your utmost 
to promote their happiness. 

9. Recollect your progress in life depends 
upon jour own exertions. 

10. Be a respecter of religion, and do unto 
others as you would they should do to you. 



Exposure to the cold, of severe degree, often 
leaves the fingers and toes, nose, ears and lips, 
more or less frozen. This condition, short of 
absolute death of the part, is termed frost bite. 
It will be observed that the portions of the 
body just enumerated are those most exposed, 
in area, to the influence of the cold, and are 
furthest situated from the heart; and it will, 
perhaps, be unnecessary to remark that persons 
who are debilitated are more apt to suffer with 
the same amount of exposure than the robust. 

When the circulation of any part begins to 
succumb to the influence of the cold, it becomes 
puffy, blueish and smarting. This is because 
the blood moves more slowly than natural 
through the vessels exposed near) the surface. 
Soon this blueness disappears, and the part be- 
comes pallid, as if the influence of the cold had 
contracted the vessels to an extent incompati- 
ble with the passage of blood through them. 
The pain at this point ceases; indeed, until he 
meets a friend, he often does not know of his 
mishap. 

What takes place in a part of the body, known 
as frost bite, may take place in the whole of it, 
which is known as "frozen to death." The 
blood of the extremities being gradually forced 
from them, under the continued swbjection of 
the cold, is forced inward upon the larger blood 
vessels, heart, lungs and brain. There is in- 
creased difficulty in breathing, owing to the on- 
gorged state of the chest, and, what should al- 
ways be remembered by one so exposed to cold, 
an unconquerable desire to sleep. To sleep 
then is to die. If the person exhibits such a 
symptom, he must, by all means, be kept con- 
stantly moving. 

Treatment. 

Persons exposed like those just described 
must be treated promptly, and with one, thing 
never lost sight of. That is, keep the frozen 
person away from the heat.' A person taken 
up insensible, or approaching it, from exposure 
to the cold, should be taken into a cold room, 
his clothing removed, and thoroughly rubbed 
with snow, or clothes wrung out with ice water. 
The fiicliou to every part of the body, particu- 
larly the extremities, must be continued for 
some time, until signs of r(^turning animation 
appear. When the frozen limbs show signs of 
life, the person should be carefully dried; put 
in a cold bed in a cold room; artificial respira- 
tion used until the natural is established; then 
brandy given, also ginger tea and beef tea. Us- 
ually, by this time medical advice will have 
been secured to direct further treatment, 
should it not, do not forget that the patient is 
to be brought by degrees into rather warmer 
air; and lest in some part there might still be 
defective circulation, the person should be kept 
away from exposure to the heat of the fire. 

Milder degrees of the same condition, as sus- 
pension of life in the ear, nose, finger, or toe, 
from exposure to cold, must be treated with 
the same general directions in view. The part 
should be kept away from the heat and rubbed 
with a handful of snow, or towels dipped in 
cold water, until circulation appears re-estab- 
lished. Exposure of the part to the heat before, 
we may say, ii. has been almost rebuilt, is apt 
to be followed by sloughing. — Accidents and 
Emtrijencies. 

The Financial Equivalent of Health. 

A remarkable paper on this subject was read 
reoentlv before the American Health Associa- 
tion of Baltimore, by Dr. Benjamin Lee. The 
object was to determine the loss sustained by 
the city of Philadelphia in dollars and cents 
through the epidemic which occurred there in 
the winter of 1871-2. Dr. Lee calculates the 
loss by diminution of travel and traiBe on the 
railways, and loss to hotels, to merchants, and 
to business generally. He also computes the 
loss due to sickness and diminished production 
aud by death. He sums up his calculations as 
follows; Expenses incurred in care of sick, 
$203,879; loss by sickness (time), fl, 072, 06.5; 
loss by disability (time and expenses), $10,- 
000,000; loss by death (based on estimate of 
value of a life to society), $5,013,000; burial 
expenses, $74,420; total, $10,363,304. As the 
epidemic was due to neglect of sanitary pre- 
cautions and might have been prevented by 
judicious sanitary legislation, the above repre- 
sents in cash the money equivalent of the dis- 
ease, which was wholly lost to the community. 

Consumption.— The incurable character com- 
monly attributed to pulmonary diseases is 
seriously questioned by M. Pietra Santa, the 
malady being, in his opinion, essentially general 
and constitutional— an alteration of the func- 
tions of nutrition, and a disease of the blood; 
and that, while there is no panacea for the 
affection, he thinks that many cases may be 
greatly alleviated, and, indeed, entirely cured 
by following a rational treatment. 'Thus, in 
ail periods of the disease, the assistance is to 
be invoked of suitable hygienic and moral 
treatment, a pure atmosphere, a tonic diet, 
moderate exercise and the u.se of milk for food; 
the administration of certain mineral waters; a 
sanitary change of place and migration, always 
into southern temperate regions during winter, 
and to mountainouH countries in the summer; 
the use of hyposulphites and the alkaline sul- 
phites for the treatment of the tuberculous 
matter developed in the lungs; and calling into 
play the various agencies of therapeutics when 
they can be made available in the different 
periods of the disease. 



Remarks on Eating. 

Professor Blot used to say it is a fact beyond 
all question that the intellectual and moral 
faculties of man are influenced in a large de- 
gree in their operations by those physical con- 
ditions which are dependent upon our food. 
Physiology proves that it is the contraction of 
muscles that produces wrinkles; and a person 
whose food is properly prepared appears 
younger and more beautiful than one who fol- 
lows no scientific principles in his eating. 
Good food, properly prepared, will keep his 
muscles in order and elastic. Any one, male 
or female, young or old, starting with a good 
stomach, can keep healthy and in good flesh 
with proper food; it is only necessary to select 
the kind required by the constitution, and pre- 
pare it judiciously. It is not what we eat that 
makes us fat, but what we digest. Bad food 
may bring a temporary bloatedness, but not the 
plumpness of good health. He agreed with 
the opinions expressed by Thomas Jefferson, 
as well as by a celebrated New York clergyman, 
that good things have been made by the Crea- 
tor for good people. 

Another thin^ in food— it ought always to 
be prepared according to the age of the person 
for whom it is intended, and for the sex, as 
well as according to the climate and the sea- 
son. In winter more fatty matter is necessary 
to be eaten than at any other time of the year, 
lu spring, greens,